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AP Human Geography Language and Religion Vocab

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Creole
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a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
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Dialect
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a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group
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Dispersal
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the action or process of distributing things or people over a wide area
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Agricultural Therory
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with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
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Conquest Theory
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early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
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Renfrew Theory
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three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe’s Indo-European languages (from Anatolia (present-day Turkey)); North African and Arabian languages (from the western arc of the Fertile Crescent); and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (from the eastern arc of the Fertile Crescent)
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Esperanto
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an artificial language devised in 1887 as an international medium of communication, based on roots from the chief European languages
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Extinct Language
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a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use
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Global Language
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a language spoken internationally and which is learned by many people as a second language
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Indo-European Languages
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a large, widespread family of languages, the surviving branches of which include Italic, Slavic, Baltic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, and Indo-Iranian, spoken by about half the world’s population: English, Spanish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian, Albanian, Lithuanian, Armenian, Persian, Hindi, and Hittite are all Indo-European languages
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Illiteracy
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the inability to read or write
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Isogloss
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boundary that seperates regions in which different language uses predominate
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Language
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system of communication through the use of speech, collection of sounds and understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
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Language Convergence
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languages form together into one
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Language Divergence
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new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
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Language Family
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collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
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Lingua Franca
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a common language used by speakers of different languages
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Linguistic Diversity
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range of variations exhibited by human languages
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Literacy
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the ability to read and write
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Monolingual
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Speaks one language
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Multilingual
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Speaks more than one language
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Nostratic
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the language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages (including Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian), the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Official Languge
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The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
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Pidgin
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A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
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Sound Shift
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Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
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Standard Language
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The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
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Toponymy
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the study of place names
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Trade Language
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a restructured language used especially in commercial communication
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Animism
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Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
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Atheism
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disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods
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Diaspora
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People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
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Evangelical
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Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system
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Enclave
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any small, distinct area or group enclosed or isolated within a larger one
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Exclave
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a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory
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Extremism
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the holding of extreme political or religious views
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Feng Shui
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Rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy
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Fundamentalism
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The strict adherence to a particular doctrine
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Genocide
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A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group
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Hajj
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the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime
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Interfaith Boundaries
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The boundaries between the world’s major faiths
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Intrafaith Boundaries
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The boundaries within a major religion
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Jihad
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(Muslim) a war or struggle against unbelievers
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Mormonism
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a religion that denies the deity of Jesus Christ
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Pilgrimage
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A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
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Proselytic Religion
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a religion that actively seeks converts and has the goal of converting all humankind
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Reincarnation
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religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit, after biological death, can begin a new life in a new body
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Religion
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The service and worship of God or the supernatural
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Ethnic Religion
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Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
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Universalizing Religion
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Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe
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Religious Conflict
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Conflicts between religions. Example: the crusade
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Religious Culture Hearth
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The birth place of a religion. Example: Jerusalem
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Religious Landscape
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Landscape shaped by religion. Example: Churches
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Religious Toponym
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Religious place names Example: St. Petersburg
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Sacred Space
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place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies
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Secularism
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a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
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Shamanism
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Form of a tribal religion that involved community acceptance of a shaman, a religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who, through special powers, can intercede with and interpret the spirit world
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Shari’a Law
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legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in legal system based on muslim principles
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Theism
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belief in the existence of a god or gods, especially belief in one god as creator of the universe, intervening in it and sustaining a personal relation to his creatures
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Monotheism
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The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
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Polytheism
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Belief in or worship of more than one god
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Zionism
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a movement for the re-establishment and the development and protection of a Jewish nation in what is now Israel