Feminization Of Migration Philippine Workers Welfare Sociology Essay Example
Introduction and Background
In most topographic points throughout the universe, the term "migratory '' conjures images of work forces, while the phrase, `` migrators and their households '' introduces adult females and kids into the image. Yet, statistics show that half of all migrators globally are female and surveies document that adult females are active participants in migration, both within and between states ( Boyd, 2006 ) .
Filipino migration started every bit early as 1900s during the clip of American colonial regulation. The first Filipinos to migrate came from Ilocos and they worked in pineapple plantations in Hawaii, agribusiness in California and fish canneries in Washington and Alaska in 1920s. During 1960s, different class of Filipino workers migrated to America, Canada, and some European states. They were the alleged professionals working as nurses, physicians, and medical technicians....
In 1970s, Filipinos were in demand in industrialised states such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and Malaysia. They filled up the labour deficits in these states and worked as building workers, nursemaids, domestic workers, nurse and entertainers. The phenomenon in Philippine labour migration started during these old ages since big Numberss of workers leave the state for employment.
However, in 1980s a different tendency in Philippine labour migration has emerged called feminisation of migration. ( Explain why? ) This means that more and more adult females participated in the country of labour migration. ( Add farther account ) A batch of factors attributed to the proliferation of adult females migration. In the old surveies, adult females migration could be a consequence of poorness, globalisation, and force per unit area from household, among others.
But the most common ground o
these adult females who wants to happen better chances in their chosen states of finish is poverty. To get away poorness, these adult females leave their work and seek their luck overseas. Some of them are professionals while others are a mere high school alumnuss working largely in the services sector. However, the basic inquiry prevarications in their public assistance and protection in the 3rd state.
Therefore, this survey is conducted to place the common issues and concerns encountered by these adult females and seek to analyze the Filipino authorities policy thru the Department of Labor and Employment ( DOLE ) to guarantee the public assistance and protection of these adult females in their chosen state of finish. If possible, this survey will seek to act upon the DOLE policy shapers by showing sufficient informations to warrant the demand to explicate policies specifically for adult females migratory workers ( if there is none ) .
Several theories are presented in this subdivision to assist the readers understand or gain penetrations on the migration of Filipino adult females migratory workers. Below are some of the theories:
Feminist theory, harmonizing to Wikipidia ( 13 April 2009 ) , aims to understand the nature of inequality and focal points on gender political relations, power dealingss and gender. While by and large supplying a review of societal dealingss, much of feminist theory besides focuses on analysing gender inequality and the publicity of adult females 's rights, involvements, and issues.
Based on the same beginning mentioned above, the feminist legal theory is based on the belief that the jurisprudence has been instrumental adult females 's historical subordination. The undertaking of feminist legal theory
is two times. First, feminist law seeks to explicate ways in which the jurisprudence played a function in adult females 's former subsidiary position. Second, feminist legal theory is dedicated to altering adult females 's position through a reworking of the jurisprudence and its attack to gender.
One of the theories that best describes the escape of Filipino adult females abroad is the theory on globalisation. Globalization ( Wikipedia, 11 April 2009 ) in its actual sense is the procedure of transmutation of local or regional phenomena into planetary 1s. It can be described as a procedure by which the people of the universe are unified into a individual society and map together. This procedure is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces. Globalization is frequently used to mention to economic globalisation, that is, integrating of national economic systems into the international economic system through trade, foreign direct investing, capital flows, migration, and the spread of engineering.
Another theory that explains migration is the neoclassical economic theory ( Sjaastad 1962 ; Todaro 1969 ) . It suggests that international migration is related to the planetary supply and demand for labour. States with scarce labour supply and high demand will hold high rewards that pull immigrants in from states with a excess of labour ( family.jrank.org, 2009 ) .
The metameric labour market theory ( Piore 1979 ) argues that First World economic systems are structured so as to necessitate a certain degree of in-migration. This theory suggests that developed economic systems are Manichaean, they have a primary market of secure, good remunerated work and a secondary market of low pay work. Segmented labour market theory argues
that immigrants are recruited to make full these occupations that are necessary for the overall economic system to map but are avoided by the native-born population because of the hapless on the job conditions associated with the secondary labour market ( family.jrank.org, 2009 ) .
World systems theory ( Sassen 1988 ) argues that international migration is a byproduct of planetary capitalist economy. Contemporary forms of international migration tend to be from the fringe ( hapless states ) to the nucleus ( rich states ) because factors associated with industrial development in the First World generated structural economic jobs, and therefore push factors, in the Third World ( family.jrank.org, 2009 ) .
In the Todaro-Harris theoretical account, the determination to migrate is mostly determined by the person 's outlook of gaining a higher income, with expected income being defined as existent urban income multiplied by the chance of obtaining employment ( Ullah, 2004 ) .
Statement of the Problem
This survey deals on the Feminization of the Philippine Labor Migation every bit good as its deductions on the state 's policy on workers ' public assistance and protection.
What is the personal profile of the respondents based on the followers:
- Marital Status
- Degree of Education
- Employment Status
- Nature of Employment
- Length of Contract
What are the common issues and concerns encountered by migratory adult females in the receiving/destination states?
What are the functions of the authorities peculiarly the Department of Labor and Employment ( DOLE ) in guaranting the wellbeing of the Filipino adult females migratory workers?
What is/are the policy/ies of DOLE in covering with the migration of adult females in footings of:
- Social welfare
With mention to inquiry 2, what
are the deductions of these common issues and concerns in the preparations of labour policy/ies directed to Filipino migratory adult females?
- The undermentioned hypotheses were considered by the research worker in the survey:
- The common issues and concerns encountered by migratory adult females in the receiving/destination states are non important.
- The functions of the authorities peculiarly DOLE are minimum in guaranting the wellbeing of the Filipino adult females migratory workers.
- The policy/ies of DOLE in covering with the migration of adult females are non important in footings of:
- Social welfare
With mention to inquiry 2, the deductions of these common issues and concerns are non important in the preparations of labour policy/ies directed to Filipino migratory adult females.
Significance of the Study
Since the oncoming of the phenomenon called feminisation of Philippine labour migration in 1980s, a figure of research workers attempted to find the factors that trigger Filipino adult females from go forthing the state in hunt for a better chance abroad. This survey will seek to dig into the deductions of the common issues and concerns encountered by migratory adult females in the finish states to the preparation of labour policies/programs by DOLE.
Further, the behavior of this survey will introduce the populace on the troubles encountered by the Filipino adult females migratory workers abroad. This will besides function as a usher to the Filipino authorities thru DOLE to explicate policies turn toing specifically the issues and concerns of the adult females migratory workers.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This survey focuses on the common issues and concerns faced by Filipino migratory adult females and its deductions on the preparation of authorities policies to guarantee their public
assistance and protection.
The respondents shall be the adult females migratory workers employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( KSA ) . In 2008, KSA was the top finish state for freshly hires Filipino migratory workers with a deployment of 76,148. Of this figure, 24,508 were female workers. To salvage clip and money, Slovin 's expression shall be employed to find the sample size of the population.
Particularly, this survey shall concentrate assemblage informations in Alkhobar, KSA wherein one of the two POLOs in Saudi Arabia is located. Sets of questionnaire shall be disseminated to the respondents with the aid of POLO-Alkhobar. The distribution of questionnaires shall be done in the POLO office wherein the respondents paid visit to bespeak for aid, inquiring for an advice and other grudges among others. The research worker shall besides utilize interview method with the concerned authorities functionaries, non-government organisations ( NGOs ) , private sectors and cyberspace to ease the behavior of the thesis.
Definition of Footings
The followers are the common footings used in this survey. The footings were defined harmonizing to the context of the survey. Some footings were taken from the DOLE and the International Organization for Migration ( IOM ) Glossary for Migration:
State of Origin
A state where the adult females workers for good resides.
Feminization of Migration
The increasing engagement of adult females in the field of labour migration.
The motion of individuals from their place province to another for the intent of employment.
Philippine Overseas Labor Office ( POLO )
The POLO serves as the DOLE 's abroad operating arm in the execution of Philippine labour policies and plans for the protection and publicity of the public assistance and involvements
of Filipinos working abroad.
Push factors are the grounds that trigger the workers to migrate in their chosen state of finish whereas pull factors are the pulling forces that lead them to migrate.
The chosen state of finish by the worker.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presented the different literature and surveies conducted by different writers both local and foreign to back up the constructs and theories of the phenomenon called Feminization of Labor Migration.
