Communication is a portion of our day-to-day unrecorded rhythm. It is really critical as every twenty-four hours we need to give and have types of information to travel on with our day-to-day modus operandis. Yet, communicating is important with linguistic communication. Why do we state so? This is due to linguistic communication is the medium of interaction to organize a communicating. Language varies harmonizing to topographic point, civilization and even background of certain people. Mastering a linguistic communication helps people to pass on with each other efficaciously. Besides, languages besides symbolise individualities and are used to signal individualities by those people who speak the linguistic communication.
Language is the externalisation of human ideas while ideas are the internalisation of linguistic communication. Based on sociologists whose names are Samovar, L.A. and Porter, R.E. , ideas and linguistic communication are inseparable. In gene...
ral, linguistic communications are classified by verbal and non-verbal. Some illustrations of verbal communicating are express one 's feeling and convey messages by talking out their ideas. Examples of non-verbal communicating are body linguistic communication, facial look, and usage of words in written signifier and etc.
There are several maps in human linguistic communication. Human linguistic communications are used to interchange thought, express concern, convey emotion, and go throughing civilization from one coevals to another. For an illustration, in a nuptials dinner, relations and friends use linguistic communication to show their concern and convey the felicity towards the twosome. Besides that, parents pass certain civilization to the following coevals by utilizing verbal or non-verbal communicating. If there is no linguistic communication in life, there will be no communicating in this universe.
In add-on, linguistic communication is besides one
of the characteristics that form one 's ethic individuality. The construct of cultural individuality refer to one 's sense of belonging to an cultural group and the portion of one 's thought, perceptual experiences, feelings, and behavior that is due to cultural group rank. Cultural group is a societal group that is set apart and jump together by at least one common ties of linguistic communication, civilization, race, faith or nationality. However, an person can take his ain cultural group if other picks are available, if he is of assorted cultural or intercultural matrimonies. The boundary that enabled a group to distance themselves from another is 'negotiated ' in societal interaction, and consists of a set of symbolic differences which known as cultural group markers. Hence, cultural individuality is normally contextual and situational because it derives from societal dialogue where one declares an cultural individuality and so demonstrates acceptable and acknowledged cultural group markers to others. ( Ethnic Identity, Joseph E.Trimble)
Cultural individuality is descent based properties when the characteristics of cultural individuality are passed down from their parents or ascendants. Examples are familial characteristics, linguistic communication, civilization and faith Descent-based properties have two intrinsic belongingss: stickiness and visibleness . Stickiness means that being hard to alter properties associated with descent in the short term. In contrast, attributes non associated with descent can be easy changed even in the short term. The 2nd belongings of descent-based properties is that it is more seeable than properties that non tie in with descent-based. The tegument coloring material which is one of the group cultural markers that used to place cultural individuality. It is heritage from ascendant and it
is seeable. (Constructivist Theories of Cultural Politicss , Kanchan Chandra)
Salad Bowl and Melting Pot
Cultural individuality is really subjective and mutable. When people migrate to another state that is dominated by different cultural, civilization and linguistic communication, their cultural individuality surfaces and they become more witting of their cultural individuality than others. The cultural individuality can be lose and get a new one after people experience a long period of clip exposure to new cultural. For illustration, the Chinese races live in Indonesia. They have to talk in Tamil linguistic communication and larn Indonesian civilization. The whole society in Indonesia has the same cultural individuality. The civilization of the society is described as runing pot where different elements runing together into a harmonious whole with a common civilization. There are besides a group of people that ne'er change their cultural individuality. For illustration, the Chinese and Indian races live in Malaysia. They remain their cultural individuality even though their ascendants have migrated to Malaysia for a long period of clip. They preserve their ain civilization, linguistic communication and faith. The society is described as salad bowl where different civilization mixed in one province but remain distinguishable.
