Brand Placement in Bollywood Movies

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Make the Consumers acquire Sensitized towards the Trade names by the Brand Placement in Bollywood Movies?


The pattern of merchandise arrangement is seen everyplace in media across the universe and is now omnipresent. The same pattern of Product arrangement in Bollywood is non new and the pattern of puting the merchandises in the Bollywood films is seen from the clip of early 1970s. The films produced in last 10 old ages are seen with a batch of merchandise arrangement and the pattern of strategically planned merchandise arrangement has grown to a major extent in Indian films ( Bollywood ) . The practical deduction of the methods of merchandise arrangement is evidenced in the Indian Cinema but there is barely any significant grounds nowadays for the merchandise arrangement and its schemes in Bollywood. The research presents an overview of the schemes adopted by Hollywood for the merchandise arrangement and consolidates the technique of merchandise arrangement with the practical trade name arrangement done in Bollywood by appraisal of a late released Bollywood film ‘Blue ‘ . The trade names placed in this film are classified on the footing of the methods of categorization derived from the theories which are drawn from the literature based on Hollywood. The chief aim of this research is to happen out whether or non the consumers are sensitized by the pattern of trade name arrangement in Bollywood, and if yes so which is the method which scores most figure of callbacks of trade names shown in Bollywood films.

The findings of this survey indicate that the Indian consumers do acquire cognizant from the trade names shown in the Bollywood films. The findings are based on the empirical survey derived from three chief methods which are used in this thesis for the aggregation of informations, those three methods are ; Case survey, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. The probe led to the other findings as good which were bespeaking that the format of Bollywood is really different than the format of Hollywood and trade name arrangement can be experimented much more freely as there is another dimension of music in the Bollywood films ; trade name arrangement in the Bollywood film ‘Blue ‘ investigated as a instance survey provided a 100 % callback on the trade name ‘Kylie Minogue ‘ who was placed in a vocal ; callbacks from such arrangement are assumed to be long permanent as the vocals are shown on orbiter telecasting bring forthing frequent brush. No theories or methods are found on this sort of arrangement as the methods are derived from Hollywood format of which is different and does non includes vocals. Dissertation concludes with supplying the restrictions of the research and waies for future researches.

Chapter 1


1.0 Outline

This chapter provides with the debut of the topic of the research and besides looks at the background of the subject in brief. This chapter throws visible radiation on why I have chosen to work on this subject and what are the purposes and aims of the research made. This chapter takes into history the sum-up of chapters in the content which are to be followed farther down in the thesis.


Indian Film Industry besides popularly known as “Bollywood” is one of the biggest movie doing industries in the universe and is the merely other movie doing industry which can stand against Hollywood. Mishra in his work says “the monolithic size of Indian film is obvious from its statistics ; eight hundred movies a twelvemonth shown in more than 13 thousand preponderantly urban film, viewed by an norm of 11 million people each twenty-four hours and exported to more than hundred countries.” Mishra ( 2002, pp.1 ) holding considered this information which has grown to even much bigger Numberss in twelvemonth 2009, Indian Films have become one of the biggest instruments of mass communicating. The commercial interruption on the orbiter telecasting are now avoided by the viewing audiences as the figure of channel on telecasting have increased to immense extent which gives autonomy to the spectator to toss to a channel which is more interesting and avoid the advertizement, the engineering give the spectator the privilege of entering the plans without commercial interruptions every bit good, factors like these has unfastened portals for films to go a new bearer for trade name publicity. Bing a mass media of this tremendous magnitude, Bollywood has a batch of possible and a important figure of chances for In-Film planned trade name arrangement besides known as trade name amusement or trade name integrating ( Glaiseter, 2005 ) and these chances are being good grabbed by the advertizers and sellers in the Indian market.

In recent old ages a batch of research is done on Brand/Product arrangement in Bollywood movies by sellers and advertizers so as to understand the construct and schemes of trade name arrangement in films. Although non many academic researches can be seen in the field of merchandise arrangement in Bollywood, the practical use of the pattern of Brand Placement has grown significantly. Lehu in his work defines, “The look ‘Product Placement ‘ or, ‘Brand Placement ‘ basically describes the location, or more accurately, the integrating of a merchandise or a trade name into a movie or televised series.” Lehu ( 2007, pp.1 ) it can be understood from the work of other bookmans like Kalish ( 1988 ) , Gupta and ( Gould 1997 ) Balasubramanian ( 1994 ) that trade name arrangement is planned consolidation of trade name with the elements of a characteristic movie in return for money, service, swap, or any other sort of consideration. The research besides focuses on the schemes of trade name arrangement in Hollywood as no significant academic can be found on categorization of trade names in the Indian film. The literature looks and analyzes the Tripartite typology of merchandise arrangement by Russell ( 1998 ) , two dimensional attack to sort trade name arrangement by Gupta and Lord ( 1998 ) , Classification on the basic on Integration and explicitness by d’Austos and Seguin ( 1999 ) and eventually Shapiro ‘s ( 1993 ) categorization of trade name arrangement.


The chief purpose at which the research focuses is to reply the inquiry -“Do the consumers get sensitized towards the trade names by the trade names arrangement in Bollywood moives? ” Following are the chief aim for this research

* To cognize, does the Indian audience get cognizant of the trade names shown in the film through in-film trade name arrangement?

* Which method of trade name arrangement leads to maximum figure of callbacks of trade names by analysing the information collected after carry oning studies and unstructured interviews?


The cardinal grounds for research in this field are, non much research has been made on this field and it is a really interesting and ambitious undertaking and the field has a batch of possible for growing in future and significant findings might turn out to be an penetration for marketeers and will be utile for the acceptance of right method of trade name arrangement in future undertakings in Bollywood.


The thesis is divided into five different chapters ; Chapter one is debut which describes in brief the research background, purposes and aims of the research, why I have chosen this research and the construction of the thesis. Chapter two reviews the literature and most of it is drawn from Hollywood. It begins with the definitions of Branding and Brand arrangement ; it besides draws the methods in which trade name arrangement can be done and its categorization. Chapter three of this thesis depicts the methods used for the aggregation of informations and besides draws out the restrictions of this research with other issues in item. The 4th chapter will portray the research findings from study and unstructured interviews. Chapter five of this thesis is the concluding chapter which begins with consolidation of the research objectives with the literature reappraisal and concludes the thesis with recommendation for future researches.

Chapter 2


2.0 Outline:

This portion of the thesis focuses on specifying the two most of import footings for this thesis which are branding and trade name arrangement. This chapter besides reviews the bing literature on trade name arrangement and the schemes for its categorization. The chapter is divided as follows ; the first subdivision of this chapter defines Branding after apprehension of which the subdivision second of the chapter looks at one of the methods of Branding or trade name publicity which is Brand arrangement. Section three of this chapter begins with depicting the schemes for trade name arrangement and critically analyzes work from different bookmans with their categorization techniques in the subdivisions of subdivision three. Section four and concluding subdivision of this chapter portrays the cases of successful trade name arrangement in Bollywood. As there is barely any literature available on Indian movie industry and trade name arrangement the theories and literature retrieved for this chapter is majorly captured from American movie industry.

2.1 Stigmatization

The word so normally used, yet non right interpreted by a batch of people. For the constitution of trade names, companies around the universe spend 1000000s of dollars and explicate new schemes and techniques to market their merchandise, this is what the common impression and apprehension of trade names for a batch of people is. ( Levine, 2003 ) in his work says that the trade name is non needfully associated with a merchandise or an organisation or a rubric but anything that can be identified. One of the most popular football players David Beckham is a trade name and so is Mercedes Benz. De Chernatony and McDonald in their work define Brand as “A successful trade name is an identifiable merchandise, service, individual or topographic point, augmented in such a manner that the purchaser or user perceives relevant, alone, sustainable added values, which match their demand most likely.” De Chernatony and McDonald ( 2003, pp.25 ) Taking this definition into consideration it can be said that consumers identify a product/services with its distinguishable characteristic, an property which associates merchandise with some quality which are distinguished from the remainder in one manner or the other. This alone association encourages the consumers to purchase the trade name and give the trade name an border over the other merchandises in the market. Therefore, it can be said that a trade name is a product/service with some properties or characteristics that helps the product/service to stand out in the market for holding such distinguished properties. A few illustrations of most normally known trade names all over the universe can be: Coca Cola, Pepsi, Nike, Adidas, Ferrari, Mercedes Benz, Michael Schumacher, David Beckham, Omega, Rolex, etc. It took a batch for the sellers and trade name booster to first set up these trade names and a immense sum of money is spent for the publicity of these trade names by utilizing different schemes and techniques. One of such techniques is Brand Placement.

2.2 Brand Placement

Besides normally known as Product Placement, the term Brand Placement has been defined by many bookmans like ( Steortz, 1987 ) , ( Balasubramanian, 1994 ) , ( Karrh, 1998 ) , etc. This portion of the thesis highlights the definitions of trade name arrangement by these bookmans.

( Steortz,1987 ) defines Brand Placement as “the inclusion of a trade name name, merchandise, bundle, signage, or other hallmark merchandize in a gesture image, telecasting show or a music video” , another definition of Brand Placement is contributed by ( Balasubramanian, 1994 ) who in his work said, “a paid merchandise message aimed at act uponing film ( or telecasting ) audience via planned and unnoticeable entry of branded merchandise into a film ( or telecasting plan ) ” , the definition by Balasubramanian screens the construct of incorporating trade names as done in the definition by ( Steortz, 1987 ) , but it besides considers the facet of paid inclusion which is ignored by Steortz. ( Karrh, 1998 ) defines the trade name arrangement by covering about all the dimensions associated with it, he defines Brand Placement as “the paid inclusion of branded merchandises or trade name identifiers, through audio and/or ocular agencies, within mass media programming” , he farther explains that the trade name arrangement can besides be noticeable and is done to congratulate the character ‘s image and aid in puting and make fulling up the elements in background.

The intent of trade name arrangement is to advance the trade name but the ways in which it is done besides generates a intercrossed message, it merges the major characteristics of advertisement, it give the patrons privilege of retaining the control over the content and format but besides increases the credibleness by non placing the patrons straight. ( Cohen, 1988 ) With the definitions above it can be drawn that the Brand Placement in films is that technique of advertisement in which the Brand or the proprietor pays a compensation for its integrating in the film for the exchange of marketable benefit that the trade names enjoy after being noticed by the audience, nevertheless, these arrangements are sometimes done merely because the secret plan of the film requires them to be placed at that place, this manner trade name arrangement can besides be of non commercial nature.

2.3 Schemes of Puting the Trade names

The pattern of trade name arrangement has been at that place for decennaries, the arrangement of trade names in American characteristic movies can be seen since the clip of late fortiess and early 1950s ( DeLorme and Ried 1999 ) One illustration of such arrangement is legendary histrion Joan Crawford sipping Jack Daniels whisky in the movie “Mildered Pierce” in twelvemonth 1948. ( Nebenzahl and Secunda 1993 ) The grounds of trade name arrangement in Hollywood can been seen in characteristic movies produced in late fortiess but one of the earliest grounds of merchandise arrangement in Indian film was seen in early 1970s when Rajdhoot bikes trade name was placed in film Bobby having one of legendary Indian histrion Raj Kapoor. Brand arrangement in characteristic movies caught the attending of sellers and companies when the gross revenues of Reese ‘s Pieces confect increased by 65 % in three months after the successful arrangement of the trade name in the American movie “E.T” . ( Reed, 1989 )

The schemes that help trade name arrangement the most in respects to its impact and effectivity are elaborated by Russell ( 1998 ) and Gupta and Lord ( 1998 ) further on, this research looks at categorization of trade name arrangement by d’Austos and Seguin ( 1999 ) and Shapiro ( 1993 ) .

Russell ‘s statement for techniques of trade name arrangement is three dimensional and focuses on mode of Visual, auditory and secret plan connexion, whereas Gupta and Lord emphasizes on two wide classs Audio-Visual and the degree of prominence. The surveies from both the bookmans are discussed below.

2.3.1 Tripartite Typology of Product Placement

Harmonizing to ( Russell 1998 ) merchandise arrangement can be classified on the footing of three dimensions ocular, audile and plot connexion. Ocular dimension enables the arrangement of the trade name in such a manner that the merchandise is seen on the screen and these arrangements on the screen can besides be farther classified on the footing of their visual aspect. The audile dimension or the verbal dimension refers to the reference of a trade name in a duologue these arrangements are besides called as ‘script ‘ arrangements and the grade of such arrangements varies depending on the figure of times the trade names were mentioned, what was the key in which the trade names were mentioned and in what context the trade name was mentioned. The Plot connexion dimension indicates the magnitude of integrating of trade name with the secret plan of the narrative. The thesis will now look at the literature/the findings from old researches, which point towards the combinations or peculiar method amongst the three methods stated above that might acquire the maximal callbacks. Russell in his work says merchandise arrangement mode and its consequence is now expanded to a new dimension of amplification, the difference between ocular and audile presented information can now be distinguished by researching the audio-visual context of merchandise arrangement. The screen arrangement and the book arrangement, or the ocular and the audile type of trade name arrangement differ from one another particularly in the footings of conveying a significance. Ocular arrangement of trade names act as props in telecasting and films so as to do them more existent and close to the practicality and ocular channel leads to the creative activity of context in which the narrative is set whereas the audio channel is the medium through which the telecasting plan is scripted, narrated and is made hearable, this makes the information received through this channel more meaningful. ( Russell, 2002 ) The response and processing of audile information besides happens when a individual is non looking and the audile mode conveys semantic information through address. ( Rolandelli et al. , 1991 ) The response and processing of such information which is hearable is higher as it besides posses the basic features of intrinsic alertness and meddlesomeness which besides are the basic features of audile mode. ( Posner et al. 1976 ) Using trade names for representation in any of the modes brings a relativity of the same to the narrative and brings more significance to the presentation and gets profoundly integrated to a individual ‘s cognitive construction. ( Lehnert, 1981 ) Such stimulation generates deeper significance and leads to greater callbacks of trade names. ( Craik and Lockhart, 1972 ) The 3rd dimension of trade name arrangement besides called as dimension of significance is that of Plot Connection. The magnitude of such arrangement depends upon the integrating of trade name with the secret plan, the higher the connexion of the trade name with the narrative, the more important the arrangement of trade names is. The secret plan connexion connects the trade names with the macro construction of the narrative, with which are associated of import information, hence increasing the significance and function of arrangement. ( Russell 1998 ) The different combinations in secret plan connexion and mode can besides be of great significance. There can merely be two state of affairss in which the combination of mode and secret plan connexions can be established ; Match and Mismatch. The combination can said to be a ‘match ‘ when the auditory method of arrangement is higher in usage than the ocular and the trade name names are hearable in narrative and is profoundly linked with the narrative whereas the combination can said to be a ‘mismatch ‘ when the ocular method of arrangement of trade names is higher in application than auditory in secret plan connexion. ( Russell, 2002 ) A good illustration of a matched secret plan connexion can be the film “Cast Away” having Tom Hanks who by an accident gets left entirely on an abandoned island. The two trade names that were integrated good with the secret plan were one of the biggest messenger companies “Fed Ex” and another was athleticss goods trade name “Wilson” which was integrated good in the narrative construction. A good illustration of a mismatched secret plan connexion can be seen in the film Transformers and its subsequence Transformers Revenge of the Fallen in which the auto which is major attractive force of the film and transforms itself into a automaton is manufactured by Chevrolet, here more of Visual arrangement is seen and the trade name is barely mentioned in the narrative construction. Mandler in his work says lesser exposed information which is less congruous in nature is more memorable as it grabs the attending of the individual by arousing his/her head to lucubrate the information. ( Mandler, 1982 ) Modality of arrangement is therefore a really important factor in categorising the callbacks as it persuades and influences people and besides shows the significance of stimulation.

2.3.2 Two Dimensional – Approach

After analyzing Russell ‘s attack of Tripartite Typology of Product Placement this portion of the thesis will look at Gupta and Lord ‘s Two Dimensional Approach. Gupta and Lord ( 1998 ) separate the merchandise arrangement on two major classs Mode of Presentation and Level of Prominence. Mode of presentation farther classified by ( Karrh et al. , 2003 ) as: Visual merely, audio merely and combined audio-visual. Ocular merely: this sort of presentation involves visibleness of signage, trademark, hoardings, Sons, or any other sort of presentation that is represents the trade name. The presentation or the arrangement is merely ocular with no presence of audio or gestures. One illustration of ‘Visual-only ‘ arrangement can be seen in the film Top Gun where the lead histrion Tom Cruise wears aviator theoretical account of Ray-Ban dark glassess. Although, this method has relatively low callback rate visual-only signifier of merchandise arrangement is one of the most common methods for trade name arrangements and can be seen in a batch of films. ‘Audio-only ‘ technique of trade name arrangement represents the trade name by conveying the message in lone audile manner. ( Gupta et al. , 2000 ) The name of the trade name or a melody or even a jangle closely associated with it can be added to the book and besides be a portion of the narrative. One illustration of such arrangement can be from the film “The Aviator” in which the lead mentions the trade name “Sears” in his duologue bringing. ‘Audio-Visual ‘ method of trade name presentation represents the trade name by both, the presence of trade name ‘s logo, hoarding, signage, merchandise, etc. on the screen with the reference of it in the narration of the book. One illustration of such can be from the film “James Bond-Die another day” in which, with the presence of Aston Martin, the narrative include the merchandise name which was mentioned as Aston Martin Vanquish. This method of trade name arrangement produce more callbacks as compared to both ‘Visual-only ‘ and ‘Audio-only ‘ methods of trade name arrangement. The other major section drawn out by Gupta and Lord ( 1998 ) for categorization of trade name arrangement is on the footing of degree of prominence. The distinction in this section was on the footing of outstanding arrangement of trade name from the elusive arrangement of trade name, wherein in outstanding arrangement of trade name the merchandise or the trade name is kept in foreground and is in the premier focal point, the field in which the trade name is placed is non shared and the visibleness of trade name is outstanding, illustration of such trade name arrangement can be seen in the Tom Hanks starrer film terminus, when he is in office of in-migration officer while he explains him the state of affairs of his state he refers to a bag of french friess, the bag of french friess shown for over 30 seconds was “Lays” . On the other manus the elusive arrangement of trade name is usually non outstanding and does non catch attending, the ocular field is shared with other trade names and the merchandises are placed in the background. Subtle instance of trade name arrangement can be seen in the film ‘Hangover ‘ which shows hoarding of trade name ‘Riviera ‘ in background while the histrions are driving in a constabulary auto in Las Vegas.

