Chapter 12 Vocab – AP World History

Flashcard maker : Stephanie Landry
Hangzhou
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
Wendi
(541-604) Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty
Yangdi
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Li Yuan
Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Changan
Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
jinshi
Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
pure land Buddhism
Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses of Chinese society
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Zen Buddhism
Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
Empress Wu
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhism establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state of religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Wuzong
Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology
Xuanzong
Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion
Yang Guifei
Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt
Zhao Kuangyin
(r. 960-976) Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent
Liao dynasty
Founded in 907 by Nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; mantained independence from Song dynasty in China
Khitans
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Zhu Xi
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
neo-Confucians
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangut
Rulers of the Xi Xia kingdom of northwest china; one of the regional kingdoms during the period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226
Xi Xia
Kingdom of the Tangut people, north of Song Kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Wang Anshi
Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
Jurchens
Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south
Jin
Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by the Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234
Southern Song
Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history
Grand Canal
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long
junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
footbinding
Practice in chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Li Bo
(701-762) Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings

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