The ideas and behavior of most people are influenced by their cultural individuality. There are common mind thought, perceptual experience and behavior among the same cultural group. For illustration, in perceptual experience of Indonesian, early age matrimony is good for the twosome and both household. The common ideas and behaviors are one of the cultural group markers. For illustration, Middle East people think that polygamy is right but this is different with the thought of westerners that polygamy is incorrect. The
old coevals in cultural group teach the immature coevals to place what is right and incorrect harmonizing to the perceptual experience of the cultural group. In Chinese race group, naming their parent 's name in forepart of parent is consider incorrect and non filial while in westerner 's oculus, it is nil incorrect. The cultural individuality affect the manner people see the universe and the manner the universe sees people.
Cultural individualities are created and reinforced by both primary and secondary socialisation. For primary socialisation, household is the most of import agent because this is where an person foremost learns about their cultural heritage. Another of import agent is religion since many cultural civilizations are to a great extent affected by faith. The faith is the cardinal to make one cultural individuality.
Malaysia is well-known as a multiculturalism state as there are Malay, Chinese, Indian, Iban, Kadazan, Sikh and more other races registered. Based on the debut, linguistic communication is defined as the externalisation of human ideas. Therefore, linguistic communications play a function in finding the individuality of human. Language users can expose their individualities, but they can non impact them in any manner. For an illustration, Chinese linguistic communication shows the individuality and civilization of Chinese people while Tamil linguistic communication shows the individuality of an Indian. Malay linguistic communications are one of the particular linguistic communications that show Malay 's individuality.
How you talk, frock, and behave is an of import manner of exposing who you are which indicates your societal individuality. Identity is something we are invariably constructing and negociating all our lives through our interactions with others. Identity is besides said to be multifaceted.
This is due to people be givening to exchange into different functions when pass oning with different people and in different state of affairs. Based on sociologist whose name Joanna Thornborrow, linguistic communication usage and individuality are non fixed. Alternatively, linguistic communication usage and individuality are conceptualised. For an illustration, when a university pupil communicates with her female parent, her individuality is switch from university pupil to a girl. The manner she communicates with her female parent will be different with the manner she communicates with her friends.
Malaysia is a all right illustration of multiethnic state. Population of Malaysia in 2010 consist of many cultural groups, Malays and Indigenous ( 67.4 % ) , Chinese ( 24.6 % ) , Indians ( 7.3 % ) and others ( 0.7 % ) harmonizing to the study proposed by Department of Statistics, Malaysia. The major linguistic communications used by these cultural groups are Malaysia, Mandarin and Tamil. In order to continue the cultural individuality of three major cultural groups ( Malays, Chinese and Indian ) , there are three common types of primary school available in the Malayan instruction system: national school, Chinese common school and Tamil common school. National schools used Malay linguistic communication as medium of direction while common school used their several female parent lingua.
Common schools refer to the schools that use languages other than English and Malaysia as the primary manner of instruction. These schools were established in the distant countries to advance and leave instruction in the rural and undeveloped country. There are few types of common schools in Malaysia. Chinese and Tamil schools are the most common slang schools which their
primary linguistic communications are Mandarin and Tamil severally. However, other linguistic communications like English and our national language- Bahasa Malaysia are taught at that place every bit good. As mentioned, languages play a really of import function in finding one 's individuality. So, common school helps to expose their cultural individuality to the pupils through learning them their female parent lingua. Although most of the pupils and instructors in the common schools are from the same race, there are still pupils from other races such as Malay and Indian pupils study in the Chinese common school and Malay and Chinese pupils study in the Tamil common school. This gave the pupils a opportunity to understand more of their ain individuality and cognize other races individualities every bit good. Hence, the common schools will non endanger the racial harmoniousness and integrity in Malaysia alternatively it plays an of import function in exposing the pupils with different individualities and civilization of citizens in Malaysia.
Some might claim that the being of common schools will non lend to the integrity of Malaysia because pupils and instructors are from the same race. Nowadays, most of the common school consist of pupils and instructors from different races. The instruction method and course of study of the common schools is really different with the yesteryear. For illustration, common schools hired Indian instructors who are fluid in English to learn English and Malay instructors to learn Bahasa Malaysia.