Although the scheme which used outstanding ocular trade name arrangement with decently exposed information and audile reference of trade name ‘s name and its properties is said to hold more effectivity than merely the ocular arrangement, but it is non clear as the consequences from different faculty members do non co-occur. ( Law and Barun, 2000 ; Sabherwal, . 1994 ; Galician, 2004: 188-190 )

2.3.3 Brand Placement on the footing of Integration and Explicitness

The trade name arrangement methods defined by Russell were three dimensional, as by Lord and Gupta were bifurcated into two major sections based on audio-visual as manner of presentation and degree of prominence. d’Austos and Seguin ( 1999 ) in their work classify trade name arrangement in three different ways.

1. Implicit merchandise arrangement: The arrangement in which the presence of merchandise, trade name or house is a portion of the plan and is placed at that place to carry through the demand of the context and plays a inactive function and can be seen on the screen but the merchandise name is non officially adverting or showing the merchandise benefits, etc.

2. Integrated Explicit merchandise arrangement: An incorporate trade name arrangement is the 1 in which the trade name, house, merchandise placed dramas an active function, the trade name is officially mentioned and the properties of the trade name are clearly demonstrated.

3. Non-Integrated Explicit merchandise arrangement: In this type of arrangement the trade name, house or the merchandise is non related to the contents of plan and no integrating can be seen, but the name of the trade name is officially expressed. Such arrangement is frequently seen in the rubric of the film or in the beginning or in the terminal of the film and it is seen that the trade names placed in this sort of arrangement are frequently patrons. ( d’Austos and Seguin 1999 )

The categorization of trade name arrangement by d’Austos and Seguin classifies brands on the footing of their integrating and explicitness whereas there can be seen similarities in the categorization made by Gupta and Lord ( 1998 ) and Russell ( 1998 ) as they classify the arrangement utilizing similar evidences of manner of arrangements which are audio and ocular, though the attack of Gupta and Lord ‘s categorization is simpler as the manners are clearly distinguished, the difference arise when Russell base the arrangement with the connexion to the secret plan and Gupta and Lord ground their categorization on prominence of trade names.

2.3.4 Shapiro ‘s Method

Shapiro ( 1993 ) relegates merchandise arrangement in four different classs which were modified to three as practicians agreed this categorization to be the most suited digest for carry oning the research at the initial most phase as it covers the spectrum of trade name arrangement. The categorization is grouped as:

1. Implicit: In this sort of arrangement the trade name is seeable on the screen, it might be foreground or background, etc. but trade name name or benefits is given no verbal mention.

2. Used in a scene: In this sort of arrangement, the trade name is seeable and is used in the scene, but no verbal mention is given to the trade name. Case of such trade name arrangements can be seen in films when the characters are driving in a auto or utilizing a cell phone and the logo or name or designation of auto is clear.

3. Integrated Explicit merchandise arrangement: This sort of arrangement shows the lead histrion or chief characters of the film utilizing a merchandise while adverting and depicting the benefits or properties of the trade names or the merchandise.

The trade name arrangement method enunciated by d’Austos and Seguin were rather similar to that of Shapiro ‘s categorization as both the practicians focused at the integrating and explicitness of trade name to major extent but the categorization from d’Austos and Seguin cover the dimension in which trade name is topographic point in the beginning or in terminal of the film which he calls as Non-Integrated Explicit trade name arrangement which is non discussed by any other bookman. The categorization by d’Austos and Seguin is really simple and can be used to screen and categorise the arrangement of trade names in a broader manner as it covers the major facet of arrangement in a well defined mode. I adopt the use of the categorization techniques of trade name arrangement portrayed by d’Austos and Seguin ( 1999 ) as it will assist me to make a clear differentiation in the arrangement of trade names and will be an optimal method to set into application for my research inquiry.

2.4 Brand Placement and Bollywood

The technique of trade name arrangement in Indian movie industry besides called as Bollywood is non new, one of the earliest illustration of the same was seen in the movie Bobby in twelvemonth 1973 when the lead histrion Raj Kapoor was seen siting on a motorcycle which was ‘Rajdhoot ‘ Since that clip a batch of trade name arrangement can be seen for aerated soft drinks in a batch of Indian films, trade name like ThumsUp, Gold Spot, etc were normally seeable in films in early 1990s, besides the visibleness of high complete autos during that clip were outstanding on the screen. Branded spirits with bottles was a common sight in many films during this stage and the most common trade names placed were Black Dog, VAT69 and Black Label. Latest illustrations can be seen in films like Om Shanti Om ( 2007 ) with trade names placed like Tag Heuer ( Implicit ) , Nokia ( Integrated explicit ) , Shoppers Stop ( Implicit ) , etc, another case can be seen in the film Goal ( 2007 ) with incorporate expressed trade name arrangement of Reebok and Western Union Money Transfer. More than 54 % of Indian audience is under the age of 25 which comes under the mark audience slab and of most of film shapers and the advertizement companies taking of trade name arrangement, and harmonizing to ( FICCI and Ernst & A ; Young, 2003 ) this coevals has more leaning and entree to broad scope of media and amusement than the old coevals hence making a batch of chances and range for trade name arrangement in the Indian Film industry from both Indian movie industry and trade name boosters point of position. Not merely the entree to manners of amusement but besides because the Indian center category has grown more flexible and receptive towards international mentality because of the risen criterion of life through addition in buying power ( Varma, 1998 ) which is besides another factor of back uping the growing. There are non many surveies done on Brand arrangement in Bollywood and no significant research can be seen concentrating on the callbacks towards the trade names from the trade name arrangement shown in the Bollywood films.

Chapter 3


3.0 Outline

This chapter focuses on the importance of research methodological analysis and explains in brief why it is necessary to pull a frame work of the research before conveying it into practical application. This chapter clearly states the purposes and aims of the research and defines the research attack undertaken. Besides this chapter looks at the research methods used for this research and explains in brief the ground for their execution as good. As about every other research this research besides is encountered with some restrictions which are stated in the terminal of this chapter.

