The Genetic Code Essay Example
The Genetic Code Essay Example

The Genetic Code Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 3 (743 words)
  • Published: September 25, 2017
  • Type: Essay
View Entire Sample
Text preview

In the previous activity, you learned that DNA contains instructions for making proteins and the basics of protein synthesis. In this activity, you will use your knowledge of written text and translation to decode a secret message and explore the effects of different mutations on protein production. Specifically, you will focus on the genetic mutation that causes sickle cell disease. To begin, go to the Transcribe and Translate a Gene life page on the Learn.Genetics: Genetic Learning Center's website (available at Keep in mind that in this activity, you will simulate the process of protein synthesis. Using the simulation, convert code and letter combinations into sentences that represent how amino acids join together to form a complete protein. Work as a group to gather sc


issors, tape, a DNA sequence, an mRNA sheet, a tRNA sheet, and a Codon - Amino Acid Dictionary from your instructor. Collaboratively cut out all mRNA molecules and place them in a pile. Your instructor will assign your group with a DNA sentence strip. Utilize your knowledge of written text to construct an mRNA strand using mRNA molecules that are complementary to your DNA sentence strip. Remember that in RNA, U is equivalent to T in DNA base pairs.Spread out the base brace on the floor or long lab bench and tape together messenger RNA molecules.Firstly , complete adding appropriate bases tRNA sheet .As a group, you will cut out the tRNA molecules and arrange them in a way that complements the mRNA strand. Use tape to attach the tRNA molecules together. To assist with this task, keep these key points in mind about protein synthesis: 1)

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

The genetic code includes three codons consisting of three mRNA bases each, which encode specific amino acids. 2) Each sequence of three codons only specifies one amino acid, but one amino acid can be specified by multiple codons. 3) In this activity, letters represent amino acids and will be joined together to form sentences instead of proteins. 4) The start codon AUG establishes the reading frame and signals the beginning of translation in the genetic code. 5) When AUG appears at the beginning of the sequence in this activity, it indicates translation's start and requires capitalizing the following letter indicated by the codon. 6) Please note that AUG also codes for an amino acid. Therefore, if you see AUG in the middle of the sequence, use it to represent the letter indicated onthe Codon - Amino Acid Dictionary provided. Consult this dictionary to determine which message is coded for by each codon (remembering that codons are mRNA bases). Once completed, examine the given letters below to uncoverthe hidden message.Finally,revealinthe space providedbelowthewritten DNA,messenger RNA,and resulting protein(sentence).DNA Fragment # : _____ Deoxyribonucleic acid: messenger RNA (codons): Protein (sentence): Mistakes Happen The DNA sequence determines the amino acid sequence in a protein. Mutations are changes in the DNA, which can result in changes to the protein. Investigate the effect of base pair mutations on your protein by making a mutation to your DNA code. Choose any base except the first three and randomly change it. Transcribe and translate the mutated DNA as before. Answer Conclusion question 1.
Make another mutation by randomly deleting one base from your original DNA strand, excluding the first three bases. Remember that when

reading groups of three, if there is an omission, continue reading from the next group of three in the sequence. Transcribe and interpret this mutated DNA into messenger RNA (codons), which will then translate into Protein (sentence). Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutated gene affecting hemoglobin, a protein responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body in red blood cells.The analysis of the first seven amino acids in both normal and sickle cell hemoglobin genes will determine the specific mutation responsible for sickle cell anemia. We will utilize a codon chart, also known as a genetic code dictionary, to match messenger RNA sequences with their corresponding amino acids. It is important to note that the codon chart lists codons rather than anticodons, and transfer RNA molecules are responsible for transporting amino acids. To effectively use the codon chart, begin by identifying the first mRNA base of the desired codon in the far left column. Next, locate the appropriate row based on this first mRNA base and identify your second position column according to your second mRNA base. Finally, find your third position row based on your third mRNA base.

Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds