Chem 106 – Chemistry

question

product favored
answer

once reaction has reached equalibrium, the greater concentration is on the product side
question

reactant favored
answer

once the reaction has reached equalibrium the concentration is on the reaction side
question

equalibirum constant (K)
answer

  • changes with temperiture
  • changes when stoichiometric coefficients change
  • changes when reaction is reversed
  • Remains the same when different concentrations are used.

question

ICE table
answer

used to determine concentrations
question

equalibrium consintration expression
answer

  • all concentrations are at equlibrium values
  • product concentrations appear in the numerator, and the reactant concentrations appear in the denominator
  • each concentration is reised to the power of it’s stoichiometric coefficient in the balanced chemical equation;
  • the value of the contant K depends on the particular reaction and the temperature
  • units are never given with K

question

;never included in equilibirum expression?
answer

  • solid reactants and products;
  • molar concentration of water;

question

K;1

Ka/b;1

answer

Product favored at equalibirum.

strong acid/bases

;

question

completion in regards to a reaction
answer

essentially all have been converted to water it was sapouse to.;
question

K;1
answer

reaction is reactant- favored at equilibrium
question

reaction quotiant q
answer

at an point as the reaction proceeds from the reactants to an equailibrium mixtrue.;
question

Q;K
answer

reactants must be converted to products for equilibruim
question

Q;K
answer

some products must be converted to reactants for equilibrium
question

short cut to solving equalibrium concentration equation
answer

if 100 * K ; 2 order of magnetude than initial product [A], then the denominator x can be removed.

;

k = [B][C]/[A]

K = xx/A-x;

K= xx/A

question

what is the equilibrium constant for the new K when there are new stoichiometirc ratio’s?
answer

it is the old K raised to the power of the miltiplication factor of the stoichiometric number
question

what happens to K when the chemical equation is revervsed?
answer

the new K is the reciprocal of the old K
question

how is the new K found when adding two reactions together?
answer

The two K’s are multiplied to find the new K
question

how is the equalibrium constant disturbed?
answer

  • temperature
  • change in concentration
  • change in volume

question

Le Chateleir’s principle
answer

how reaction will adjust to the quantities of reactants and products so that equilibtium is restored
question

what side will equilibrim favor of a gass reaction when volume is increased?
answer

the side with more molecules 
question

what side will an equilibrium favor of a gass reaction when volem is decreesed?
answer

the side with the smallest number of gass molecules
question

what happens to the energy flow when the reaction is heated
answer

the energy is obsorbed meaning it is endothermic
question

Arrhenius definition of an acid and base
answer

any substance that when dissolved in water increases the concentration of H+ ions is an acid. any substance that increases the concentration of hydroxid ion is a base
question

Bronsted – Lowery definition of acid and base
answer

acid is a proton donar and a base is a proton acceptor
question

monoprotic acids
answer

capable of donation one proton 
question

polyprotic acids
answer

capable of donating many protons
question

amphiprotic
answer

ions that can behave either as bronsted acids ro bases 
question

all polyatomic ions are ……. when it comes to donating hydtrgen ions
answer

amphiprotic
question

conjugate acide base pair
answer

consits of two species that differ from each other by the presence of one hydrogen ion
question

autoionization 
answer

water is composed of some H3O and some OH, it is never not conducting electricity
question

what is the equalibrium constant for water at 25 degrees C
answer

Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 1 * 10-14 
question

autoionization constant for water
answer

Kw
question

neutral solution
answer

[H3O+] = [HO-] 

both are equal to 1 * 10-7

question

acidic solution
answer

[H3O+] > [OH-]

 

question

basic solution
answer

[H3O+] < [OH-]
question

what is pH
answer

pH = -log[H3O+]
question

what is pOH
answer

pOH = -log[OH-]
question

sum of pH and pOH
answer

the some of pH and pOH must be equal to 14 at 25 degrees C
question

why is the some of pH and pOH always equal to 14?
answer

Adding acid reaises the concentration of the H3O+ ions so the solution is acidic. to oppose this increase, Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that a small fraction of the H3O+ ions will react with OH- ions from whater autoionization to form water, lowering OH until the product of H3O and OH is again eqaul
question

how do you define relative strengths of acids?
answer

measure the oH of soutions of acids of equal concentrations, the lower the pH the greater the concentration of hydronium ions
question

what does a large Ka mean?
answer

  • ionization products strongly favored
  • strongest acids
  • small Kb;
  • all of these aplly to basses

question

what happens to the stregnth of Ka;and conjuagate Kb when the molicule has a big organic tail?
answer

the Ka ( acidity ) decreases

the conjugate Kb increases

question

how do polyprotic acids ionize?
answer

they are broken down into steps
question

what happens to the K aspolyprotic acids are ionzed?
answer

the K ;become smaller
question

why does k become smaller as more H+ are being pulled off?
answer

Because it is getting harder and harder to remove H+ ions. the larger the negative chager ;the more difficult it is to remove H+
question

anions that are conjugate bases of strong acids have what kind of effect on the pH
answer

