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Communications Exam #1 (Quiz 13)

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Drawing a conclusion based on too few unrepresentative samples is called a hasty generalization. 1) True 2) False
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1) True
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Basing a claim on popular opinion is called: 1) sufficiency 2) relevance 3) ad populum fallacy 4) ad hominem fallacy
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3) ad populum fallacy
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“He looked like a deer with head lice” is an example of 1) antithesis 2) metaphor 3) mixed metaphor 4) synecdoche
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3) mixed metaphor
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“He had a face like a doormat, trampled and dirty” is an example of 1) a metaphor. 2) alliteration. 3) a simile. 4) none of the above
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3) a simile.
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Surveys using a self-selected sample 1) are unrepresentative 2) is sufficient to generalize 3) attracts partisan respondents 4) can be improved by increasing the number of respondents 5) both a and c
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5) both a and c
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The words a speaker chooses to express his/her thoughts and the ways he/she uses language to bring his/her thoughts to life for an audience is the speaker’s 1) outline 2) goal 3) style 4) manuscript
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3) style
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Requirements for a competent introduction include which of the following? 1) Make a specific topic statement 2) Gain attention 3) Establish the significance of your topic for the audience. 4) Preview your main points before giving the purpose statement 5) both b and c
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5) both b and c
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Antithesis is the repetition of the same sound, usually a consonant sound, starting several words in a sentence. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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“Imagine that you have just entered the on-ramp of a busy freeway” is the beginning of a hypothetical example to illustrate a point. 1) True 2) False
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1) True
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From a historical viewpoint, feminine and masculine speaking styles compare in which of the following ways? 1) They are identical. 2) Feminine style is more personal and ornamental. 3) Masculine style is more factual, analytical, and organized. 4) both b and c
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4) both b and c
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Ways to gain and maintain attention during your speech include which of the following? 1) Make a novel appeal 2) Use any kind of humor that makes you laugh 3) Startle an audience in any way that you can 4) Appeal to the vital concerns of your audience 5) both a and d
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5) both a and d
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“A staggering total of 22,304 readers of Sports Today magazine filled out a survey and sent it to the magazine that included the question, “Should Pete Rose be voted into the baseball Hall of Fame?’ A resounding 69% said No! Based on these results, Rose should never be inducted into the Hall of Fame.” This example includes which of the following fallacies? 1) Ad populum 2) Ad hominem 3) Self-selected sample 4) Both a & c
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4) Both a & c
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Suggestions for using statistics appropriately in your speech include all of the following EXCEPT 1) statistics should be accurate 2) the speaker should use an accurate statistic accurately 3) make a technical statistic meaningful by comparing it to a statistic more familiar to the audience 4) never use a statistic alone, always stack statistics for maximum impact
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4) never use a statistic alone, always stack statistics for maximum impact
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Credibility of a statistic used to support a claim in a speech is enhanced by 1) citing a credible source for the statistic 2) citing a source for the statistic that is objective (no special interest in an outcome) 3) citing a source for the statistic that has a history of accuracy 4) all of the above
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4) all of the above
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Oral and written style are virtually the same, so writing your speech word for word and reading it to your audience is an effective way to present a speech. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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Unpleasant, intense examples used to arouse audience interest are always inappropriate and should be avoided. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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“I am now going to take this razor sharp knife and throw it over your heads, hitting the bull’s-eye on the target next to Mary” is an example of 1) an effective attention strategy for a speech introduction 2) startling an audience but using poor judgment 3) using a vital appeal to gain attention 4) gaining attention that probably detracts from, rather than enhances, the speech
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2) startling an audience but using poor judgment
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The conclusion to your speech should be approximately ______ of your total speech. 1) 20% 2) 15% 3) 12% 4) 5%
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4) 5%
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When the outrageous, shocking, graphic, and gruesome event galvanizes our attention and distorts our perception of the facts, this is called the vividness effect. 1) True 2) False
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1) True
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Testimony cited on the Internet is usually reliable and credible evidence. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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James is asked to give a 5-minute eulogy at his friend’s funeral. He gives a 25-minute eulogy, notes with admiration that his friend had the ability to consume enormous quantities of alcohol at one sitting, and comments that his deceased friend’s wife is a terrific spouse because she “didn’t nag like most wives about his drinking.” This eulogy is probably inappropriate for which of the following reasons? 1) It is too long. 2) It likely offends many women in the audience. 3) Bragging about consumption of alcohol at a funeral is probably inappropriate for the occasion. 4) all of the above
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4) all of the above
