APHG CHAPTER 13 STUDY GUIDE

Annexation
Annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.

Census Tract
Census Tract
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods

Concentric Zone Model
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.

Council of Government
Council of Government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.

Density Gradient
Density Gradient
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery

Edge City
Edge City
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area

Filtering
Filtering
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment

Gentrification
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area

Greenbelt
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area

Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
area with a city of 50 thousand or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city.

Micropolitan Statistical Area
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.

Multiple Nuclei Model
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

Peripheral Model
Peripheral Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

Public Housing
Public Housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes.

Redlining
Redlining
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.

Rush or Peak hour
Rush or Peak hour
The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic

Sector Model
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

Smart Growth
Smart Growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland

Sprawl
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.

Squatter Settlement
Squatter Settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.

Underclass
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.

Urbanization
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

Urbanized Area
Urbanized Area
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.

Urban Renewal
Urban Renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

Zoning Ordinance
Zoning Ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.