In a survey entitled, The Feminization of Philippine Migration in Europe ( 05 March 2009 ) , the Philippine Migration is brought approximately by a combination of socio-cultural, economic, and political factors in the Philippines that push Philippine adult females to migrate, every bit good as factors in Europe that pull them to immigrate. The economic crisis in the Philippines has led to an increasing unemployment and underemployment, with practically `` no work available '' within the state.
Harmonizing to that same survey, it was mentioned that as migratory workers, Filipinas experience a host of jobs related to their employment state of affairss. Because they are adult females, who come from the so called `` Third World '' , they are allowed to work merely in the lowest occupation classs. They are peculiarly vulnerable to assorted signifiers of exploitatory labor patterns, being employed in occupations, which make usage of their extremely skilled and qualified labor at really low cost.
The fact is adult females migrators are so capable to assorted signifiers of maltreatment when they work overseas - they are paid low rewards if they are paid at all, they work in awful on the job conditions, and are capable to assorted signifiers
of physical, sexual and psychological force - naming for necessary intercessions on the portion of the province ( Rodriguez, 1995 ) .
With mention to the survey entitled The Feminization of Philippine Migration in Europe ( 05 March 2009 ) , it was stated that the withholding of rewards and paperss such as passports, low wage, long working hours, the deficiency of chances for meaningful calling promotion, and the deficiency of work benefits and occupation security, are merely some of the jobs, which Filipina migrator workers experience in the work topographic point.
Many believed labour export exposed adult females migrators to harsh signifiers of sexual force. Others believed that the emigration of adult females was weakening the Philippines ' societal and moral cloth and still others, believed that the emigration of Filipinas as domestic workers and entertainers threatened the Philippine province 's capable position on the universe phase ( Rodriguez, 1995 ) .
The feminisation of Philippine abroad labour migration, which had been male-dominated until the 1980s, belies the failure of adult females 's authorization in society. The increasing emigration of adult females indicates a diminution, or go oning restriction, in the portion of work available to adult females in the production procedure ; employment chances remain restricted and income insufficient.
The bulk of female OFWs are still in "traditional '' generative work such as domestic work and cultural amusement, wellness attention and nursing, where the wage is low and the nature of the work involves a higher exposure to physical, sexual and other maltreatment. This in bend underscores the international division of labour, in which the Third World, or the South, does the labour-intensive and lower-paid work. It
besides demonstrates a persistent gendered division of labour at the planetary degree, with the South taking on the humble facets of generative work, which are thereby "feminized, '' secondary, subservient, and inferior to the "masculine, '' dominant North ( de Guzman, 2003 ) .
The increased apprehension of the state of affairs of migratory adult females should supply the footing for the preparation of policies and programmes that promote their equality with migratory work forces and that safeguard their wellbeing ( UN, 2004 ) .
For a long clip, the typical migrator has been viewed as male and until 3 decennaries ago, female migration was by and large overlooked. Since the center of the 1970s, there has been a turning involvement in adult females 's in-migration, foremost with the addition in household reunion, particularly in Europe and from the 1980s, until today, the turning enlisting of migratory adult females for labour market needs particularly in service ( Casas and Garson, 2005 ) .
In recent old ages the term feminisation of migration has become platitude, even come ining the populace sphere through media studies ( INSTRAW, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Nancy V. Yanger, in her survey on the Feminization of Migration ( 2006 ) , there has been a alteration in the international migration forms of adult females: more are traveling from one state to another on their ain than to fall in their hubbies or other household members. This feminisation of migration raises several cardinal policy concerns about adult females 's security and human rights in sending and finish states.
About half of all migratory workers are now adult females ( IOM, 2008 ) , with
more adult females migrating independently and as chief income earners instead than attach toing male relations ( Martin, 2005 ) . Insofar as work forces are progressively unable to carry through their traditional functions as economic suppliers to their households, and the demand for female health professionals continue to lift in the industrial states, the force per unit area on adult females to seek new endurance schemes for their households will go on to fuel the addition of female migrators worldwide ( INSTRAW, 2007 ) .
The feminisation of migration had besides produced specifically female signifiers of migration, such as the commercialised migration of domestic workers and health professionals, the migration and trafficking of adult females for the sex industry and the organized migration of adult females for matrimony ( UNESC, 2006 ) .
