Assessing Of Brazilian Ethno Cultural Groups Sociology Essay Example
Assessing Of Brazilian Ethno Cultural Groups Sociology Essay Example

Assessing Of Brazilian Ethno Cultural Groups Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 8 (2127 words)
  • Published: July 31, 2017
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This article delves into the challenges that Brazilian immigrants face as they adapt to Canadian mainstream society, owing to conflicting cultural values. The high context Brazilian ethno-cultural group differs significantly from the low context Canadian culture in several ways, including immigration history, worldviews, family structures, and cultural perspectives on health and illness. The text identifies specific hurdles experienced by Brazilian immigrants and suggests social work intervention strategies. According to United Nations Department (2009), Brazil accounts for 2.83% of the world's population with a total of 192,593,000 people while Canada makes up only 0.5% of the world's populace with 34,028,000 individuals. Similar to Canada’s multicultural setup, Brazil comprises a federation consisting of twenty-three states plus three districts along with an official capital territory named Brasilia and encompasses diverse groups ranging from t


ribal communities located in Amazon regions to millions of rural farmers situated in northeast areas;Within some of the world's largest urban conglomerations, such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil boasts stunning ports along the Atlantic coast. Despite holding kinship, neighborhood, and community connections that few are willing to break away from, historically there have been good reasons for Brazilians to emigrate due to their past as a slave-owning province with an economy built on suppressing political and economic rights. This history has resulted in income and property gaps between rich and poor in Brazil being among the biggest in the world. Although Brazil experienced growth until political tensions led to violence among those excluded from newfound economic prosperity, no real effort was made towards poverty reduction during mid-1980s which created a sense of being trapped for many middle-class individuals, particularly young people wh

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searched for places to escape escalating urban violence alongside worsening economic conditions. Shirley (2010) cited challenges in securing a livelihood and urban violence as the main reasons for leaving Brazil and immigrating to Canada.The low rate of Brazilian immigration to Canada can be attributed to various factors, including their lack of interest in emigration, unfamiliarity with Canada as an immigrant destination, absence of significant Brazilian communities motivating family members' migration, and a lack of awareness in Canada about Brazil's crisis and its legitimacy as a refugee source. From 1956 to 1991, approximately 15,000 Brazilians became permanent residents in Canada. The average annual immigration rate between 1968-1976 was around 520 individuals but declined to roughly 300 people yearly before increasing from162 in1985 to almost1,300 by1994. Early immigrants were mostly non-natives who migrated based on family or social connections while acting as temporary asylum for war refugees until they could unite with families elsewhere resulting in only about forty percent being non-natives among early immigrants; however, economic prospects have become the driving force leading native-born Brazilians making up ninety-nine percent of all immigrants by mid-'90s. Toronto is the preferred city for Brazilian immigrants - especially those who arrived after the1980s - since urban areas in Latin America like Brazil are where most migration takes place.According to Appendix Table 1, there was an increase in the number of Brazilians arriving illegally between 1986 and 1988, with estimates ranging from 3,500 to15,000 as exact figures are unknown. Many of these individuals sought refugee status after their tourist visas expired. To effectively communicate with people from diverse cultures, it is important to understand business hierarchies and interpersonal relationships. This can

be accomplished by comparing high context civilizations like Brazil to low context ones like Canada in order to comprehend different communication styles and cultural worldviews. Brazil has a high-context culture that blends African-derived religions like Candomble, Umbanda and Afro-Brazilian with Catholicism as well as other religions such as Protestantism, Judaism and Espiritismo. Social hierarchies based on background and social class are prevalent in Brazilian religious life where only a few religions dominate. In contrast to Canada's classless culture which values experience and knowledge over status and authority resulting in more division of duties than high-context cultures.In addition, communication in Brazil tends to be less direct than in Canada.In Brazil, the concept of race differs from that in North America, as it is defined by a continuous color variable approach rather than a categorical one. However, discrimination and racism are not solely based on race since it is viewed as a social construct that affects all aspects of life. Brazilian culture places great importance on family, with patriarchal structures being emphasized despite the majority Catholic population accepting the use of contraceptives and gender expression. Close relationships within immediate and extended families are highly valued, often leading to living together and gathering for celebrations where stories are shared and issues resolved within the family unit. Physical touch, caressing, and acknowledgement of both family members and outsiders also hold high value. As a high-context society, nonverbal communication plays a major role in conveying messages. Trust building and strengthening personal bonds take precedence while clearly defined roles of authority and status differences are emphasized. Decision-making occurs through face-to-face interactions but there is not strong solidarity within social classes due

to personal dependence resulting in numerous cross-cutting relationships.According to Virtanen (2009), understanding cultural backgrounds is crucial for effective cross-cultural communication and can prevent misinterpretation. Brazilian life has distinct characteristics that differentiate it from conventional North American or other Latin American approaches, despite regional variations. The uniqueness of Brazilian culture arises from a blend of Portuguese, African, and Amerindian influences within a system where central authority aimed for control over people and resources while enforcing religious standards. However, compliance was often just pretended rather than truly achieved. In contrast to Spanish-speaking Latin American cultures which tend to be rigid and formal, Brazilians value calmness, tolerance, and warmth in interpersonal relationships. They avoid direct confrontation whenever possible as they prize informality, kindness, and spontaneity highly. Although the traditional patriarchal structure of Brazilian families emphasized hierarchical relationships within them; societal functions have transformed gender roles towards greater equality in marriage with women no longer expected to solely adhere to their husband's demands although power balance still depends heavily on education and employment status. Religion plays a significant role too especially Catholicism in the lifecycle of Brazilians whilst wealth holds importance.Despite patriarchal societal structures, women are no longer confined to passive roles. In Brazil, while young women are expected to remain virgins until marriage, these expectations are not as strict as in other countries with common parental monitoring. Homosexuality is visible and accepted within gay communities in major cities like Sao Paulo, but family acceptance of sexual preferences may contradict Brazilian cultural values that vary greatly. Although Brazilian culture is more fluid regarding sexual roles than others, discussions about homosexuality generally remain within families. Abortion is illegal except when