3.1 Research Methodology

Research literally means the hunt for cognition, a systematic and scientific hunt for relevant information and replies on a specific subject, seeking new facts in any new subdivision of cognition through enquiry, hunt and careful probe. ( Kothari, 2009 ) It is of really importance to detail out the research attack and the methods used, as it helps the reader to understand the research in a much convenient mode. Research program includes the instruments of research which will take to probe of informations ( quantitative or qualitative ) maintaining the research inquiry as premier consideration so as to be ascertain of the information gathered is suiting in with the demand of the research. ( Chisnall 1997 ) The undermentioned chapter includes all the activities concerned with the research conducted for this peculiar academic work and besides tends to pull out research method which sets up an appropriate frame so as to carry through the aims and purposes of the research farther stated. The construction of this chapter is as follows

* Aims and Aims

* Research doctrine

* Approach

* Data aggregation techniques

* Data Analysis

* Research Limitations

3.2 Purposes and Aims

The chief intent of this research is to work on the construct of “ consciousness ” or “ consciousness ” of trade names as people watch films. The critical issue that the research focuses at is ; make the consumers get sensitized towards trade names after watching Bollywood films. The chief aims of this research are ;

* To cognize is Indian audience/Bollywood ‘s Viewing audiences are acquiring aware of trade names shown in the films through in-film brand/product arrangement?

* If yes, so which is the most effectual method of in-film Brand/product arrangement by analysing the callbacks?

3.3 Research Doctrine

Research doctrine helps the research worker to happen out the ways in which his/her research will grok the development of research worker ‘s cognition. ( Crossan 2003 ) Three of the major grounds for which the research doctrine must be taken into consideration are ; a ) it helps the research worker to calculate out the methods he can utilize to plan and carry on the research and to chalk down a scheme, B ) it helps the research worker to measure the restrictions of the research by seting different methodological analysiss to prove, degree Celsius ) it helps the research worker to research different methods beyond his cognition or experience. Thus research worker ‘s perceptual experience towards the development of his cognition is like a rudder for research doctrine. ( Easterby-Smith et al 1997 )

The two major ways in which the research doctrine can be differentiated are Positivism and station positivism. Positivism covers the facet of logical logical thinking and works upon the thought of being of nonsubjective world whereas post positivism is flexible towards the creative activity of research worker ‘s cognition and accomplishments. ( Crossan 2003 ) To simplify the philosophical terminals, it can farther be assumed that at positivism terminal of the research doctrine Quantitative methods can be put to the trial and at the post-positivism terminal ; qualitative methods will turn out utile. As the intent of my research wholly Bankss on logical logical thinking and nonsubjective world I in this research am implementing the positivism attack as it blends with the demand to happen the replies to my research inquiry.

3.4 Research Approach

This portion of the thesis looks at the attack towards a research and the manner it is laid down. There are two chief attacks towards a research

1. Deductive

2. Inductive

Deductive Approach: It can be understood from the work of ( Bryman and Bell 2003 ) that deductive attack is based on the evidences of theories already established by bookmans upon which the research worker puts in assorted trials to come to a certain coveted decision. Whereas inductive attack is opposite to the deductive method, it Bankss on experimentation and informations aggregation which finally leads to the development of a new theory.

This peculiar research which is quantitative in nature will follow deductive attack. This can be justified as informations collected will be measured in pre-established theories of statistics and aid in making consequences in the coveted way.

There are two chief attacks towards informations aggregation

1. Primary

2. Secondary

Secondary Research

This portion of the thesis takes precedence to explicate the Secondary method of informations aggregation as merely with proper secondary probe the ground for primary probe can be legitimated. Secondary probe of informations must take topographic point before the primary research is conducted as it provides the research worker with information and cognition already present in copiousness and acts as the platform on the evidences on which a primary research can be planned. ( Stewarts and Kamins, 1993 ) The researches that have already been made with significant findings are the beginnings for Secondary Researches, the beginning of information for such research are books, diaries, newspapers, authenticate on-line academic resources, articles, etc. ( Bryman, 2008 ) These beginnings help the research workers to research the cognition and information already available in the country of their field and on the footing of that, come to a decision and detect the inquiries unexplored or barely been researched upon, finally happening the spread in the cognition and border their research inquiry. These beginnings besides help the research workers to happen out easy replies to the inquiries and link their research to methods of primary research. ( McGriven, 2006 )

Primary Research

Once the secondary research is done by the research worker, primary research is conducted. Unlike the secondary research most of the times the beginnings of primary probe is non academic diaries or books or informations already bing in informations bank in any signifier. This information is collected to make full the spreads in the bing cognition and tools or instruments used for such probes are instance survey, questionnaire, structured/unstructured interview, focal point groups etc. ( Stewart and Kamins, 1993 ) These instruments used for primary research are besides used in both the qualitative and the quantitative methods of probe.

Quantitative Method V/s Qualitative Method

Kothari in his work explains a clear differentiation between these two methods: “Quantitative research is based on the measuring of measure or amount” Kothari ( 2009, pp. 3 ) whereas “Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon i.e. phenomenon associating to or affecting of quality or kind.” Kothari ( 2009, pp. 3 ) An illustration of such a instrument that is used the most to execute a quantitative type of research is Survey, this instrument aid in happening out a peculiar figure or in footings of measure which can be used for comparings or merely as information which is substantiated by the evidences of research. The instruments that are usually applied for qualitative type of research are structured/unstructured interviews, focal point groups, etc. , these instruments help the research worker to happen out the underlying information which is derived through human behaviour and attitude which can non be measured in footings of figure or measure but enables the research worker to pull a theory and range to a decision by analysing the information harmonizing to the demands of the research.