Womans are frequently recruited internationally to make generative work in other people 's houses or for service sector occupations such as waitressing or amusement that are ill and marked by high instability and turnover. Many of these occupations are unregulated because they are of marginal legality ( such as sex work ) or because they are non included in the range of the finish state 's labour Torahs, which chiefly cover productive work. The unregulated nature of generative work, which allows no resort through the legal system, topographic points many adult females migrators at hazard of development in the signifier of low rewards, hapless working conditions, or physical or sexual maltreatment ( Yinger, 2006 ) .
Possibly the most noteworthy characteristic of female migration is the extent to which it is founded upon the continued reproduction and development of gender inequalities by planetary capitalist
economy. For the most portion, female labour migrators perform adult females 's work as nursemaids, amahs and sex workers - the worst possible occupational niches in footings of wage, working conditions, legal protections and societal acknowledgment. In this manner, gender Acts of the Apostless as a basic forming rule of labour markets in finish states, reproducing and reenforcing preexistent gender forms that oppress adult females. But it is non merely adult females who perform these occupations, but adult females of a peculiar race, category, ethnicity and/or nationality - i.e. gender cross-cuts with other signifiers of subjugation to ease the economic development of adult females migrators and these delegating to a servile ( amahs ) and/or despised ( sex workers ) position ( INSTRAW, 2007 ) .
In the North, the turning engagement of immigrant adult females in paid work is chiefly the consequence of an addition in the demand for labor in unskilled and ill paid occupations in the service sectors in immigrant-receiving states. Domestic service, hotels and eating houses and personal attention are all sectors that have big resort to foreign migration labor and the development of entirely female migration flows ( Sassen, 1993 ) . Immigrant adult females work in those occupations that are abandoned by the having state subjects ( Casas and Garson, 2005 ) .
INSTRAW 's Columbia instance survey found a important figure of middle-age adult females whose chief ground to migrate was non related to economic or household grounds ( as their kids are already grown up ) but instead to the outlook that new relationship chances are easier to come by in Spain than in Columbia, where adult females their
age have a hard clip happening new sexual spouses. Both the Columbian and the Dominican instance surveies found that unsatisfactory matrimonies factored in many adult females 's determination to migrate, as it was easier for them to stop the relationship after they had moved to another state ( which contradicts the common premise that the migration itself is the cause of the matrimonial break-up ) ( INSTRAW, 2007 ) .
The surveies have revealed the 2 dimensions of the function played by immigrant adult females in the economic systems of both their sending and their receiving societies: an active function on the labor market, directing remittals, going caputs of family, etc. Certain academic and political circles would see to hold established a nexus between feminisation of migration, the active function of adult females as economic and development agents and authorization. It is of import to observe that even though immigrant adult females take part in the economic sciences of their states of beginning and finish, by directing big remittals and keeping multinational families, this function as societal and economic agents does non needfully connote an addition in their position ( authorization ) ( Casas and Garson, 2005 ) .
As INSTRAW 's ( 2007 ) ( and many other ) instance surveies show, by leting adult females to go economic suppliers for themselves and for their multinational households, migration can increase their self-esteem, personal liberty and position. Migrant adult females frequently measure their accomplishments merely in footings of the benefits they are able to supply to their households and they are praised by others in similar footings.
Migration can supply a critical beginning of income for migratory adult
females and their households, and gain them increased liberty, assurance and societal position ( IOM, 2008 ) .
In a survey conducted by Monica Boyd entitled Women in International Migration: The Context of Exit and Entry for Empowerment and Exploitation ( 2006 ) , adult females migratory workers who are admitted lawfully but temporarily, may be ill protected by bing labour jurisprudence in finish states and they may hold small resort to province protection if maltreatment occurs.
In states of beginning and besides in states of finish ( IOM, 2008 ) , female migrators may be victims of negative attitudes about adult females working at all, attitudes that affect their rights to go forth the state without permission to have farther instruction or preparation and to prosecute in certain businesss. Globally, the International Labour Office ( ILO ) reports that the most often encountered issues sing the on the job conditions of adult females migratory workers are low wage, heavy work loads with long on the job hours and unequal remainder periods, limited preparation installations and hapless calling development. In some states such workers besides lack freedom of motion. Women migratory workers ' occupations are usually located really low on the occupational ladder and normally non, or merely inadequately covered by labour statute law or other societal security or public assistance commissariats ( ILO, 1999 ) .
