chapter 7&8

what transports oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs?
red blood cells

what enzyme does semen contain?
enzyme p30

what microscope is an instrument that links a microscope to a spectrophotometer?
microspectrophotometer

what microscope bombards a specimen with a beam of electrons to produce a magnified image?
scanning electron microscope

the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody
agglutination

what is light that illuminates the specimen from above to examine opaque specimens
vertical illumination

what is the eyepiece magnification is most forensic work?
10x

what microscope is two monocular compound microscopes spaced and aligned to present a 3D image?
stereoscopic microscope

color test for hemoglobin with phenolphthalein to produce a deep pink
kastle-meyer

antibodies and antigens diffuse towards one another on a gel plate
gel diffusion

what is best used for forensic microscopy requiring a side-by-side comparison
comparison microscope

what was the earliest and simplest microscope
magnifying glass

common blood test until identified as a carcinogen
benzidine

an antibody that reacts with its corresponding antigen to form a precipitate
precipitin

addition of chemicals to blood to form crystals containing hemoglobin derivatives
microcrystalline test

what is light that passes up from the condenser and through the specimen
transmitted illumination

what microscope is two compound microscopes combined into one unit
comparison microscope

how many antigens determines an individual’s blood type in the A-B-O SYSTEM
2

which microscope is more likely to be used as a tool for determining whether a suspect has recently fired a gun
scanning electron microscope

sensitive chemical test presumptively detects bloodstains diluted up to 300,000x
luminol

in which phenotype pairing can the the genotypes of the individuals be directly known
type AB and type O

which microscope plots an absorption spectrum of the item under examination
microspectrophotometer

what microscope is used to study birefringent materials, that have double refraction
polarizing light microscope

what are present in all human blood that allows us to give blood types?
A-B-O antigens

what is the most frequently used and versatile microscope found in the crime laboratory?
stereoscopic microscope

when the SEM’s primary electron beam bombards a specimen, it causes the emission of what 2 things?
1) electrons from elements of the upper layer of the specimen and 2) x-rays from the target

a comparison microscope designed to examine bullets and fibers is equipped with what kind of illumination?
vertical illumination

what is the advantage of monoclonal antibodies?
an animal can produce antibodies that don’t vary in composition over time

a gene pair made up of 2 similar alleles is said to be…
homozygous

for how long can recent sexual activity be calculated using the semen marker p30
up to 24 hours

what altered the approach forensic scientists have taken toward the individualization of bloodstains and other biological evidence?
DNA

the polarizer and analyzer in a polarizing microscope are normally set…
parallel to each other

in the design of a polarizing microscope, the polarizer is placed between the…
light source and sample stage

in order to examine an opaque object with a compound microscope, one must use what kind of light?
vertical illumination

what microscope can a forensic analyst now view a particle while, at the same time, a beam of light is directed at the particle in order to obtain its absorption spectrum
microspectrophotometer

for every antigen, there exists a specific what?
antibody

when using a compound microscope, the areas above and below the depth of focus are best viewed by adjusting what?
the fine or coarse adjustment

what can palynology do?
narrow location based on pollen

which microscope provides a right-side-up image?
stereoscopic microscope

which blood components are directly pertinent to the forensic aspects of blood identification>
blood serum and red blood cells

what instrument can be used to view a single fiber found at a crime scene and identify its generic class?
infrared microspectrophotometer, stereoscopic microscope, and polarizing microscope

which microscope has the largest potential working distance?
stereoscopic microscope

what is the D antigen also known as?
Rh

which microscope is best suited to the study of birefringent minerals and fibers?
polarizing microscope

a microscope with which light source, when linked to a spectrophotometer, will provide a “fingerprint” spectrum of the object being viewed?
infrared

the microscope that provides the highest resolution and greatest depth of focus is the…
scanning electron microscope

all blood contain the what enzyme?
peroxidase

what is one of the major attractions of the scanning electron microscope image?
high magnification, high resolution, and great depth of focus

if crystals of unknown origin are view under a polarizing microscope and appear dark, what can be concluded about the crystals?
they are non-polarizing

evidence to substantiate that a rape occurred could include…
hairs, fibers, blood, semen, and physical injuries

the image produced by an SEM is initially displayed on…
a cathode ray tube

what type of crystals produce two planes of polarized light, each perpendicular to the other
birefringent

type AB blood contains
both A and B antigens and neither antibodies

what is palynology
study of pollen and spores based on characteristics

a transparent specimen is viewed through a microscope using what type of light?
transmitted illumination

in routine blood banking, which antigens must be determined in testing for compatibility
A-B-O and Rh factors

what type of microscopy most commonly used with palynology is…
scanning electron microscope

how many parts is the mechanical system of a microscope is composed of?
6

to determine whether a bloodstain is of human or animal origin, the serologist will perform…
precipitin test

the condenser of a compound microscope is located…
beneath the stage

what type of image cannot be viewed directly
virtual image

monoclonal antibodies…
are produced by injecting a mouse with an antigen creating hybridomas, creating a limitless supply and it called a “magic bullet”

the size of the specimen area in view is known as the…
field of view

what is a parfocal microscope
allows for ease of focusing when switching from low to high power

PSA (p30) is a…
protein unique to seminal plasma

what are used to focus the SEM
magnets

a microscope uses a combination of what to magnify an image?
lenses

an individual has what kind of antigens?
neither A nor B antigens

antibodies are found…
in the blood serum

an opaque object requires what type of illumination?
vertical illumination

if blood has both A and B antigens, the blood is type…
AB

for how long can spermatoza generally be found in the vagina of a living female?
motile sperm is 4-6 hours and a non-motile sperm is up to 72 hours

what is an image formed by the actual convergence of light rays on a screen
real image

for how long can the enzyme p30 be detected in the vaginal cavity after intercourse
up to 24 hours

what tests can identify if a stain is blood?
phenolphthalein, bluestar, luminol, and the benzidine test

what does the bonding of an antigen with its specific antibody cause
agglutination

what are some components of a compound microscope
illuminator, adjustment knobs, condenser, and stage

what test is frequently used to determine whether blood is of human origin>
precipitin test

which microscope can be linked to an x-ray analyzer
scanning electron microscope

what is an image that cannot be seen directly
virtual image

which microscope looks at gun shot residue
scanning electron microscope