bio ch 4

when biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they can achieve the finest resolution by using a
transmission electron microscope

the advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells

a primary objective of cell fractionation is to
separate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined

in the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is
the size and weight of the component

which of the following correctly lists the order in which cellular components will be found in the pellet when homogenized cells are treated with increasingly rapid spins in a centrifuge
nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes

what is the reason that a modern electron microscope (TEM) can resolve biological images to the sub nanometer level, as opposed to the tens of nanometers achievable for the best super resolution light microscope
electron beams have much shorter wavelengths than visible light

what technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division
standard light microscopy

the smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with a standard (not super resolution) research grade light microscope is
a mitochondrion

all of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT
an endoplasmic reticulum

which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells
the need for sufficient surface area to support the cells metabolic needs

which of the following statements concerning cells of bacteria and archaea is correct?
DNA is present in both archaea and bacteria

prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. what are the domains
bacteria and archaea

large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules
proteins

the nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. if a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you expect to be the most likely immediate consequence
a change in the shape of the nucleus

a cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely
producing primarily cytoplasmic proteins

which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported form the cell
rough ER

ECM proteins are made by ribosomes in which part of a eukaryotic cell
rough ER

the volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cels. the most reasonable explanation for this observation is that
plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm

the liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells
smooth ER

which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?
proteins that are secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
smooth ER

the golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?
all of the above.
transport vesicles fuse with one side…
proteins in the membrane may be sorted and modified as they move from one side to the other…
lipids in the membrane…
soluble proteins in the cisternae…

the difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by
the function of the golgi apparatus in sorting and directing membrane components

hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. in animal cells, which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes
lysosome

tay sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition
the lysosome

which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted
golgi apparatus

one of the key innovations in the evolution of eukaryotes from a prokaryotic ancestor is the endomembrane system. what eukaryotic organelles or features might have evolved as a part of, or as an elaboration or, the endomembrane system
nuclear envelope

which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes
lysosome

which organelles often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell
vacuole

a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, mitochondria. it could be a cell from
nearly any eukaryotic organism

which type of of organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells
plastids

why isn’t the mitochondrion classified as part of the endomembrane system
its structure is not derived from the ER or Golgi

what types of proteins are NOT synthesized in the rough Er
mitochondrial proteins

which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells
mitochondrion

which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes
mitochondrion

which animal cell organelle contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen
peroxisome

thylakoids, DNA and ribosomes are all components found in
nuclei

in a plant cell DNA may be found
in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts

the chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cels. in eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. in light of the endosymbiont theory for the evolutionary origin of mitochondria, where is the most ATP synthesis likely to occur in prokaryotic cells
on the plasma membrane

the evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria

in a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and
transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide

how does the cell multiply its peroxisomes
they split in 2 after they become sufficiently large

which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells
centrosomes

motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures
cytoskeletal structures

movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures
microtubules and motor proteins

which of the following contain the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of 9 doublets of microtubules surrounding a pari of single microtubules
both flagella and motile cilia

vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. cancer cells given vinblasine would be unable to
separate chromosomes during cell division

centrioles, cilia, flagella, and basal bodies have remarkable similar structural elements and arrangements. which of the following hypothesis is most plausible in light of such structural similarities
cilia and flagella arise from the centrioles

cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. a cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to
move vesicles around in the cell

which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true
movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other

cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella
tubulin

a mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its
gogli apparatus and extracellular matrix

all of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition
plant cell walls

what do cell walls of plants and the extracellular matrix of animal cells have in common
they have functional connections with the cytoskeleton inside

the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma membrane. which of the following is a characteristic common to all of these extracellular structures
they are constructed of polymers that are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported out of the cell

when a potassium ion (K+) moves from the soil into the vacuole of a cell on the surface of a root it must pass through several cellular structures.which of the following correctly describes the order in which these structures will be encountered by the ion
primary cell well
plasma membrane
cytoplasm
vacuole

the extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cel behavior by communication info from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following
integrins

plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells
gap junctions

ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
gap junctions

which of the following makes it necessary for animal cells, although they have no cell walls, to have intercellular junctions
maintenance of tissue integrity and barriers to fluid leakage requires cells to adhere tightly to one another

signals from the ECM to the cytoskeleton may be transmitted by
integrins

a biologist wants specifically to examine the surfaces of different types of cells in kidney tubules of small mammals. the cells in question can be distinguished by external shape, size, and 3D characteristics. which of the following would be the optimum method for her study
scanning electron microscopy

a newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that a very inexpensive microscope available for a small child is able to magnify specimens nearly as much as the much more costly microscope available in your college lab. what is the primary reason for the price difference
the toy microscope magnifies a good deal but has low resolution and therefore poor quality images

a biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light whereas organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. the heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain
chloroplasts and mitochondria

which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system
chloroplast

which structure is common to plant AND animal cells
mitochondrion

which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell
ribosome

which striation function pair is MISMATCHED
microtubule-muscle contraction

cyanide binds to at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. if a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the
mitochondria

what is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell
ER
golgi
vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

which cell would be bed for studying lysosomes
phagocytic white blood cell