Introduction to the Special Theme: Maths for Everyday Life Persuasive Essay Example
Introduction to the Special Theme: Maths for Everyday Life Persuasive Essay Example

Introduction to the Special Theme: Maths for Everyday Life Persuasive Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2429 words)
  • Published: August 5, 2018
  • Type: Essay
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Maths for Everyday Life, an introduction by Jouko Vaananen and Ulrich Trottenberg, delves into the increasing impact of mathematics in our day-to-day existence. In the past, math was primarily utilized for intricate calculations on extensive computers to aid with tasks such as weather forecasting or industrial analysis. However, it has now become ingrained in even the most basic elements of our daily routines, including our mobile phones.

Mobile phone technology relies heavily on key areas of mathematics such as analysis, algebra, and number theory. The introduction to the special theme of mathematics is relatively inexpensive. As the traditional joke goes, all a mathematician needs is paper, a pencil, an easy chair, and a waste basket. Additionally, success in mathematics is typically recognized universally, making it an appealing "investment". Furthermore, a mathematical outcome remains


valid indefinitely.

Even though they may no longer be in fashion or directly applicable to current situations, the oldest mathematical formulae, including the one used for solving quadratic equations, remain crucial in elementary mathematics today. This specific formula was first devised by Babylonians, Chinese, and later refined by Greeks around 2400 years ago. It was further developed by Baskhara, a Hindu mathematician in 1100 AD. However, it is important to note that these formulae often yield results that cannot be immediately utilized, which presents a potential risk.

Why invest in something that may not have practical use for centuries? The good news is that the gap between theory and application is diminishing. Mathematics can be likened to a pyramid, with applications in health, weather, movies, and mobile phones at the pinnacle. However, the top of the pyramid wouldn't be as

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lofty if its foundation wasn't broad. Only by expanding the base can we elevate the top. This unique attribute of mathematics stems from its inherent structure.

A comprehensive application of mathematics in contemporary times often utilizes differential equations, numerical analysis, and linear algebra. These fields may also rely on graph theory, group theory, and complex analysis. Additionally, these branches of mathematics are built upon the foundations of number theory, topology, and geometry. By delving into the fundamental principles of mathematics, one arrives at key aspects like model theory and set theory. It is evident that mathematics plays a significant role in major industrial projects and the expanding digital infrastructure that envelops our lives.

Mathematics is now extending its influence into various domains, including doctors' reception rooms, sailboat design, and portable devices. Its penetration into our society has also evolved. Initially, mathematics was primarily used in measuring area, price, length, and time. However, this has resulted in the development of highly successful mathematical theories regarding equations, dynamical systems, and more.

Currently, we possess a relatively accurate understanding of the human genome's composition. Nonetheless, our comprehension of the complex mathematics underpinning the arrangement of three billion DNA base pairs remains limited. In contrast, our knowledge of the mathematical principles governing celestial bodies in the universe surpasses our understanding of genetic mathematics and its connection to our own bodies. What distinguishes the genetic information stored in DNA from our grasp on heavenly body movements?

Can we represent the former using equations like we did with the latter? Or is it because the former has a different nature that allows equation-based study, while the latter relies on chance and

algorithms in the digital world where continuous methods don't apply? Cryptography, another notable example of mathematics in society, entails encrypting data for public transmission without revealing its content.

However, at times it is essential for one party to decrypt a code created by another party for security reasons. Some companies and governments aim to analyze our credit card transaction data in order to comprehend our shopping patterns and detect any potentially suspicious activities. Cryptography serves as an example of the mathematical principles employed in the digital domain. The growing importance of digital data across different academic fields is directly linked to advancements in computer technology.

Undoubtedly, the infiltration of mathematics into fields like number theory, previously considered pure and without applications, has changed perspectives. Now, individuals owning large primes are subject to scrutiny. This remarkable change elevates mathematics to a different position, no longer perceived as a strange and isolated subject reserved for a few curious geniuses.

The integration of microprocessors in various aspects of our daily lives has made computing a vital part of our homes, classrooms, and scientific laboratories. While it is not essential for everyone to comprehend the intricacies of this rapid computing that occurs in microseconds without our awareness, it does imply that disregarding the importance of mathematics will lead to perceiving the evolving technosphere as unfamiliar or, at worst, irrational and alarming.

In modern life, it is crucial to have a fundamental grasp of mathematics in order to understand and appreciate the growing importance of interpreting digital data. Mathematics education, although not purely focused on applying mathematics, is progressively significant in the mathematical realm.

When the OECD (Programme for International

Students Assessment) releases the PISA results, there are always individuals who question why certain countries consistently achieve high scores in the mathematical skills of 15-year-olds. Although answering this difficult question is acknowledged as important, especially given the significant challenges that mathematics education will face in the future, it is worth considering whether the computer revolution of the past fifty years has also influenced schools and mathematics education. These challenges primarily arise from integrating mathematics into all aspects of society.

Currently, many students possess a computer with Internet access that they mainly utilize for gaming, chatting, text processing, and browsing. Nevertheless, it is crucial to contemplate if students are employing computers for mathematics-related tasks. Are they receiving instruction in mathematical modeling (solving intricate problems) or algorithmic thinking (expressing math in a computer-friendly format) at school? There exist numerous opportunities for integrating these concepts into curricula, textbooks, and daily school life. In this special edition highlighting Mathematics for Everyday Life, we feature various mathematical projects directly or indirectly connected to our everyday encounters.

We begin with projects in the health sector and also discuss image processing. The next topic is weather, which is an example of large-scale computing and has immediate effects on the environment. We present three transportation projects, focusing on ships, trains, and cars. In the society section, we explore rating, trading, and immigration. Additionally, there are two articles on mathematics education.

The special issue concludes with an article delving into a mathematical enigma. Mathematics plays a crucial role in our everyday lives. Many of the concepts learned in school are applied instinctively. Area 1. Whether it's tiling a floor or sowing a lawn,

determining the area and required supplies is essential. Percentages 2. Understanding how to calculate percentages comes in handy when dealing with sales at stores or reading nutrition labels. Fractions 3. Fractions are commonly found on road signs and recipe books, informing us of distances and ingredient measurements. Addition and Subtraction 4.

Mathematical skills play a crucial role in many different tasks, including grocery shopping, calculating bills accurately, and placing pictures on a wall with precision. Estimating the chances of winning is another use of mathematical skills for those who participate in the lottery. Additionally, when dining out with friends, division is necessary to divide the bill fairly among everyone. On a global scale, Jonas Salk's polio vaccines from 1952 are widely used in the ongoing battle against poliomyelitis.

To maintain a high level of vaccination coverage and prevent polio infection, it is crucial to acknowledge the significance of the first effective polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk and his team from the University of Pittsburgh in 1952. However, before its implementation, extensive testing was required. On March 26, 1953, Salk announced successful test results on a small group of adults and children through CBS radio. These findings were subsequently published in JAMA just two days later. The Salk vaccine, also known as the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), is created using three wild and virulent reference strains (Mahoney, MEF-1, and Saukett) of poliovirus. These strains are cultivated in monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero cell line) and then deactivated using formalin. By administering the injected Salk vaccine, IgG-mediated immunity is provided in the bloodstream to hinder the progression of polio infection into viremia and safeguard motor neurons.

Consequently, this eradicates any risks associated with bulbar polio and post-polio syndrome.

The Francis Field Trial, led by Thomas Francis, was the largest medical experiment to date. In 1954, the trial took place at Arsenal Elementary School and the Watson Home for Children in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Initially involving 4,000 children from Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia, it expanded to include 1.8 million children across 44 states.

Out of these children, approximately 440,000 were given injections of Salk's vaccine while around 210,000 received a harmless placebo. An additional one million children served as a control group and did not receive any vaccination.

On April 12th, 1955 (which coincided with the tenth anniversary of Franklin D. Roosevelt's death), the results were announced. The field trial revealed that the Salk vaccine had an effectiveness rate of about 60-70% against poliovirus type 1 (PV1), over 90% against PV2 and PV3, and a preventive effectiveness rate of about 94% against bulbar polio.

Following this announcement and obtaining a license for use on children, vaccination campaigns began in the same year.

The March of Dimes conducted a successful immunization campaign in the United States to combat polio. This effort led to a significant decrease in recorded cases, dropping from 5,600 to only 161 between 1957 and 1961. The preferred polio vaccine used in the US is an enhanced-potency IPV that was licensed in November 1987.

Typically, this vaccine is administered shortly after birth, around 1-2 months old, followed by a second dose at 4 months. The timing for the third dose may vary depending on the specific vaccine used but should be given between 6-18 months old. Before starting school at approximately 4 to 6

years old, children receive a booster shot, totaling four doses. Some countries also administer a fifth vaccination during adolescence.