3.5 Methods Used

This peculiar research Bankss on both, Positivism and Post-positivism for the probe. I intend to roll up the information by presenting Qualitative methods to my research which enables me be flexible with the findings and give my ain inputs which follows by the instance survey and the unstructured interviews conducted as a portion of my research methodological analysis. The other method that I intend employ for this research is Survey which includes self-completion questionnaire which is an instrument of quantitative research. The methods and their application is explained in brief:

Case Study

Kothari in his work define instance survey as “The method is a really popular signifier of qualitative method analysis and involves a careful and complete observation of a societal unit, be that a individual, a household, an establishment, a cultural group or even the full community.” Kothari ( 2009, pp. 113 ) In this research late released Bollywood film “Blue” is taken as a instance and will be examined extensively to analyze in item the product/brand arrangement and trade name integrating with the film. The choice of the film is based on the evidences of its day of the month of release and its popularity. The detailed instance survey is farther documented in the thesis.


This method of informations aggregation is largely used for quantitative research and is one of the most popular one which is used by many research workers, private persons, public and non-public organisations and besides by the authorities particularly in the instance of large questions. In this method a little sample out of the full population is taken as a topic and a elaborate review is carried out in a comprehensive manner so as to come to a decision that can be generalized. Kothari in his work portrays “Questionnaire is considered as the bosom of a study operation” Kothari ( 2009, pp. 101 ) I intend to utilize this method and include self completion questionnaire as the full procedure will assist me to happen out that how many out of this peculiar sample from the full population acquire sensitized or cognizant about the trade names by the trade name arrangement in Bollywood films. The sample for this portion of my research is 50 pupils making graduation in a commercialism college in Indore, the same metropolis where the full research is being conducted. I took these pupils as a sample because the mark audience that the film focuses at is people aging between 15 and 35. The graduating pupils were the premier focal point for my research as the degree of consciousness and consciousness for trade names is relatively high and they fall under the mark audience slab.

Semi-Structured Interview

The method explained above which is Survey besides has some restrictions as the respondent answers the inquiry maintaining the societal norms in head and the inquiries barely leaves any range for researching other dimensions. ( Silverman, 2001 ) A good semi structured questionnaire is grounded formulated harmonizing to the nature of the research, the inquiries asked must be linked to the research inquiries, use of simple linguistic communication is emphasized so as the interviewee does non acquire confused. ( Bryman, 2004 )

The chief aim of this research is to happen out whether or non the Indian audience/consumers get sensitize towards the trade names by the trade name arrangement in Bollywood films or non. If yes, which method made the most figure of callbacks possible? Therefore, the dimension of Movie production and Brand Manufacturers is wholly ignored as the aggregation of any kind of information from these dimensions might be biased and to a major extent irrelevant as these two sectors for this peculiar field of research can non be targeted as audience or consumers. Three methods are used for the research of this thesis. The use of two or more methods in a research will take to triangulation of informations collected and do the findings more dependable and valid. ( Creswell, 2003 )

The procedure of primary research starts by presenting a study with preparation of a Questionnaire which is drawn out in a comprehensive manner, yet it is short and simple to understand. The intent of this questionnaire is to research the trade name consciousness amongst people and to cognize if they observed the presence of incorporate trade names in the Bollywood films. The questionnaire was drawn with merely a few unfastened inquiries which directed towards personal inside informations, most of the other inquiries were with multiple picks as option. The other method used is of the instance survey, which is of a Bollywood film, the probe and informations aggregation was carried out in a film hall where a sample of five randomly selected college pupils were asked to watch the same film which is used as the instance survey and with verbal consent sought a semi structured interview was conducted proceedingss after they watched the film.


There are three methods of primary aggregation of informations which are used in this research which leads to the analysis of the informations collected from three different dimensions. It can be understood from Seale ‘s work that analyzing and analysing informations from two or more different dimensions can be termed as Triangulation. The usage of triangulation is encouraged in any research as it increases the cogency and dependability of the findings. ( Seale, 1999 )

3.6 Data Analysis

Once the aggregation of informations is over, the following measure and a really important one is of informations analysis. The gathered information is to be analyzed in a really organized and systematic manner. The research worker must do certain that the informations collected is dependable and valid and its analysis and is strictly indifferent. Kent ( 1999 ) in his work provides three methods of informations analysis:

Mechanical Analysis: Appendix ‘A ‘ of this research is an illustration of Mechanical Analysis as the information collected is organized by screening and coding finally taking to a formation of a form for its representation.

Transcription: For transmutation of information from audio medium to typographic one this method is a really of import tool. The interview taken from five respondents was converted in to written text in subdivision 4.3 which is an illustration of this method. The text is analyzed in this subdivision itself.

Interpretative Analysis: The informations collected from primary methods of questionnaire, instance survey and interviews was construed through intensive survey and scrutiny. This is a really important portion of a research as it helps the research worker to pull out sense from all the collected informations and helps in achieving the research aims.

3.7 Research Restrictions

As many of the other researches, this research besides has some defects. The facet of restrictions can non be ignored as it contributes to reliable and genuine assessing of the consequences. The restrictions of this research are covered in this portion of the thesis.

The chief aim of this thesis focuses on the callback and response of consumers towards the trade name arrangement in Bollywood films. The sample taken for the appraisal is little and can non supply generalisation of the full population. The instance survey for this research include one popular Bollywood film as a sample which besides can non stand for the full Bollywood industry as the industry is really immense in size and produces films with a batch of fluctuations. However, taking into consideration the clip provided for this research and the magnitude of survey the sample used in this research provides with significant information and penetration for the hereafter research workers to understand and research the field towards it enlargement.

The qualitative information in this research was difficult to analyse as there are non many statistical methods to set in to prove. Due to miss of such methods objectiveness can be the affair of concern which so is given a great trade of importance. Rationality and genuineness of this research is given premier precedence, written text of information has been done with a batch of truth and importance is given to the minutest of inside informations.

Having these restrictions and shortcomings the findings of this research can non be taken for given or given any less importance as they non merely spread out the vision of a peculiar country of this huge field but will besides move as a motivational factor for other research workers for future researches.

Chapter 4


4.0 Outline

This chapter depicts the instance survey of the late released ace starrer multi casted movie “Blue” by concentrating on the trade name arrangements and the schemes used in this movie. The findings from unstructured interviews that were conducted with 5 random pupils are besides exhibited in this portion of the thesis ; the interviewees will stay anon. as requested by them. The chapter will besides discourse and analyse the informations collected from self-completion questionnaires which were distributed in the sample of 50 pupils making their graduation.

