Chapter 14 and 19

question

Which of the following is not a property of water?
answer

liquid water changes temperature very quickly
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Approximately ____% of Earth’s water is fresh rather than salt water.
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3
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Only about ___% of the world’s total water supply exists as uncontaminated fresh water on or close to the surface and is readily available for human use.
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0.014
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The global increase in water withdrawal since 1950 is due to all but which one of the following?
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climatic variation
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Throughout the world, the most water is used for
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irrigation.
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Major water problems of the western United States include
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chronic drought and insufficient runoff.
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Water can be scarce because of
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water stress. dry climate. desiccation.
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Water scarcity from drying up of the soil because of deforestation or overgrazing is called
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desiccation.
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Water scarcity due to increasing numbers of people relying on fixed levels of runoff is called
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water stress.
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Large dams and reservoirs
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can be used to provide electric power.
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China’s Three Gorges project will
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destroy two cities each with 100,000 people.
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Egypt’s Aswan High Dam
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saved rice and cotton crops during two droughts in the 1970s.
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Which of the following states started in 1997 taking its full share of water from the Colorado River, resulting in much higher water prices for downstream California?
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Arizona
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Canada’s James Bay Project to generate electricity involves
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-displacing thousands of indigenous Cree and Inuit. -flooding boreal forest and tundra equal in size to Washington State. -constructing 600 dams and dikes.
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The volume of the world’s fourth largest freshwater lake has been decreased by almost 75% to provide water for agriculture. This lake is located in
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the former Soviet Union.
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Which of the following statements about the Aral Sea is false?
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Water has been diverted from the Aral Sea and the two rivers that replenish its water primarily for use in manufacturing.
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All of the following would improve the Aral Sea ecological/economic situation except
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shifting displaced fishermen to logging.
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In the United States, about ____of all drinking water is pumped from aquifers.
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½
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The term subsidence refers to
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sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn
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The Ogallala Aquifer
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is being used eight times faster than it is being recharged.
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The relationship between water demand and policies that subsidize water-thirsty crops exemplifies
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a positive feedback loop.
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Which of the following statements about desalination is true?
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Desalination is expensive.
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Approaches to increasing the water supply can be outstripped by
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increased industrialization. soaring population. increased food needs.
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Water is wasted because
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-the responsibility for water resource management of a single watershed is often divided among many state and local governments. -outdated laws encourage unnecessary water waste. -water prices are artificially low.
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In the East, most water use is based on
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riparian rights.
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In the West, most water use is based on
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prior appropriation.
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All of the following are available to improve water efficiency except
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condensing water vapor from indoor air.
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Floods and droughts are
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human-activated problems.
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Stream channelization
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increases the rate of water discharge.
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Ecologically, the best way to approach flooding is
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floodplain management.
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For drinking water, the World Health Organization recommends a level of ____ coliform bacteria colonies per 100 milliliters of water sample.
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question

The greatest source of water pollution in terms of total mass is
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sediments.
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Which of the following is a nonpoint source of water pollution?
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logged forest
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Over half of the total mass of pollutants entering streams and lakes comes from
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nonpoint pollution from agriculture.
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The water pollution and control laws enacted in the 1970s have done all but which one of the following?
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forced municipalities to take their water supply from the downstream side of the city
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Which of the following stages of cultural eutrophication occurs last?
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increase in anaerobic bacteria
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Which of the following is not an input control over cultural eutrophication?
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harvesting excess weeds
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All of the following are cleanup methods of controlling cultural eutrophication except
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using advanced waste treatment.
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The common limiting factor in freshwater lakes most often emphasized in pollution prevention approaches is
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phosphorous.
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Crude estimates indicate that up to ____ of usable groundwater in the United States is contaminated.
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1/4
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The only effective way to protect groundwater is to
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prevent contamination.
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Of the following organisms, the ones least likely to be killed by heavy oil components are
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marine birds.
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Which of the following is false?
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The environment recovers more slowly from crude oil spills than from refined oil spills.
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Coastal waters can be protected from excess water pollution by
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-eliminating discharge of toxic pollutants. -promoting water conservation in homes and industries. -regulating types and density of coastal development.
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Farmers can sharply reduce fertilizer runoff by
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-using prescribed amounts of fertilizer. -planting nitrogen-fixing plants. -planting buffer zones between cultivated fields and surface water.
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About ____ of U.S. lakes were tested unsafe for fishing, swimming, and other recreational uses.
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44%
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The Clean Water Act could be strengthened by all of the following strategies except
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establishing national effluent standards.
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Of the following, the most ecologically responsible way to dispose of sewage sludge is
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treating with heat to kill harmful bacteria, removal of toxic metals, and using as fertilizer.
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A change in the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act that is least likely to be recommended by an environmentalist is
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increased reliance on voluntary compliance to drinking water standards.
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The hydrologic cycle will naturally purify and recycle freshwater as long as humans don’t
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-pollute the water faster than it is replenished. -withdraw water from groundwater supplies faster than it is replenished. -overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes.
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Which of the following uses tends to consume the smallest amount of water?
answer