Malaysia is known as a salad bowl state. This is meant by citizens in Malaysia have different civilization, background and linguistic communications. Although the individuality of Malaysia is known as Malayan after the Malaysia policy been
introduced, citizens in Malaysia still maintain and pattern their ain civilization. Examples are Chinese, Malays, and Indians. This phenomenon is showed when Malaysia citizens introduce themselves as Malayan Chinese, Malaysian Malay and Malayan Indian. By holding common schools, the civilization and linguistic communication of different races able to be preserved and the multiculturalism are conserved excessively. The common school exposed pupil with assorted type of civilization and this will increased the racial harmoniousness and farther better the Malaysia integrity. The being of common school will non endanger the racial harmoniousness and Malaysia integrity. There are other factors such as the authorities policy which is one of the factors that will endanger the racial harmoniousness.
The being of common schools will non endanger the racial harmoniousness and Malaysia integrity because it will forestall any misinterpretation among civilization by exposing the kids with civilization of the other races. In add-on, assorted civilizations in Malaysia promote the touristry in Malaysia and it helps to better Malaysia 's economic system every bit good. The multiculturalism is one of the attractive points for the tourer to come and see our state. The integrity in Malaysia besides attracts many tourers to come and see our state. Tourists will inquire why Malaysia citizens consist of different races and different civilization but yet they still live in harmoniousness with each other. This is proof that the common schools were lending to the racial harmoniousness and Malaysia integrity.
During the British colonisation, there was no clear policy on instruction. The British were pleased to allow the assorted types of schools, which were already in being, carry on with their activities. As a consequence with their divide
and regulation policy, the British did non mean to set up connexion between the different races in Malaya through a standardised instruction system. Therefore, the assorted common schools that were present and provided to merely a peculiar cultural group were run by missionaries, gum elastic and java plantation proprietors, and local occupants association.
There were four types of school during British colonisation. They were the English-medium, Malay-medium, Chinese-medium and Tamil-medium schools. Each used different mediums of direction and provided a different course of study. Majority of this common school are located in urban countries.
In 1858, Malay slang schools received support from the East India Company. It was merely the old ages that followed this that Malay slang schools came to be monitored by the authorities. In Malay common school, the pupils were taught the basic three Rs of reading, composing and arithmetic.In add-on, other academic topics such as Malay history and geographics were taught. Besides this, populating accomplishments were decidedly a must and included basket-making and other handicrafts, vegetable horticulture, domestic fowl agriculture and more were taught excessively.
As for the Chinese common school, most schools were supported by assorted kins and run by a group of instructors, who charged pupils a minimal fee. Since most of the Chinese in Malaya at that clip came here to better their economic position, echt bookmans were limited and instructors were specially imported from China to educate the younger coevals. Not merely that, even the text editions used were written and printed in China. Thus, the course of study in most Chinese common schools in Malaya covered the history, civilization and geographics of China.
In the early nineteenth century, the missionaries
ran formal Indian instruction in Malaya. This nevertheless, did non gather much response from the Indians and was hence non successful. As java and rubber plantations began to shoot all over Malaya, the British authorities felt that it was the duty of the plantation proprietors to supply instruction for the Indian immigrants who came to work in Malaya. Like the Chinese schools, Indian schools besides imported school texts and larning stuffs from India. Hence, kids in Indian schools were taught about their fatherland and topics such as history, geographics and civilization, which related to India. Most of the instructors were either non trained, or equipped with really small preparation and comprised chiefly Indian labour popularly known as kangani, clerks and other estate laborers.
As for now, these common schools are still running and the plans that being taught in these schools are more progress than earlier. The instruction system was non harmonized during British colonisation and really much left to single cultural groups. There were different types of school that provided to a peculiar cultural group, utilizing mediums of direction that diverse with each of these cultural groups.
In the yesteryear, the intent of constructing common schools was to fit the younger coevals with accomplishments that are related to their life style and all the text are from their fatherland. Therefore, different common schools were built at specific topographic points where the certain races of people stay together. The Tamil common schools were built at the estate while Chinese common schools were built near the excavation site and the course of study was from India and China severally. At that clip, the instruction designs have n't been
introduced and the instruction was non standardized. This may endanger the racial harmoniousness and impact the Malaysia integrity. While the British was still governing over Malaysia before independency, the common schools were non interacting with one another as the British may believe that they will unify and convey down the British Empire. However, in twelvemonth 1956 Penyata Razak had been introduced. Laporan Razak 1956 stated that Bahasa Malaysia is the national linguistic communication for the whole state. Since the debut of Laporan Razak, the policy of instruction changed. Bahasa Malaysia became the national linguistic communication and it was taught at every school even common schools. Students from different races were exposed to the others civilization particularly Malays and they learn to digest with each other. Therefore, the common schools will non endanger the racial harmoniousness and Malaysia integrity.