The subdivisions in this chapter documenting the information aggregation and findings in this research are:

1. Case survey of the film Blue

2. The degree of callback of trade names is high merely after watching the film and the most effectual method of trade name arrangement is Integrated Explicit method.

3. Consumers get sensitize towards the trade names from trade name arrangement in Bollywood films.

4.1 Case Study: Blue

“Blue” is an adventuresome movie pulling a batch of crowd particularly because of its dramatis personae. The lead of the movie is India ‘s most expensive histrion Akshay Kumar ( Aarav ) supported by Sanjay Dutt ( Sagar ) , Zayed Khan ( Sameer ) , and Rahul Dev ( Gulshan ) in negative function. The female lead histrion for this movie is Lara Dutta ( Mona ) and back uping actress is Katria Kaif ( Nikki ) . The movie has been shot in Bahamas and Bangkok. The movie has a batch of glamor and manner and the narrative of the movie revolves around a hoarded wealth Hunt. The lone individual who knows about the hoarded wealth is Sagar who is a good friend of Aarav. The character Aarav is shown as a multi millionaire remaining in immense Villa and is seen driving Porsche and Jaguar in the film, his purposes since the beginning of the film are to convert Sagar to plunge in to the deep blue sea for the hoarded wealth which is deserving one million millions of dollars. The path to the hoarded wealth is known merely by Sagar and his best trait shown in the film is scuba plunging. Sagar on the other manus is really discerning about the hoarded wealth Hunt and ne’er wants to speak about it. Sagar ‘s brother Sameer is shown for the first clip in Bangkok siting on a Ducati and is seen street rushing against Gulshan. Gulshan ‘s friend is Nikki who meets Sameer after the street race and both Gulshan and Nikki convince Sameer to work for them for presenting a bundle, for which Sameer would acquire 50 thousand dollars. Sameer being on the manner to the finish for bringing gets chased by the constabulary and lose the bundle. The bundle lost was claimed to be of 50 million dollars by Gulshan and due to his loss he threatens Sameer to give him 50 million dollars back or Sameer would be killed. Sameer being Sagar ‘s younger brother goes to Bahamas to vanish from Bangkok and live a peaceable life. Finally Gulshan finds out about Sameer and his staying in Bahamas, and kidnaps Mona who is Sagar ‘s girlfriend. Sagar is left with no pick else to travel for the hoarded wealth Hunt and pay the ransom of 50 million dollars to acquire his girlfriend back and to give his brother a new life. Sagar, Sameer and Aarav dive into the sea and happen the hoarded wealth. The case they come on the sea surface they see Gulshan on another yacht demanding for whole hoarded wealth alternatively of 50 million dollar otherwise he would kill Mona. In the terminal of the film Gulshan claims that he was betrayed and Tells Sagar that this all was a set up planned by Aarav. Gulshan says Aarav wanted you ( Sagar ) to happen the hoarded wealth but since you ( Sagar ) were discerning about it all the clip, he planned to put your brother up and nobble you girlfriend. After happening out what has happened Gulshan gets shot by Aarav. Aarav besides jump into the sea and his absence is presumed as his being dead. Three months subsequently Sagar replies a phone call and on the other side of the phone is Aarav who stayed alive and has transferred 20 % of the worth of the hoarded wealth in Sagar ‘s bank history. Like any other Indian film the characters lived merrily of all time after.

The film had a batch action scenes and motorcycle stunts with international location and submerged picture taking. The elements of film indicate that its mark audience was people in the age group of 15-30.

Strategy — – Minutes & gt ;

1 to 20

21 to 40

41 to 60

61 to80


101 to 116

Implicit Product Placement



Ray Ban




( Contextual Requirement-





Ray Ban

Visible Brand-No reference )






Levi ‘s

Integrated Explicit Placement

Kylie Minogue

( Brand plays an active role-Brand

Ducati 999

and properties mentioned )

Non-Itegrated Explicit merchandise arrangement.


( No relation to the content-


officially expressed )

Star Sports




Book my show

Imperial Blue

Fever 104.5

Red 93.5

Bright Outdoor

Rapid climb

Channel V




Endowment Syndication


T-Series Digi Music

Table 1: Placement of Brand in film “Blue” and its categorization

Table 1 shows the presentation of informations collected after careful observation of trade name arrangement in the film “Blue” . The tabular array shows arrangement of trade names in the tally clip of 116 proceedingss and besides classifies the branding harmonizing to d’Astos and Seguin ‘s delegating of merchandise arrangement schemes. The categorization by d’Astos and Seguin is put into application as there is no significant academic grounds of merchandise arrangement schemes in Bollywood and scheme by d’Astos and Seguin ( 1999 ) can be used to screen and categorise the arrangement of trade names in a broader manner as it covers the major facet of arrangement in a well defined mode.

This film based on hoarded wealth Hunt and holding an adventuresome them has used trade names which defines about the same thing. The inexplicit trade name arrangement can be seen of high ended market merchandises, autos like Porshe and Nissan and motorcycles like Ducati and Suzuki have been shown as they besides were the demand for the film and motorcycles were brightly placed during a street rushing scene. Other cases of such arrangement can be seen throughout the film, particularly Nokia phones, the phones are conspicuously seeable and can be associated with the trade name. Another illustration was the signage of Fendi and Levi ‘s seen in the background merely after the terminal of vocals shot in Bahamas. A can of Heineken was besides shown for one second during the street race and was implicitly placed ; the properties and the trade name name were ne’er mentioned for these merchandises.

A batch of expressed presentation of non-integrated trade names was observed in the really first minute of the film. Particular thanks was given to IDBI Bank, Star Sports and ESPN and other merchandises and services like Streak, Odyssey, FedEx, Book my show, and imperial blue were besides thanked and Sons were outstanding and closely associated with the trade names doing the arrangement accurate. Both the groups mentioned above were given 5 seconds each. Logos of the movie ‘s wireless spouse ; Fever 104.5FM and Red 93.5 FM were besides visualized and given the slot of five seconds, another media spouse were channel spouse Zoom and Channel V besides given the slot of five seconds, other associates like, Bright outdoor spouse, Media bureaus ( MATES, MIDAS and Digit ) , Talent Syndication,, T Series, T Series digi music were given a slot of three seconds each exposing a superb illustration of non-integrated expressed merchandise arrangement. “A particular thanks to Kylie Minogue” was seen during the rubrics of the film which is another case of trade name arrangement and is classified in Non-integrated explicit method.

