Can Same Health Benefits From Essay Example
Can Same Health Benefits From Essay Example

Can Same Health Benefits From Essay Example

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  • Pages: 6 (1435 words)
  • Published: September 26, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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Can an individual receive the same health benefits from accumulating 30 minutes of activity throughout the day compared to doing a single session lasting 30 minutes?


Physical activity is widely recognized as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity, affecting more than 66% of the adult population. Obesity is associated with various chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, major health agencies have recommended weight loss as a measure to improve well-being and reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases.

Despite abundant research linking regular physical activity to physiological benefits such as improved cardiovascular health, lipid profile, and oxygen utilization, a large portion of the population remains inadequately active. Re


evaluations have shown that the main barrier to exercise is a lack of time. Additionally, 25% of the population remains completely inactive. Choosing a sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for developing heart disease. Physical inactivity is linked to approximately 250,000 deaths in the US.

Recent recommendations from various organizations suggest that adults should aim to accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week.This text explores the concept of accumulating physical activity for improved health benefits instead of focusing on strict time limits or intensity levels. Scientific research has found that engaging in multiple short sessions of activities such as walking, climbing stairs, gardening, and housekeeping can have the same positive effects on wellness as a single, longer session. An experimental study conducted by DeBusk et al.(1990) examined the effectiveness of accumulated physical activity compare

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to a single exercise session. Middle-aged men who were previously inactive were recruited to either walk continuously for 30 minutes or engage in three brief 10-minute walking sessions, five days a week for eight weeks. Both groups experienced similar changes including a decrease in heart rate and an increase in VO2max. However, the group that engaged in longer sessions showed significantly greater improvement. The study focused on overweight men aged 40-60 who had been sedentary prior to participating.The results indicate that longer, uninterrupted exercise may offer greater health benefits compared to shorter sessions. It is important to acknowledge that the joggers in the uninterrupted group may have spent more time above the recommended heart rate range for moderate intensity exercise, unlike those doing short sessions. However, since there was no inactive control group included in the study design, it becomes challenging to compare any changes from baseline.

Additionally, participants were instructed to keep records of their exercise and report to staff every two weeks. While incorporating exercise into their daily routine can assist participants in adhering to the protocol, self-reporting is not a reliable measure of physical activity. Participants might underestimate their actual exercise due to non-compliance with guidelines and overlook beneficial activities like climbing stairs or performing household chores.

Furthermore, sedentary individuals with lower VO2max levels in this study may struggle to maintain their heart rate within the recommended range without slowing down. The prescribed moderate intensity exercise might have felt more demanding for them, potentially resulting in improvements in health.

In Schmidt et al.'s (2001) study on obese females comparing various exercise groups' effects on VO2max, it was discovered that some participants paused during their workout

to catch their breath and did not complete a full 30 minutes of continuous exercise. Unfortunately, these observations were disregarded by the researchers.The study involved three exercise groups: a group that performed continuous exercise for 30 minutes, another group with two sessions of 15 minutes each, and a third group with three sessions of 10 minutes each. All three groups showed significant increases in VO2max compared to their baseline levels, without any significant differences between them. In contrast, the control group that did not exercise did not experience notable changes.

This study had a more controlled protocol than previous research because all exercises were supervised in a lab setting. Subjects were encouraged to follow the intervention protocol and given pedometers to track additional physical activity. However, one weakness of this design was including a control group that still attended "active lifestyle classes." Over time, adherence to the protocol decreased due to difficulties attending lab sessions for exercise.

Interestingly, it was found that the group facing scheduling difficulties actually had higher levels of activity compared to the group assigned shorter cumulative exercise sessions. However, this difference was not considered in the analysis. Another limitation of the study was that the prescribed exercise intensity required participants to reach 75% of their heart rate reserve, making it more physically demanding for the group with scheduling difficulties.Study personnel ensured that participants reached their target heart rate and completed the required amount of exercise, potentially explaining why a previous study showed greater improvement in VO2max. It is possible that participants inaccurately reported their actual exercise amount. Although weight loss was observed in all three exercise groups, it cannot be solely attributed to

the exercise intervention because participants were also following a calorie-restricted diet known for weight loss. The control group experienced a slight weight gain, indicating that reported calorie intake may have been lower than actual consumption. This unfair comparison could have resulted from an underestimation of calorie intake by participants. Additionally, the influence of menstrual cycle phase on resting energy expenditure was not considered by the researchers. Later in this review, we will discuss the importance of energy expenditure. In another study involving middle-aged women, they were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: participating in a single 30-minute brisk walking session, engaging in three 10-minute brisk walking sessions per day, or no exercise as part of the control group. Exercise was monitored in a laboratory setting once a week. The results support previous research suggesting that brisk walking can significantly improve VO2max compared to leading a sedentary lifestyle.However, the findings of this study differ from another study with stricter intervention control. In that study, neither group exceeded 9% of their target heart rate during any session. In contrast, this current study prescribed exercise intensity at 70-80% of maximum heart rate, which goes beyond previous recommendations and does not reflect moderate intensity or normal activity levels. Therefore, extrapolating these results to the general population would be unrealistic because sedentary individuals who rarely exceed 30-35% VO2max would experience physical fatigue and exhaustion much faster than those who are more physically active. Thus, it is crucial to determine if similar improvements in physical fitness can be achieved with lower exercise intensities in a broader population.