The broader theoretical attack to the analysis of webs as a factor behind migration now extends to the function of adult females in migration. A farther factor that favours the increased visibleness of female in-migration is that migration is no longer considered to be the consequence of an single determination but
instead is best viewed as an built-in portion of household and community schemes ( Stark, 1984 ) ( Casas and Garson, 2005 ) .
Womans migrate to work abroad in response to gender-specific labour demand in states of finish that reflects bing values, norms, stereotypes and hierarchies based on gender. Therefore, although Torahs sing the admittance of migratory workers are by and large gender impersonal, the demand for domestic workers, nurses, and entertainers focal points on the enlisting of migratory adult females. Furthermore, in states of beginning as good, female labor supply is the consequence of gender norms and stereotypes that gear adult females to certain traditionally female businesss. Recruitment mediators, whether private or official, besides contribute to reenforce gender segregation in the labor market ( UN, 2004 ) .
Womans have ever been present in migratory flows, traditionally as partners, girls, or dependants of male migrators. Presents adult females are progressively migrating as the chief economic suppliers for their families - significance that they migrate autonomously as breadwinners - a part that has served to increase their visibleness within migratory flows ( UN-INSTRAW, 2006 ) .
The planetary demand for migratory labor now prioritizes adult females 's specific accomplishments and traditional functions, such that: a ) paid domestic work is progressively performed by adult females who leave their ain states, communities and frequently their households ; B ) domestic service draws non merely adult females from hapless socio-economic categories but besides adult females of comparatively high position in their ain states ; and c ) the development of service-based economic systems in post-industrial states favours the international migration of adult females workers. In the developed universe, the
combination of adult females 's increased engagement in the labour force and the failure to develop family-friendly labour policies and kid, aged, and disabled attention options have lead to a strong demand for migratory adult females workers. Migrant adult females are therefore a cardinal support system for adult females 's freedom in the developed universe - and they make a part that is under-recognized and undervalued ( UN-INSTRAW, 2006 ) .
The increasing feminisation of the Philippine labour export industry suggests that adult females 's despair to get the better of the adversities brought approximately by declining socioeconomic conditions in the state is the major push factor that drives them to go forth, to wager on a brighter hereafter abroad - while turning about a unsighted oculus to the hazards involved ( Filipino Migrants Rights Watch, 2004 ) .
The feminisation of international labour migration in the Philippines can be seen from several vantage points. For one, it can be seen as an extension of the freedom of mobility afforded Filipino adult females. For another, the engagement of Filipino adult females in international labour migration can be seen as a response to the demand for adult females workers in the more developed states. The demand for adult females migratory workers besides came at a clip when the demand for male workers was decelerating down in the Middle East, which was the major finish of migratory workers in the 1970s and the early 1980s. States of beginning such as the Philippines were poised to react to the demand for adult females migratory workers given the experience they had gained with large-scale abroad employment in the 1970s ( Guerrero,
et. Al, 2001 ) .
Although adult females give different grounds why they consider abroad employment as a work option, these grounds constantly boil down to economic or fiscal considerations. Migrant workers mention the undermentioned particular or immediate grounds: "to acquire a occupation '' , "to back up household demands '' , " to direct siblings and kids to school '' , "to pay for medical intervention of parents '' , "to pay debts '' ( Villalba, 2002 ) .
Compared to other states of beginning, the Philippines has, in fact, instituted assorted steps to guarantee the protection of adult females migratory workers. Early on and several times thenceforth, the authorities had instituted several prohibitions on the deployment of domestic workers ( 1982 for Saudi Arabia, which did non force through ; a general prohibition in 1987 and the gradual lifting of the prohibition as better conditions obtain in the receiving states ; prohibition for Singapore in 1995 ) and in the deployment of entertainers to Japan in 1991, in the hopes of halting the migration of adult females migratory workers. Bans, as our experience showed, do non work ; alternatively they merely lead to irregular migrations, which puts adult females migratory workers in greater danger. Under the fortunes, the authorities instituted assorted attacks to protect adult females migratory workers ( Guerrero, et. Al, 2001 ) .
Republic Act No. 8042 ( POEA, 1996 ) popularly known as the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 is an act establishing the policies of abroad employment and set up a higher criterion of protection and publicity of the public assistance of migratory workers, their households and abroad Filipinos
in hurt, and for the other intents. Specifically, Section 2, paragraph vitamin D ( Declaration of Policies ) stated, `` The State affirms the cardinal equality before the jurisprudence of adult females and work forces and the important function of adult females in nation-building. Acknowledging the part of abroad migratory adult females workers and their peculiar exposures, the State shall use gender sensitive standards in the preparation and execution of policies and plans impacting migratory workers and the composing of organic structures tasked for the public assistance of migratory workers.