they are such weak bases that they have no effect on pH solution
question

deprotonation
answer

removal of H+ ions
question

how do alkali metal and alaline earth cations effect pH of solution?
answer

they have no effect
question

what are acidic cations limited to?
answer

metal ations with 2+ or 3+ charges and to ammonium ions
question

all metal ions are what in water
answer

hydrated
question

pKa ?
answer

pKa;= – log (Ka)
question

relationship among pK values
answer

pKa +;pKb;=pKw
question

Ka *Kb;= Kw
answer

the product of Ka for an acie and Kb;for its conjugate base is euql to the constant specifically Kw
question

what side does the equalibrium fall on?
answer

the side with the weeker base or acid
question

how do all proton transfer reactions proceed?
answer

from the stronger acid and base to the weaker acid and base
question

what is the net ionic equation for strong base and acid?
answer

OH + H = H2O
question

what are the products of a hydrolsys reaction?
answer

question

Kp
answer

the cantstant for finding the parsail pressures
question

Is a conj. acid/base considered to be an acid or a base when looking it up in table 17.4?
answer

is it is a conj. acid it is considered to be an acid when looking at table 17.4.;
question

what happens when equal number of moles of a strong base is mixed with an equal number of a weak acid?
answer

;The solution is basic with the pH depending on Kb
question

mixing strong acid and strong base?
answer

produces a neutroal solution
question

mixing equal number of moles of strong acid with weak base ?
answer

produces an acidic solution with pH depending on Ka
question

what happens when acetic acid (CH3CO2H) a weak acid is mixed with ammonia (NH3)? and why
answer

The solution is neutraul because the pH depends both of the products formed and both products have a Ka;and a Kb;;That are equal.;

question

what happens when mixing weak ka and kb values?
answer

the pH depends on the relative Ka and Kb values
question

how is the pH effected by the inorganic polyptotic acids/bases?
answer

the pH is many effected by the release of the first H+ ion and not so much by the second
question

lewus acid
answer

is a substance that can accept a pair of electrons from another atom to form a new bond
question

lewis base
answer

is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to another atom to form a new bond
question

acid-base adduct (coordinate covalent bond)
answer

the product of a lewis acid base reaction
question

list some moecules that have both strong acid and strong base
answer

NaHSO4

KClO4

NaNO3

LiBr

question

complex ion
answer

has a lot of atoms attached to it with a charge;

[Co(H20)4Cl2]+

question

when given two Ka’s for a reactions how is the equalibrium constant found?
answer

multiply Ka1 times ka2 
question

dynamic equilibrium
answer

condition in which forward rate of reaction equals reverse rate
question

at equilibirum was does the forward and the reverse rate of the reaction equal? what is that called?
answer

the forward rate equals the reverse rate. that is where we get the equilibrium constant from?
question

Typical steps to this cacluation: 

what are the equilbirum concentrations give the about of reactant formed and what is the equilibirum constant?

answer

1:set up ICE table

2: solve for x

3: caclulate K by the equilbrium constant equation

question

What happens to K when T increases?
answer

The K increases when T increases. When K increases that means that it favors the products.
question

what constitutes a strong acid?
answer

stronger than water
question

strong or week acid/ base

 

acetic acid

answer

CH3co2H

 

weak acid

question

what is a buffer?
answer

buffers always consist of weak acid and conjugate base 

 

or 

 

weak base and conjugate acid

question

the comon ion effect
answer

example of LaChatelier’s Principle: a perturbation to a system at equilibirum leads to achisft in the equilibrium that offsets, or minimizes the effect of the perturbation.
question

what is the buffer or HF?
answer

hydrofluoric acid (weak acid HF) and sodium flouride (conj. base F-)
question

what is the buffer system for acetic acid?;
answer

acetic acid (CH3COOH week acid) and sodium acetate ( CH3COO conj. bAse)
question

equivalence point of strong acid/ base?
answer

is always going to be at 7 pH
question

the equivalence point of a weak acid with a strong base?
answer

the ph is controlled by the conjugate base of the acid.;
question

weak acid and strong base have the same consentration
answer

means the pka is = to the ph in a titration
question

what is the ph of a weak acid and a strong base at the equivalancy point?
answer

greater than 7!;
question

whem is a substance predicted to be more soluble then ksp value?
answer

when a salt is the conj. baske of weak acd is there and an
question

Kf
answer

formation constant.;
question

will a small or large Ksp precipitate first?
answer

a small Ksp will presipitate first because it has a larger Kf value.
question

how would you calculate the Knet for the disosiation of a solid and an acid?
answer

you would findthe Ksp and Kform and multiply them
question

when are kc and Kp the same?
answer

when the number of moles of a gaseous reactiant and product are the same

;

number of moles = (molicules or prodcuts – products)

question

What is the pH have the falloing buffer solutions

;

NH4/NH3

CH3CO2H/CH3CO2

HCO3-/CO32-

H3PO4/H2PO4-

answer

9

4.7

10

2

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member