public use
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The largest use of water in the western United States is
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irrigation.
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Overuse of groundwater can lead to
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saltwater intrusion. subsidence. aquifer depletion.
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Desalination may be accomplished by
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distillation.
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It is most economically and environmentally sound to focus water resource management on
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increasing the efficiency of the way we use water.
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All of the following are available to improve water efficiency except
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condensing water vapor from indoor air.
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People have often settled on floodplains because
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-the soil is fertile. -the flat surfaces are ideal for buildings. -they want access to water for irrigation and transportation. -the flat surfaces are ideal for railroads.
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The main human activity that increases flooding is
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destroying vegetation.
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Humans increase the likelihood of flooding by
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-building on floodplains. -urbanization. -removing water-absorbing vegetation. -draining wetlands.
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Of the following, which constitutes the greatest percent of domestic use of water in the United States?
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flushing toilets
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We depend on water for:
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manufacturing travel energy production mining
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Approximately __ of the Earth’s water is freshwater that can be readily used by humans and other terrestrial organisms
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2.5%
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The upper limit of an unconfined underground reservoir of water is termed the:
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water table
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Water that was already used in sinks, showers, and washing machines is called:
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reclaimed water
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Removing too much fresh water from a river or lake can:
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result in increasing salinity for associated estuaries
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Approximately ____% of earth’s water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater.
answer

.02
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The hydrologic cycle will naturally purify and recycle fresh water as long as humans don’t
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-pollute the water faster than it is replenished. -withdraw water from groundwater supplies faster than it is replenished. -overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes.
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Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
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aquifers
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Dams
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destroy agricultural land and scenic areas.
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Water would be used more efficiently if
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-the price of water reflected its true cost. -laws governing access to and use of water resources were reformed. -water authorities were based on natural watershed boundaries.
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Which of the following offers the greatest conservation of water?
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trickle or drip irrigation
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Wasting water through irrigation could be reduced by
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-treating urban wastewater and using it for irrigation. -using organic farming techniques. -using computer-controlled systems that monitor soil moisture.
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Increased flooding can be caused by
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-heavy rainfall. -rapid snowmelt. -removal of vegetation. -destruction of wetlands.
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Sustainable use of water involves
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-participatory decision making. -preservation of ecological integrity of water supply systems. -efficient use of water. -integrated governance of water pollution.
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Sustainable use of water
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-requires integrated governance of water pollution among all users of a watershed. -might be encouraged by water marketing. -is discouraged by government subsidies of water. -requires integrated governance of water use, sewage treatment among all users of a watershed.
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Of the following organisms, the group that is least likely to cause disease is
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algae.
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A good indicator of water quality is the number of
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coliform bacteria.
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To be considered safe for drinking, a 100 milliliter sample of water should contain ___ colonies of coliform bacteri
answer

question

To be considered safe for swimming, a 10 milliliter sample of water should contain ___ colonies of coliform bacteri
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200
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Which is not one of the ways that climate change can affect water pollution.
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-It can cause thermal pollution due to warmer temperatures. -Intense downpours in some areas can flush more harmful chemicals into waterways -Prolonged drought in some areas can reduce river flows that dilute wastes. – Prolonged drought can spread infectious diseases more rapidly among people who lack enough water to stay clean.
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A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by
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organic wastes.
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Which of the following statements is false?
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Inorganic nutrients such as fertilizers have no adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems.
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Nitrates and phosphates are examples of
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inorganic plant nutrients.
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One class of pollutants that can cause excessive growth of algae is
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inorganic plant nutrients.
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Thermal pollution
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can kill organisms adapted to a particular temperature range by thermal shock.
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Thermal water pollution can be reduced by all of the following methods except
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using more electricity.
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Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?
answer

offshore oil wells
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To determine the presence and concentration of water pollutants, scientists are least likely to use
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satellite photographs.
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Which of the following statements is false?
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In rapidly flowing rivers, dissolved oxygen is replaced quickly.
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Oxygen sag curves
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occur when oxygen-demanding wastes are added to the water.
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Which of the following statements is false?
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Slow-flowing rivers are less susceptible to pollutants than fast-flowing streams.
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The water pollution and control laws enacted in the 1970s have done all but which one of the following?
answer

forced municipalities to take their water supply from the downstream side of the city
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In most developed countries, large fish kills and contamination of drinking water are caused by
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-malfunctioning sewage treatment plants. -accidental release of toxic industrial chemicals. -deliberate release of toxic industrial chemicals.
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According to the global Water Policy Project, most cities in developing countries discharge __ of their untreated sewage directly into rivers, streams, and lakes whose waters are then used for human consumption.
answer

80?90%
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Which of the following statements about lakes is true?
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Lakes are more vulnerable than streams to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic substances that can destroy bottom life.
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Which of the following statements is false?
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Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, toxins, and pesticides
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In cultural eutrophication, game fish die from
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suffocation from lack of oxygen.
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About ___ of the 100,000 medium to large lakes in the United States suffer from some degree of cultural eutrophication.
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one-third
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Which of the following would not reduce cultural eutrophication?
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Prevent as much outflow or drainage as possible from the lake.
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The Great Lakes possess ____% of all the surface fresh water in the United States.
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95
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Less than ___ % of the water entering the Great Lakes leaves the St. Lawrence River.
answer