In add-on, Section 4 ( Deployment of Migrant Workers ) declared, "The State shall deploy abroad Filipino workers merely in states where the rights of Filipino migratory workers are protected. The authorities recognizes any of the undermentioned as a warrant on the portion of the having state for the protection and the rights of abroad Filipino workers: a ) it has bing labour and societal Torahs protecting the rights of migratory workers ; B ) it is a signer to many-sided conventions, declarations or declarations associating to the protection of migratory workers ; degree Celsiuss ) it has concluded a bilateral understanding or agreement with the authorities protecting the rights of abroad Filipino workers ; and vitamin D ) it is taking positive, concrete steps to protect the rights of migratory worker ( POEA, 1996 ) .
Deductions of the Reviewed Studies and Literature to the Present Study
The reviewed surveies and literature were presented to back up or rebut the theories and construct employed in the survey. Further, it is one manner to appreciate the grounds behind the emigration of adult females since 1980s and the hazards
and adversities involved.
Method of Research
The research worker shall made usage of the descriptive research. Harmonizing to Calderon and Gonzales ( 1993 ) , descriptive research is a purposive procedure of assemblage, analysing and tabling informations about prevalent conditions, patterns, beliefs, procedures, tendencies and cause-effect relationships and so doing equal and accurate reading about such informations with or without the assistance of statistical method.
Population and Sampling
The respondents in this survey shall be the Filipino adult females migratory workers employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( KSA ) as professionals and household workers among others. To find the sample size of the population, the research worker shall use the Slovin 's expression. In 2008, 24,508 adult females workers were deployed in KSA. Using Slovin 's expression, the sample size of 24,508 is 100 respondents. Alkhobar, KSA is the preferable topographic point for the behavior of this survey wherein one of the two POLOs in Saudi Arabia is located.
The research worker shall made usage of the Convenience Sampling in study questionnaire in the choice of respondents and Purposive Sampling Technique in placing the interviewees.
Data Gathering Tool/s
Primary and secondary instruments shall be utilized to help the research worker in garnering data/information. A questionnaire shall be constructed that inside informations the profile of the female migratory workers every bit good as the common issues and concerns encountered by Filipino adult females migratory workers. Webster Dictionary defines questionnaire as a set of inquiries for obtaining statistically utile or personal information from an person. The questionnaire shall be presented in a question-answer format with suited replies so that the respondents can easy bespeak their response by puting a checkmark on
the infinite matching to the reply.
The research worker shall besides carry on interviews on DOLE functionaries, non-government organisations, and Filipino adult females migratory workers here and abroad to beg positions necessary for the behavior of this survey. Books and electronic data/information were besides sourced out in this survey.
Data Gathering Procedures
Questionnaires thru the aid of POLO-Alkhobar shall be disseminated to the respondents by June until August 2009. Interviews shall follow after the consequence of the study is finalized.
The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration ( POEA ) deployment statistics shall be utilized to place the Filipino adult females migratory workers deployed from 1980s to 2008. The same informations shall be used to besides place the sector dominated by Filipino adult females migrators.
The twelvemonth 1980 is chosen as the get downing point of the survey since based on the statistics, the roar in the migration of Filipino adult females in their chosen states of finish started this twelvemonth.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The information gathered through the usage of questionnaire and the information drawn through interview method shall be organized and presented carefully to find the issues and concerns adult females migratory workers encountered in their workplace, the functions of the authorities through the DOLE in guaranting the public assistance and protection of Filipino adult females migratory workers, the policies and plans of DOLE in covering with the migration of adult females in footings of their public assistance and protection and the deductions of these common issues and concerns in the preparations of labour policies directed to them.
For the profile informations information, simple per centum shall be used. The expression is:
P = f/n x 100
P - Percentage
F - Frequency
N - Number
To find the sample size of the population, Slovin 's expression shall be employed. The expression is ( adopted from J.O. Gonzales ) :
n = NA
( 1+Ne2 )
n - Sample Size
N - Population Size
e - Margin of Error ( 0.10 % )
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