Routine vaccination for adults (18 years and older) in developed countries is generally unnecessary as most adults are already immune and have minimal risk of exposure to wild poliovirus within their home countries. In the US, there is an approved combination vaccine called Pediarix which includes IPV, DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis), along with a pediatric dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

In the UK, it is common practice to combine IPV with vaccines for tetanus,diphtheria,pertussis,and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The current formulation of IPV ensures that over 90% of individuals develop protective antibodies against all three types of poliovirus after receiving two doses.Additionally, the poliovirus can be effectively combated by administering three doses of IPV, resulting in a strong immunity for the majority of individuals (99%).

The IPV's duration of immunity is uncertain, but a full series is believed to offer protection for many years. On the other hand, the OPV is a live-attenuated vaccine that undergoes genetic mutations in non-human cells at a lower temperature. Different teams, such as Albert Sabin's group and led by Hilary Koprowski and H.R. Cox, developed their own weakened strains of the oral polio vaccine. In 1958, the National Institutes of Health formed a committee to evaluate live polio vaccines that induce immunity without causing neurological issues in monkeys. Based on these evaluations, the Sabin strains were chosen for global distribution. The Sabin 1 strain has 57 nucleotide changes compared to Mahoney serotype, while Sabin 2 has two changes and Sabin 3 has 10 changes contributing to attenuation. These include mutations in stem-loop

structures within the virus's internal ribosome entry site (IRES), reducing its ability to translate RNA within host cells.

Despite mutation, the attenuated poliovirus in the Sabin vaccine effectively replicates in the gut where it primarily infects and replicates itself. However, it struggles to replicate efficiently in nervous system tissue. In comparison, the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) surpasses the Salk vaccine by offering convenient administration without requiring sterile syringes. Additionally, OPV provides longer-lasting immunity than the Salk vaccine does.

The trivalent OPV (TOPV) vaccine, licensed in 1963, replaced the inactivated polio vaccine and became the preferred vaccine in many countries, including the United States. This led to a significant decrease in polio cases from 1962 to 1965 due to mass immunizations. During this period, about 100 million Americans (approximately 56% of the population at that time) received the Sabin vaccine. The Sabin vaccine had already reduced poliomyelitis cases, but with the second round of immunizations, the decline was even greater.

OPV is usually provided in vials with 10-20 doses. Each dose consists of two drops and contains different amounts of infectious units for each strain: 1,000,000 infectious units of Sabin 1 (effective against PV1), 100,000 infectious units of Sabin 2 strain, and 600,000 infectious units of Sabin 3. The vaccine also includes small traces of neomycin and streptomycin antibiotics but does not contain preservatives.

A single dose provides immunity against all three poliovirus serotypes for approximately half of recipients. However, more than 95% of recipients require three doses to obtain protective antibodies against all three poliovirus types.

OPV is particularly effective at providing immunity in the intestine where wild poliovirus enters the body. Its main purpose is to prevent infection

with the wild virus in areas where it is common by eliminating active virus presence in feces.The virus can be transmitted to others, protecting against poliomyelitis even for those who have not been vaccinated. However, it is worth noting that IPV provides less gastrointestinal immunity than OPV since its primary goal is to stop the virus from entering the nervous system.

The inactivated polio vaccine is preferred in areas without wild poliovirus. However, in regions with higher polio incidence and a different risk balance between the vaccine's effectiveness and its potential to revert to a virulent form, the live vaccine is still used. The transportation and storage of the live virus vaccine are challenging, especially in hot or remote areas. Like other vaccines with live viruses, immunity from OPV is believed to be lifelong [28]. [edit] Vaccine-induced polio (iatrogenic)

The oral polio vaccine (OPV) can cause paralysis through neurological infection, which is called vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). VDPV has the same symptoms as wild polioviruses and can lead to rare outbreaks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). These outbreaks mostly occur in areas with low OPV coverage since the vaccine protects against the outbreak strain. As countries observe a decline in wild polio cases, they switch from using OPV to the injected version due to the higher risk of iatrogenic polio (VAPP) associated with OPV. The injected polio vaccine (IPV) does not allow for reversion, but there is still a small chance of clinical infection if exposed to reverted OPV or wild poliovirus.

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