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An ad hominem fallacy is: 1) a personal attack on the messenger to avoid the message 2) a diversionary tactic 3) occurs whenever there is a personal attack 4) all of the above 5) both a and b
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5) both a and b
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There are virtually no differences between oral and written style. That is, a speech is essentially an essay read aloud to an audience. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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In evaluating the quality of evidence, validity means the same as accuracy. 1) True 2) False
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1) True
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A claim based on belief or opinion of the majority is: 1) ad hominem 2) ab surdem 3) ad nausium 4) ad populum
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Which of the following is/are guideline(s) for using a humorous appeal to gain the audience’s attention: 1) Use humor relevant to the speech topic 2) Use humor appropriate to the context 3) Use self-deprecating humor 4) all of the above 5) both a and b
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4) all of the above
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“Tomorrow we begin our quest; tomorrow we embark on a new adventure; tomorrow we grab for the golden ring” is an example of 1) antithesis 2) simile 3) parallelism 4) alliteration
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3) parallelism
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Samuel Johnson wrote: “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.” This quotation from Johnson is an example of: 1) metaphor 2) simile 3) mixed metaphor 4) antithesis
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4) antithesis
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A complete citation of the source of your information 1) can add credibility to your argument if the sources is perceived as qualified by the audience. 2) includes at a minimum the name of the source and the specific publication in which the evidence is found. 3) includes at a minimum the name of the source and the specific title or expertise of the source 4) includes at a minimum the name of the source, the title or expertise of the source, and the specific publication and date in which the evidence is found 5) both a and d
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5) both a and d
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In terms of speech style, sexist language should be eliminated because it 1) is too vivid 2) is imprecise 3) can turn off your audience 4) both b and c
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4) both b and c
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The credibility of evidence used to support claims is determined by its 1) reliability 2) validity 3) warrants 4) all of the above 5) both a and b
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5) both a and b
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The preview of a speech should 1) explain each of the main points of the speech in some detail 2) provide definitions of all significant terms that may be unclear to listeners 3) establish the significance of the purpose statement for listeners 4) state the main points of the speech clearly and concisely
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4) state the main points of the speech clearly and concisely
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In The Bonfire of the Vanities, Tom Wolfe wrote: “All at once he was alone in this noisy hive with no place to roost.” This quote is an example of: 1) metaphor 2) alliteration 3) parallelism 4) mixed metaphor
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4) mixed metaphor
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Samuel Johnson wrote: “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.” This quotation from Johnson is an example of: 1) metaphor 2) simile 3) mixed metaphor 4) antithesis
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4) antithesis
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Implied comparison of two seemingly dissimilar things is a/an 1) antithesis 2) metaphor 3) simile 4) all of the above 5) both b and c
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5) both b and c
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antithesis:
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a contrast or opposition between two things
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During the 2008 presidential election, when candidate John McCain stated: “Homeowners are the innocent bystanders in a drive-by shooting by Wall Street and Washington,” he was using a/an: 1) metaphor 2) alliteration 3) parallelism 4) mixed metaphor
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1) metaphor
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A claim based on belief or opinion of the majority is: 1) ad hominem 2) ab surdem 3) ad nausium 4) ad populum
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4) ad populum
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4) ad hominem:
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personal attack on the speaker to avoid the message
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Testimony cited on the Internet is usually reliable and credible evidence. 1) True 2) False
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2) False
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An ad hominem fallacy is: 1) a personal attack on the messenger to avoid the message 2) a diversionary tactic 3) occurs whenever there is a personal attack 4) all of the above 5) both a and b
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5) both a and b
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You are asked to accept a claim by a speaker because a huge majority of the 1,000 individuals randomly chosen in a national survey supported the speaker’s claim. The speaker has committed a fallacy called: 1) self-selected sample 2) testimonials 3) correlation as causation 4) ad populum
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4) ad populum
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The ad hominem fallacy and the ad populum fallacy fail the test of: 1) credibility 2) relevance 3) sufficiency 4) reliability
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2) relevance
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Using rhetorical questions as an attention-getting device in the introduction to your speech 1) is never advisable 2) violates the requirement that purpose statements be declarative sentences 3) is effective if they are meaningful questions 4) can be used as a commonplace device to open a speech
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3) is effective if they are meaningful questions
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Proving that there is a correlation between two events is the same thing as proving that one of the events causes the other. 1) True 2) False
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2) False