Cell structures and their function Essay
Cell type describe whether their connective, epithelial, muscle or nervous etcFunctionCytoplasmThe cytoplasm of a cell Is where the chemical change that helps the cell is active. In this cell there are blood cells, bone cells, heart, skin and brain cells etc. The functioning of these cells are different to one anther but there role is to keep the body operating.The main functions of this cell are the growth, reproduction and cell expansion.
NucleusNucleus is the cell that has the genetic material which controls the chemical activity in the cell.The nucleus is completed with the four structures that are bordered by the nuclear envelope which contains endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus envelope is a double layered membrane that includes the contents of the nucleus during most of cell lifecycle. The space between the layers is called the perinuclear space and it connects with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
The nuclear envelope is separated by the nuclear pore which regulates the passage of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Allowing some to go through membrane by building blocks for RNA and DNA into the nucleus as well as the molecules providing the energy for constructing genetic materials. The other structure that is seen in the nucleus include the chromosomes with genetic information, it also has the nucleolus which is the ribosome that is exported to the cytoplasm to function.Plasma membranePhospholipids bilayer is a structure of the cell that is made up of glycerol and phosphorus. The cell membrane focuses on certain lipid compound and proteins that help the cell’s needs.
This membrane acts like a wall around the cell and keeps the intercellular molecules separated from the extra cellular surroundings. It keeps control of what enter and departs from the cell e.g. it lets in water, oxygen and glucose and let’s out are co2.
The cell also supplies to the immunological identity of the cell as well as interact with nearby cell.As the cell is a liquid like membrane an holes or damages can be repaired quickly.LysosomeLysosome is a vesicle that has enzymes to demolish the worn out organelles. Lysosome is also used by the white cells called phagocytes to wipe out foreign material such as bacteria.MitochondriaDescribe the structure and the function in detailMitochondria is an important cell that releases the energy in food after it has been stored for a little while somewhere else in the human body. They are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell.
Mitochondria are the bordered by two membranes, one of them is called cristae.Mitochondrion completes the corrosion of glucose to release energy. It also traps energy released to create ATP that is used to power the metabolic function of the cell.Golgi apparatusGolgi is made from a progression of flattened sax stacked on top of each other. Golgi apparatus tries gather proteins and molecules to export it to other cells.
Golgi is also known as the holgi body. It is made of series of flattened stacks on top of each other. They are linked to RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) where the protein is made. It also joins sugar to make glycoprotein e.
g. mucus.The Golgi produces vesicles to transfer the modified proteins to the cell membrane for release.Endoplasmic ReticulumEndoplasmic reticulum involves with the export of materials. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules, vesicles and sacs that are interconnected. The function of the endoplasmic reticulum a large surfaces area for the organisation of decimal reaction and synthesis.
RibosomeRibosomes are made up thousands and thousands of cells that keep the body functioning, developing and growing. Each of the cells has its own structure and it carries out function of genes.Ribosomes are made up of RNA and proteins; it is mostly recognised as the protein builders as they build a long chain. Ribosomes are also found in other places and it provides a construction of where the MNRA sits.functionChromosomesChromosomes are made of DNA molecules and proteins that carry information.
The chromosome has many genes and is made up DNA. There are 46 chromosomes in our body; we inherit 23 from our mother and 23 from our father. Each of the chromosomes we inherit contains many genes.DNAThe DNA consist units called nucleotide which is made up of a base, phosphate grouping and sugar.
The DNA is made up of two strands twisted together into a spiral shape known as double helix. The DNA has to unwind and split at the hydrogen bond, this is so that each strands of the DNA can form new strands using the raw material in the cytoplasm.The DNA has a section that forms a set of instruction. DNA does not leave any proteins that are made up in ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum cell and the nucleus.
The DNA works to carry codes to the base of the DNA.Secretary granulesThis is a membranous organelle which appears in a form of elongated, rounded, flattened or tubular vesicles. Each of the spherical organelles that are different sizes store concentrated substances like the nucleotides and digestive enzymes. These get released when it is needed after the neural or hormonal message.T-RNAT-RNA is a part of the RNA which carries amino acids that goes to the ribosome’s that is made up of proteins.
When the molecules of T-RNA attach to the ribosome’s it rolls on the M-RNA, after that the rest of the amino acids are attached. This forms a chain.M-RNAThis M-RNA is only used when the proteins are needed. When the M-RNA is newly created it goes through nuclear pore which then goes to the ribosomes. The making process of the mRNA on the DNA guide is called transcription.
There are many transcribe that are from the regulatory proteins which are copied to the according cell needs.Epithelial cellThis a membranous tissue that is composed by one or more layers of cell which is then separates by the small intercellular. Most of the eternal and internal surface of the body and the organ is covered by the form of substances.The functions of the epithelial cell are:* Absorption: there are specific epithelial cells that has a inside layer where that small intestine to absorb the nutrient when the food is digested.
* Excretion: as the epithelial tissues are resent in the kidneys, the excrete waste the body produces are reabsorbed from the urine and as sweat are also excreted from the body there swat glands in the epithelial cells.* Diffusion: the diffusion of the gases like nutrients and liquids are influenced by the simple epithelium as they form a thin layer it is the right cells for diffusion in the gas.* Protection: The cell protects the tissue from having harmful chemicals like pathogens, excessive water loss and from having reflex injury.* Secretion: these are present in the glands as the epithelial tissue is determined to away the chemical substances like hormone, enzyme and lubricating fluid.
* Sensation: the stimuli are sensed by specific epithelial cells tissues that have sensory nerves that are found in the eyes, ears, nose, and tongue and on the skin.Nerve cellThese cells are the type that send out messages from the body to and back from the brain.The function of cells is that it carries and delivers important information from body to the brain about the things we sense out side. The nerve cell delivers information to the rain like electricity so that when information is received it can too be shared with the nerve cells and then be changed in the chemical information that are in-between the two cells and be changed back to electricity by the new cell.
ConnectiveThe connective is mostly about the components exiting unlike the other components. Many of the tissue are very similar to one anther. The role of the connective is:*to derived from mesoderm usually,*characterised mainly by the traits of the non living tissues*and to structure and support the cellsIn the human body the cartilage, bone and the blood are recognised as connective tissue but s they all vary compared to the other tissuesMuscle cellsThe muscle cells have contractile filament which assist with movement of the cells and aids in changing the size as well. The contractile organs have a special tissue and is the movement from the bone to the other parts of the body.Cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle are in the muscle cells and its role is to create motion cases and force.
Low motion can be caused by the muscle of there are movement of the internal organs. The smooth contraction and the cardiac occur when it can’t be cognisant as its needed if it wants to live. The tissues of the mucle are made up of fibres, which bonds affective during the bodily movement.