Previous reports suggest that performing physical activity at 40-50% of age predicted maximum heart

rate is sufficient for positive effects in sedentary adults, individuals with disabilities, and older adults (Murphy et al., 2000). This particular study examined the acute effect of two different patterns of brisk walking on postprandial lipemia by measuring plasma triglycerides in 10 sedentary individuals over three separate days, one week apart. The researchers executed a tightly controlled methodology by selecting postmenopausal women and conducting tests in a laboratory setting. Each day consisted of participants consuming three meals - breakfast, lunch, and dinner.In a series of tests, participants were divided into different groups based on their exercise routines before meals. In one test, they did not exercise at all, while in another test they walked for 10 minutes before each meal. Lastly, in the last test, participants walked for 30 minutes before breakfast.

However, it is essential to consider that comparing the results with a control group may be seen as a weakness since it could have led to reduced physical activity levels among participants who were instructed to maintain a sedentary lifestyle. This potential reduction in physical activity could potentially overestimate the results for both short-term and long-term exercise groups.

Overall findings from Schmidt et al (2001) and Murphy & Hardman (1998) indicate that there was no significant difference between the various exercise groups when compared to DeBusk et al's (1990) results. These overall findings suggest that both accumulated and continuous exercise offer similar health benefits and can decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The study's results revealed that performing three short sessions of brisk walking throughout the day had an equal effect on reducing postprandial TAG concentrations as a single continuous session of exercise. The control group

recorded TAG concentrations of 2.08 + 0.28 mmol/1, while the short walks group and long walk group had TAG concentrations of 1.83 + 0.22 mmol/l and 1.84 + 0.22 mmol/1 respectively (P <0.001). It is important to note that this study only recruited individuals with normal lipid levels which might result in a lower response to exercise training compared to those with abnormal lipid levels.If a more appropriate selection of participants had been made, there may have been a greater response to exercise training in one of the conditions. Additionally, it takes approximately four to five hours for maximum extraction of TAG after a meal due to peak activity of lipoprotein lipase occurring three to four hours after insulin stimulation. This leads to lower plasma TAG concentrations observed early in the morning because lipoprotein lipase facilitates the removal of TAG from blood. However, this study did not find any changes in plasma TAG concentrations after short bouts of exercise, suggesting that these results may not accurately reflect the benefits obtained from exercising throughout the day. Furthermore, it should be noted that the study design failed to include a ten-minute walk before breakfast in order to isolate its specific effects as part of their investigation. The possibility of pre-prandial exercise reducing subsequent lipemia was also not taken into account. In their study, Miyashita et al (2006) conducted tests on 10 healthy male volunteers who performed treadmill running at 70% VO2max in three different types of tests: an accumulated test, a continuous test, and a control test. The results supported previous findings by Murphy et al (2000), demonstrating a significant reduction in postprandial triglyceride concentrations. However, there were limitations

to this study.The lack of diversity among participants raises concerns about generalizing the findings to other populations with different activity levels. Additionally, there was no control over participants' food intake before the exercise test, potentially affecting triglyceride levels. While high fat and low carbohydrate meals were provided to regulate calorie consumption, they do not represent a typical western diet and pose challenges in applying the findings to the general population. Substituting carbohydrates for fat may have further increased triacylglycerol response due to carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia. Furthermore, setting the exercise intensity at 70% VO2max was considered more vigorous and not aligned with current guidelines. This decision resulted in a higher rate of energy expenditure (476kcal), which is over twice the amount expended by the average adult in 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity according to Pate et Al (1995). There is insufficient evidence to determine a significant interaction between an accumulated exercise session and a continuous session lasting 30 minutes in improving lipid profiles. Ebisu et Al (1985) conducted a study that demonstrated the benefits of separating exercise sessions, resulting in improved endurance fitness and HDL:LDL cholesterol ratio. They recruited 53 untrained male students who performed supervised exercise at 80% maximum heart rate.The subjects in Ebisu T's study were randomly assigned to one of three exercise groups: (1) one session per day, (2) two sessions per day, or (3) three sessions per day. Each group worked up to six miles with an additional inclusion of one inactive control. The findings showed a significant increase in VO2max for all three training groups. Additionally, the group that trained three times a day experienced a noticeable 9.6% increase of 0.12mmol/l

in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.

HDL is responsible for transporting lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides in the bloodstream and has been linked to reducing the risk of coronary artery disease (Woolf-May, Kearney, Owen, Jones, Davison & Bird 1999). These results support the concept that increased physical activity correlates with health benefits. However, it is important to note that even the control group exhibited a 3.4% increase in HDL cholesterol levels or 0.04mmol/l.