Based on sociologist whose name Joanna Thornborrow, a individual may hold many individualities at the same clip, depending on how many groups they belong to. For illustration, a individual may be a married woman, a girl, a instructor ' but the dominant individuality of her at school is a instructor. Peoples tend to talk in different ways harmonizing to which individuality is dominant in a peculiar state of affairs. This is proved by a diary survey written by Michael Byram. (Languages and Identities, Michael Byram October 2006 ) The full lasting occupant live in Malaysia are in the same group with the same national individuality as a Malaysian. Inside this large societal group, there are many little groups which is called cultural group. Each cultural group has their ain cultural individuality. Therefore, people in Malaysia have the same
national individuality but different cultural individuality. The diverseness of cultural individuality will non endanger racial harmoniousness because they still shared the same national individuality.
The edifice of a national individuality is necessary to plight people 's trueness to the state. Peoples with same (national individuality speak the same linguistic communication which is the national linguistic communication. (Nation Building and 1 Malaysia Concept: Cultural Relationss Challenges In The Educational Field, Dr. Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin, July 2011) However, it is different instance in Malaysia which is a multiethnic society. For Chinese and Tamil kids that study in national school, they learn a wholly different linguistic communication from their female parent lingua. They are non larning their ain female parent lingua, and because of the relationship between linguistic communication and individuality, their cultural individuality is being weakening. The menace of losing their cultural individuality will make choler among an cultural group. They have strong purpose to support their tradition and rights. Without being of common school, ethic public violences will go on in Malaysia. The being of common school really maintains the racial harmoniousness in Malaysia.
The issues of common school frequently criticize as a barrier for racial integrity. The existent barrier is the perceptual experience of one peculiar cultural group that think that their cultural elements and instructions are more superior compared to others. (Malaysia Educational Policy For National Integration: Contested Terrain of Multiple Aspirations in A Multicultural Nation, Hazri Jamil and Santhiram R. Raman, January 2012) This cultural group is acting ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism will forestall the racial interaction between cultural groups and make favoritism towards other cultural groups. Common school provides an chance for younger coevals of
Malay cultural groups to larn other linguistic communication and experience other civilization. They will hold better apprehension of other civilizations and acknowledge cultural diverseness. This will assist to cut down ethnocentrism of cultural group.
Even though some kids graduate from common school can non talk or are weak in other linguistic communication like Bahasa Malaysia, they can merely talk in their female parent lingua, but it does non impact racial harmoniousness. It is true that they will confront linguistic communication barrier but homo non merely can pass on through linguistic communication. Sometimes simple linguistic communication communicated between two different races and the massage was able to direct across from one person to another person is considered as the message was understood by both parties. Besides, human can pass on through action. If you treat others with good act, they will handle the same to you. We judge whether a individual is suited to be a friend based on their personality, non based on the linguistic communication they speak. The linguistic communication barrier will non forestall the racial interaction if they are willing to step out from their safety zone.
The linguistic communication used is different between the three types of school, but the course of study is about same. The moral topic in all these school Teachs kids to be tolerance and regard to other ethnics. Children can larn better with female parent lingua instruction, therefore they can understand the messages to be delivered better. They are willing to accept and esteem ethic individualities of other cultural group. Knowledge besides can be go throughing to the kids easy by carry oning the category in their female parent
lingua. This will bring forth more educated kids in different Fieldss like scientific discipline and humanistic disciplines field. By holding educated younger coevals, they have the outlook to lend to their state. Besides that, educated people tend to work out job by cognition alternatively of force. Therefore, it will non endanger the racial harmoniousness by non work outing job with violent such as battle between ethnics. They besides studied and learn valuable lessons from the history that internal discord in one 's state will give the chances for foreign state to take advantage on the state.