Two instances of incorporate expressed trade name arrangement are besides witnessed in this film.

The film have a scene in which the lead histrion Akshay Kumar ( Aarav ) approaches Kylie Minogue ( Herself ) merely before a vocal ; during that sequence Zayed Khan ( Sameer ) tells the remainder of the group, “Hey, that ‘s Kylie Minogue” . This is a clear case of incorporate expressed trade name arrangement because the name of the trade name with its visual was mentioned during the sequence and the vocal. The properties of the trade name which is “Kylie Minogue” one of the most sensational and popular vocalists were seen in the vocal which was sung by Kylie Minogue herself.

The arrangement of Kylie Minogue as a trade name is a really of import one as it is for 9 proceedingss and the focal point of integrating of this trade name covers a vocal. The vocal was ace hit and therefore a important arrangement of trade name. Another case of incorporate expressed arrangement can be during a sequence right after this vocal ends when Sameer walks out of the nine and see a Ducati parked right following to the paving. The motorcycles properties and name is mentioned and the motorcycle is fantasized by the histrion ; adding the value to the motorcycle ‘s trade name arrangement and doing it more outstanding. The duologue delivered between Sameer and Aarav during this sequence is as follows

“Sameer: Belly laugh! ! ! Ducati 999!

Aarav: You like it?

Sameer: Zero to Hundred in 3.6 seconds! Like it? ? ? She is my dream adult male! ! ”

The trade names highlighted in the film from trade name arrangement point of position were Ducati and Kylie Minogue because of the expressed presence for longer continuance, and besides Nokia and Ray Ban because of frequent inexplicit presence on the screen.

4.2 Semi-structured Interview

This portion of the thesis looks at the informations collected from unstructured interview conducted with five random film departers who were interviewed merely after they watched the film “Blue” which is besides take as the instance survey for this research. The interviewees were selected maintaining the age factor in consideration ; all the interviewees were of the age between 20 and 25 as this is the premier mark audience for this film. The consent was sought verbally and the interviewee ‘s individuality is kept anon. as requested. Following was the set of inquiries asked”

1. How frequently do you watch the film?

2. Make you retrieve the name of the histrions of this film? If yes, call them.

3. Were there any invitee visual aspects? If yes, who was the star?

4. Did you see any trade names in this film?

5. One thing that you would desire to purchase after watching this film?

6. Make you have any trade name shown in the film?

7. Did you retrieve watching any of these trade names in the film or its beginning? Trade names were ; Streak, odyssey, FedEx, 93.5 Fm Red, Talent Syndication,, ESPN and Star athleticss.

The replies received from each respondent were really similar to each other ‘s.

The response for the first inquiry from all of them was bespeaking towards watching film on an norm of one time a hebdomad or every bit shortly as a new film releases. Second inquiry was besides answered by every one of them with the right names of histrions and actresses. While replying the 3rd inquiry one of the respondents instead calling the guest star ( Kylie Minouge ) was associating more to the vocal she sang in the film, nevertheless he answered with the right name but he asked his friend about it while watching the film. The other respondents were right able to call the star in invitee visual aspect and they besides answered how they got to cognize the name. The replies from two respondents were of holding seen the picture of the vocal on telecasting a figure of times and that was the ground he got familiar with the name. The last two respondents answered stating they heard the name when Zayed khan ( Sameer ) mentioned it in the film. In this type of incorporate expressed arrangement the trade name gets place non merely while watching the film but besides when the trade name is seen on telecasting. Kylie Minogue was characteristic in the vocal Jiggy Wiggy which was super hit all across India, the vocal was seen playing on Television during the premier clip ( 6 pm-10pm ) and besides the name was mentioned on wireless as of now this is the most effectual method of trade name arrangement every bit far as trade names recall is concerned. The replies for inquiry figure four are really important for this thesis as they indicate the consciousness of trade names while consumers are watching the film. Out of five, three respondents said yes when asked this inquiry, the other two took a batch of clip and some hints to reply the inquiry. The first three respondents said they identified the Red Porsche, Ducati, Nokia cell phone and Ray Ban sunglasses. The other two respondents were able to place with Ducati merely when asked why they said they are passionate about motorcycles and they heard Zayed Khan stating its name with that they added “That motorcycle is my dream too” . While replying the 5th inquiry all of the respondents were really speedy and one thing that they have started woolgathering about was the Ducati 999, although two out five besides responded that they would desire to purchase a Porsche someday. After inquiring the 6th inquiry it took respondents barely any clip to reply, without even believing for one minute and seeking to retrieve if they have ain something similar to the trade names shown in the film or still have it, all the respondents answered stating Nokia and three of them besides answered by adverting Ray Ban sunglasses. Implicit arrangement proves to be really utile when the trade names are normally know and are in the range of affordability of a normal in-between category adult male. When asked the 7th inquiry four out of five responded were able to reply some trade names. When asked to the 5th individual why have n’t he noticed the trade names, he answered by stating he does n’t care about the logos shown in the beginning of the film and that it is non in any of his involvement.

The determination from carry oning a semi-structured is, Indian consumers gets attracted when they see a trade name which involvements them for its properties and they get more inclined towards its when they see the histrion of the Bollywood film adverting the samde. The mentioning of the trade name increases the desire and influences the consumers ; it can be proved as implicitly shown Nissan auto was ne’er recalled, though the auto has about the same property as Ducati 999. The best method for trade name arrangement found from this research with the most figure of callbacks is integrated expressed trade name arrangement particularly by incorporating the trade name in the vocal. The most figure of callbacks were received for Kylie Minogue. The 2nd method which proves to be most effectual is inexplicit arrangement of trade names and merely those trade names which comes under the affordability of a in-between category Indian adult male. One such callback was of Nokia cell phones, the trade name was implicitly shown without any reference of the name or jangle or sound of any kind in the book, still, all the five respondents gave the callback of the Nokia phone as they were able to associate with the trade name and the merchandise.

4.3 Consequences from Questionnaire



Unaided Recall Certain

Unaided Recall Not Certain














Book My Show




Imperial Blue



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