it poses a risk to the mother's life or in cases of rape or incest; this lack of public acceptance results in over two million illegal abortions annually despite predominantly Roman Catholic Brazil not widely supporting it. Boys receive preferential treatment over girls due to Brazil's patriarchal society which causes inequality between male and female children especially with medical attention and opportunities. Education is mandatory from ages seven to fourteen which continues for free until age 17 if not completed by 14 similar to Canada's system; however, only 11% of Brazilian children complete their primary education by age 15 despite starting at a young age.In Brazil, wealthier households typically opt for private schools while poverty affects numerous Brazilian children, leading to thousands being abandoned annually. These abandoned children often end up living on the streets and resorting to begging or selling small items just to survive. Poor families expect their children to contribute financially, while adolescents who live on the streets may become involved in illegal activities such as drug use. Depending on their family's financial situation after completing vocational training, teenagers can begin working at ages 15 or 18. Although premarital sex was accepted in some indigenous cultures, the Catholic Church introduced the belief that it is wrong in Brazil; nonetheless, many conservative families still believe in dating within their own religion. While interracial dating is common, it is rare for people to date outside of their social class. Traditional households expect young men to ask a girl's father for her hand in marriage; however, not all families require this. Family approval is important when choosing a spouse for many young people in Brazil,

and most marriages occur between the ages of 20 and 25. A civil ceremony is required for all marriages but many also include Catholic church rites. It is customary during Brazilian weddings to incorporate superstitions such as avoiding bad luck by not letting the groom see the bride's wedding gown before the ceremony and incorporating something old, new, borrowed and blue into the bride's attire.In Canada, these customs align with their values. In terms of the economy, there has been a 39% increase in Brazilian women becoming economically active in recent years. While polygyny was once practiced among some indigenous cultures in Brazil, it is now prohibited. Men tend to be more accepting of marital infidelity and face fewer consequences than women. Divorce was legalized in 1978; however, the Catholic Church disapproves resulting in low rates. Nevertheless, since 2001 both genders have equal rights regarding divorce and other aspects of marriage. During civil wedding ceremonies, matrimonial property division is based on agreed-upon terms. Typically, families consist of a mother, father and two children; although extended families are common in rural areas. The term "family" refers to parentela - an extensive group that includes maternal and paternal relatives as well as in-laws who may live within different apartments inside the same building. Mothers usually take responsibility for their children while fathers earn income and make decisions with the workforce still viewed as head of the family despite up to 26% single-women headed households found worldwide. Life expectancy averages around 72 years old.In terms of culture, nursing homes are not widely accepted as a solution for elderly care in Brazil. Instead, it is customary for older people

to live with their children and grandparents often play a role in caring for their grandchildren while other family members work. Despite this tradition of reverence and familial care, incidents of abuse and neglect towards the elderly have been on the rise, particularly among those from poorer families who are unable to afford proper care. Even though Brazil's social security system provides pensions for retirees, including those in non-urban areas without previous employment history, these funds are often inadequate to meet senior citizens' needs.

When someone passes away in Brazil, relatives gather at the home of the deceased within 24 hours for a service before burying them. While funeral homes or hospitals usually prepare bodies for burial, limited space has led cremation to become increasingly popular among middle and upper-class Brazilians. During mourning periods lasting seven days, friends and family remain close to the bereaved person and attend a Mass on the seventh day.According to Brazilian Christian beliefs, children are not involved in funeral proceedings but are informed that their loved ones have gone to Heaven - a place free from suffering and sin where believers will be in God's presence. On the other hand, those who do not believe or commit evil deeds will suffer punishment in Hell. There is ongoing debate about the duration of Hell's existence and whether punishment is physical or spiritual. Catholicism teaches about purgatory as a temporary punishment for Christians with unconfessed sins before gaining entry into Heaven. The majority of Christians believe in Jesus Christ's Second Coming and final judgment based on one's deeds.

In Brazil, familial discussions are preferred over seeking external help when dealing with personal problems. However,

recent immigrants to Canada may be hesitant to approach law enforcement due to past experiences with corrupt authorities in their home countries. Brazilians may face challenges accessing mental health care and human services in Canada due to language barriers, causing them to feel isolated without family support.

Catholic Churches offer significant support for Brazilian immigrants who often turn to increased faith and alcohol consumption as coping mechanisms. Brazilians living in Canada tend seek therapy for depression, family issues, somatization, grief, sexual dysfunction or identity crises.Often, it is family members or partners who refer couples for marital intervention rather than the clients themselves. In Brazil, many seek help due to both spouses working and needing to renegotiate their relationship dynamics, resulting in a lack of emotional intimacy. However, Brazilian women have expressed dissatisfaction with healers and social workers who misunderstand their body-oriented communication style as seductive behavior, perpetuating stereotypes that cause discomfort in professional and therapeutic relationships (Goza 1999). According to Appendix Table 1's data, Brazilian immigrants primarily settle in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia. However, the preferred destination states varied annually from 1985-1991. The table displays the total number of immigrant arrivals and corresponding percentage distribution across provinces during this period.

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