A multiracial state like Malaysia can be peaceable and sustainable merely if the authorities provide chances for each cultural group to make their potencies. (Multiethnicity In Southest Asia And Education: Case Study Of Vision School In Malaysia, Hamoon Khelghat-Doost, Govindran Jegatesen, Zainal Abidin Sanusi, Tunku Fatimah Firdaus Dato ' Tunku Fariddudin, December 2011) Racial harmoniousness can non be achieved if one or more groups felt socially disadvantage in relation to other groups. The being of common school really is a sort of 'fairness ' in the position of Chinese and Indian society. The Malays is the native so they deserve their privileges and rule Malayan society. The Chinese and Indian societies have the right to continue their cultural individuality since they contribute in the state edifice of Malaysia.
Some people claims that common schools affect racial harmoniousness, and it should be abolish. They support the vision school construct that placed three types of school in the same location. Each school in different edifice but they shared some common installations such as school canteen and athleticss land. (Multiethnicity In Southest Asia And
Education: Case Study Of Vision School In Malaysia, '' Hamoon Khelghat-Doost, Govindran Jegatesen, Zainal Abidin Sanusi, Tunku Fatimah Firdaus Dato ' Tunku Fariddudin, December 2011) They think that the vision school will make racial integrity among pupils. They can larn their female parent lingua and they can interact with other cultural groups. There are eight vision schools countrywide but merely three which are located at Subang Jaya, Lurah Bilut in Pahang and Teluk Sengat in Johor comprises of the national, Chinese and Tamil Schools. In fact, the vision schools are nil much different with common schools. The pupils of different cultural groups study in different edifices and are separated, and they still talking mother tongue. During deferral, they still spend the clip with their ain cultural group. The resource distributions among three schools are non even and have ailment for that. Therefore, common schools are non endangering racial harmoniousness and integrity in Malaysia.
As a decision, linguistic communication can be seen as an ethnic 's individuality. It displays the user 's background and race. Language is used as a signifier of communicating to convey and have information. Not merely that, linguistic communication is besides a manner to show one 's thoughts and ideas and sentiments. Language is one of the features when looking at one 's cultural individuality, without linguistic communication at that place will non be cultural individualities all over the universe. But, if there were non cultural groups, there besides will be no different linguistic communications. If there is merely one race, one cultural individuality, there would merely be one linguistic communication. Therefore, both linguistic communication and cultural individuality are every bit depended on
one another. This brings us to whether common schools are endangering racial harmoniousness and integrity of Malaysia. From the above paragraphs, common schools foremost arise when Chinese and Indians from China and India were looking for a better economic position. They ended up in Malaya which was ruled by the British so. The common schools were built to maintain the other ethnics group from pass oning with each other. This will endanger racial harmoniousness and integrity of Malaya during that century. But in 1956 the 1956 Penyata Razak was announced in order to demo the British that we are able to unify and accomplish independency. Therefore, 1957 we have our independency and from so on all the cultural groups continued to work together to construct a better hereafter for the state. So, technically the slang schools helped Malaysia in accomplishing its independency. If the other cultural groups were non concerted with the indigens, which are the Malays, Malaya would non hold achieved independency and go Malaysia. This shows that from the get downing the cultural groups are working together until this twenty-four hours. The common schools will non endanger racial harmoniousness and integrity in Malaysia harmonizing to the past and now. The few chief grounds of racial harmoniousness and integrity of Malaysia being jeopardize are the perceptual experience of one cultural group against the other. This is largely thought by ethnocentrism persons. They besides spread their ideas to others, and influence other people in believing that manner. Racial harmoniousness will non be jeopardized by common schools besides because childs in that age group like to do friends. They would do friends with anyone of the
same age group as they have non to the full been influence by other people 's ideas and thought. And besides in any school, in moral or spiritual categories, the kids were thought to esteem other ethnics group and their believes. Unless the pedagogue themselves were act uponing the kids, making negative thoughts to the kids. Otherwise, common schools now and everlastingly will non endanger racial harmoniousness and integrity in Malaysia.
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