The researchers did not compare this change with the intervention group, so any improvements seen in HDL cholesterol levels cannot be solely attributed to the intervention. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that the prescribed exercise intensity was set at 80% maximum heart rate—an indication of vigorous activity—which does not align with current guidelines.

Boreham et al (2000) conducted another study among females who regularly engaged in stair climbing exercises and found similar results.The text indicates that they had a notable improvement in their total to HDL cholesterol ratio. It also suggests that heart rates reached almost 90% of the predicted maximum after 2 minutes of stair climbing, indicating potential health benefits from high intensity exercise. However, further research is needed to determine if accumulating short bouts of exercise or performing one continuous bout lasting 30 minutes can result in greater improvements in lipid profile and reduced cardiovascular risk. Additionally, it is important to prescribe appropriate exercise intensity reflecting moderate activity for a wider population. In terms of blood pressure's role as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, it has not been extensively discussed in literature and previous studies have found it statistically insignificant (Park et al., 2006). Including both normotensive individuals and hypertensive

patients in the study resulted in a wide range of blood pressures, which could have influenced the results. The objective of the study was to compare the decrease in blood pressure between an accumulated exercise session (4 x 10 minutes of walking) and a continuous bout (40 minutes of walking at 50% of VO2peak) among prehypertensive patients. The findings showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following physical activity compared to the control treatment.The text emphasizes the importance of energy expenditure during exercise in reducing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It states that there was a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure when exercise was accumulated rather than performed in individual bouts, lasting for approximately 11-12 hours post-exercise. However, since the study involved participants exercising for a total duration of 40 minutes, it is important to investigate if similar effects can be achieved with the currently recommended 30 minutes of exercise. The exclusion of hypertensive patients from the study may have been due to safety concerns regarding lower-intensity exercise for these individuals. A large-scale epidemiological research study conducted on males categorized them based on the duration of each episode of physical activity. The decreased risk of coronary heart disease can be explained by lower blood pressure, increased insulin sensitivity, and favorable effects on lipid profiles. These benefits are similar for both accumulated and continuous bouts of exercise as long as the total energy expenditure is comparable. However, potential errors exist in the method used to gather information in the survey.Participants estimated their energy expenditure based on self-reported activity such as the number of blocks walked, flights of stairs climbed, and

recreational activities endured over the past week. They also reported the duration and frequency of each episode. However, participants may not accurately remember small amounts of exercise and may have exaggerated their daily activity out of fear of appearing lazy.

Despite these limitations, research has found that energy expenditure is significant. For example, high plasma triglyceride concentrations after eating have been linked to coronary artery disease which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The decrease in triglyceride levels with exercise appears to be influenced by the associated increase in energy expenditure and/or energy deficit.

There is evidence suggesting that the total energy expended in physical activity has an inverse relationship with the risk of disease. Other studies have found a correlation between higher energy expenditure and increased longevity, further supporting this finding.The following table outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each approach:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Approach

Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages
Can be incorporated into everyday life, such as taking the stairs instead of the escalator

<< td >Not all accumulated exercise is recorded.

Participants may forget to go to the local store.They may show greater adherence to protocol as it is just one session of activity that needs to be achieved throughout the day.However, participants may also fail to adhere to protocol as exercise is seen as inconvenient.It can be achieved in a social setting, such as playing a casual game of tennis interspersed with conversation.Some activities like nutrient

shopping and horticulture are not considered exercise but may still lead participants to adhere more if there is a sense of accomplishment.Self-reported steps allow participants the chance to lie about exercising achieved.This method incurs wellness benefits similar to uninterrupted exercising.The research does not analyze activities enduring less than 10 minutes.Participants are unlikely to forget participating in an extended period of exercising.The need for exercise in one's daily routine is important and can be conveniently achieved without the requirement of visiting a specific location. However, conducting research on exercise control within a laboratory setting may lead to low commitment levels as participants struggle with finding time for three lab visits per day. Participants have the choice of either achieving 30 minutes of uninterrupted exercise or accumulating exercise throughout their day. Any additional exercise beyond this is uncontrolled.

Several studies have examined the impact of physical activity performed in accumulated or uninterrupted bouts on health, but different conclusions have been drawn. These studies are flawed in their methodology, particularly in data collection techniques. Most experiments rely on self-report questionnaires/journals to assess daily activity levels.

Despite these flaws, evidence strongly indicates that both accumulated and uninterrupted physical activity are inversely linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, there appears to be a dose-response relationship where higher levels of physical activity further decrease this risk.

Further research is needed using a more rigorously controlled methodology to determine whether greater health benefits can be attained from accumulating or completing exercise in uninterrupted bouts.If it is proven that engaging in regular physical activity effectively decreases the chances of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), this method could be an appropriate way to encourage adherence among

the sedentary individuals who are the focus of this exercise program.

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