1
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One fish in ___taken from the Great Lakes is unsafe for human consumption.
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four
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Which one of the Great Lakes first showed intense effects of water pollution?
answer

Erie
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Which of the following is not a reason that efforts effective to clean up Lake Washington in metropolitan Seattle?
answer

Installation of technologically superior water treatment systems.
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Drinking water for about ___ of the U.S. population and ____ of the rural populations comes from groundwater.
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50%; 95%
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Experts rate groundwater pollution as a
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low-risk ecological but high-risk health problem.
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Sources of groundwater contamination include
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-deep wells used to dispose of liquid hazardous wastes. – abandoned hazardous waste dumps. -industrial and livestock waste storage lagoons.
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Over the twenty-first century, scientists expect to find many millions of ___ to become a major global health problem.
answer

leaking underground storage tanks
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Which of the following statements about MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is not true?
answer

it is a gasoline additive
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Arsenic levels are above the standard for 112 million people that mostly live in ___
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China, Bangladesh and part of India
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Groundwater can be protected least by
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using advanced sewage treatment.
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Which of the following aquatic ecosystems is most capable of diluting, dispersing, and degrading large amounts of sewage, sludge, and oil?
answer

deep-water ocean
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In a 2005 report on the ecological health of coastal areas in the lower 48, the EPA classified ___estuaries as threatened or impaired.
answer

four of five
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____ of the world’s population lives on or within one hundred and sixty miles of the coast.
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40%
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The largest estuary in the United States is
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Chesapeake Bay.
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Chesapeake Bay has been quite vulnerable to pollution because it is
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shallow and flushes 1% of the pollutants that enter it.
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Paved areas in Chesapeake Bay’s watershed grew by ___ percent in the 1990s.
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forty-one
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In Chesapeake Bay, 60% by weight of phosphates come from ____and 60% by weight of nitrates come from ___
answer

point sources . . . nonpoint sources
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All of the following methods are likely to aid restoration of Chesapeake Bay’s oyster population except
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developing new recipes for oyster stew to enhance public appreciation of oysters.
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Of the following organisms, the ones least likely to be affected by ocean debris are
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zooplankton.
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Of the following sources of oil in the environment, the one which contributes least is
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tanker accidents and blowouts at offshore drilling rigs.
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The majority of the oil pollution of the ocean comes from
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runoff from land
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The effects of an oil spill depend on the
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-time of year. -type of oil (crude or refined). -distance of release from shore. -amount released.
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The most common problem encountered by seabirds coated with oil is
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loss of buoyancy and insulation, causing deaths from exposure.
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Which of the following is false?
answer

The environment recovers more slowly from crude oil spills than from refined oil spills.
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The oil company responsible for the oil spill of the Valdez was
answer

Exxon.
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On the day in 2006 that ExxonMobil made a court appeal to have fines reduced from $5 billion to $25 million, it also announced
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it announced the largest quarterly earnings by a corporation in U.S. history.
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Water pollution from oil can be prevented by
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-instituting a national energy policy based on decreased reliance on fossil fuels. -prohibiting oil drilling in ecologically sensitive areas. -requiring double hulls on oil tankers.
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The leading nonpoint source of water pollution is
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agriculture.
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Farmers can reduce pesticide runoff by
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-applying pesticides only when needed. -using biological methods of pest control. -using integrated pest management. -control runoff.
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Livestock growers can control runoff of animal wastes from feedlots and barnyards by
answer

diverting runoff of animal wastes into detention basins.
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The Clean Water Act and Water Quality Act attempt to maintain the ____ integrity of U.S. waters.
answer

-biological -chemical -physical
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About ____of U.S. lakes were tested unsafe for fishing, swimming, and other recreational uses.
answer

45%
question

In a septic tank system, which of the following is not true?
answer

after leaving the absorption field, wastewater is cleaned and can be used again for human consumption.
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Which of the following types of sewage treatment is properly matched?
answer

advanced-physical and chemical processes
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Which of the following substances are removed to the greatest extent by combined primary and secondary wastewater treatment?
answer

organic oxygen-demanding wastes
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Peru decided for a short time to discontinue chlorinating the country’s drinking water because
answer

it was concerns over the increased risk of cancer
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According to the EPA, about ____% of the country’s lakes and 40% of streams are too polluted for swimming or fishing.
answer

40
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The most polluted river in the United States is the River.
answer

Mississippi
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“Cancer Corridor” in Louisiana contains ____ hazardous waste sites
answer

500
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Areas that depend on surface water for their drinking supply generally do all of the following except
answer

treat with ozone and fluoride to kill bacteria.
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A change in the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act that is least likely to be recommended by an environmentalist is
answer

increased reliance on voluntary compliance to drinking water standards.
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To further sustainable use of water supplies, environmentalists are least likely to call for
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decentralization of control of water supply and quality.
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Which of the following is not a technology in use to clean drinking water for people?
answer

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