Anthropology Ch 12-15

question

Political Anthropologist:
answer

study role social power human society.
question

Power:
answer

ability to transform a given situation. It is not simply physical.
question

Social power affects…
answer

-entire social group.
question

Modes of Power consist of…
answer

Interpersonal, organizational, and structural power.
question

Structural Power:
answer

controls the allocation of social labor and organizes social settings.
question

The unequal relations on large scale divisions between __________ and ________.
answer

Regions and Groups.
question

History of Political anthropology has three phases:
answer

Formative era, Classic era British social anthropology functionalist theory, and Modern Era (1970s-present)
question

Decolonization drew attention to what?
answer

The emerging new states and effect of modernization on traditional political structures.
question

Modern Era brought about what questions:
answer

Broader questions about political issues, power and inequality under globalization and cross-cultural studies of political institutions.
question

Cross-cultural studies of economies and expectations reveals _______ of human condition.
answer

Paradox
question

Unrealistic expectations of the Modern Era are…
answer

1) Open cultural creativity allows humans to imagine possibilities. 2) The material world makes many of the possibilities unrealistic.
question

Political and economic anthropology are not closely linked.
answer

False. They are closely linked.
question

Questions about economic activity is intertwined with questions about the distribution of power.
answer

True.
question

Westerners think that because something isn’t like their society, it sucks.
answer

True.
question

Easterners view Westerners as \”Free Agents\”
answer

False. Other way around.
question

Free agents:
answer

pursue their own self interests and do not cooperate unless forced to do so.
question

Discussions of power as coercion see political activity as…
answer

competition between free agents and political force.
question

Power is exercised by both _____ and ________ means.
answer

Coercive and Persuasive
question

Societies without states rely on __________
answer

Social obligations.
question

Individuals cannot be coerced but must be persuaded to cooperate.
answer

True.
question

______________ represents coercive rule.
answer

Domination.
question

Ideology
answer

a worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live.
question

Marx argues that rulers use ideology to portray domination by _____________________
answer

The ruling class as legitimate.
question

Hegemony involves persuasion of subordinates _____________ the ideology of the dominant group by mutual accommodations.
answer

to accept
question

Hegemony does not preserve the rulers privileged position.
answer

False. It does.
question

Hegemony is never _________ and always _______.
answer

Absolute; changes
question

Counterhegemonic, or Alternative Cultural Practices:
answer

Can be developed by subordinate groups that threaten hegemony
question

Governmentality
answer

information encoded into statistics to govern in a way that promotes the welfare of populations within a state.
question

Individuals or groups may attempt to evade or manipulate _____________
answer

Governmentality
question

Understanding kindship system provides more understand of _________ in electoral politics
answer

Gender dynamics
question

_______ relations can be entangled with lcoal electoral politcs
answer

Kin
question

Citizenship
answer

Can be divided into legal and substantive citizenship.
question

Legal citizenship
answer

defined by the state may be difficult for migrants to get.
question

Substantive citizenship.
answer

defined by the actions people take, regardless of legal status to assert membership in the state.
question

New Europe was the living laboratory for the study of some of the most ______ social and ______ culrual processes anywhere in the world.
answer

complex, cultural
question

Examples of complex social structures of Europe include
answer

Itals, Germany, France, Britain
question

Hidden transcripts
answer

Unofficial accounts of experiences by dominated individuals or groups
question

Counter hegemonic discourse may discredit the political establishment
answer

True.
question

some anthropologists have concerns about ___________
answer

Human Terrain System
question

Human Terrain System:
answer

Small teams of civilian anthropologists and other social scientists provide socioculturual information about neighborhoods and communities.
question

Ch 12 Enthographic examples:
answer

To be announced Ch 12.
question

Ch 13 Ehtnographic examples:
answer

To be announced Ch 13
question

Relatedness
answer

the soicially recognized ties that connect people
question

Relatedness also includes:
answer

kinship, adoption, marriage, residence, family, sexuality. (KS FARM)
question

Relatedness forms are embedded in and shaped by ________, _________, and __________.
answer

Politics, economics, and worldviews.
question

People organize their interdependence by means of various forms of ___________
answer

relatedness.
question

_________, __________, ________ and _____________ are selectively interpreted and shaped by cultural practices.
answer

Sexuality, conception, birth, and nurturance.
question

Kinship:
answer

refers to forms of relatedness belived to come from shared substance and its transmission.
question

Substance may be believed to be:
answer

bodily (blog, genes, mother’s milk) or spiritual (such as the soul, spirit, nurturance, or love)
question

Cross Cultural Comparison:
answer

shows that kinship is not a direct reflection of biology
question

Kinship principles largely based on
answer

universal biologuical experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance.
question

Culturally recognized relationhips
answer

marriage (mating) descent (birth)
question

Descent refers to the
answer

the principles based on culturally recognized parent child connections that define the social categories to which people belong.
question

Descent links members of different generations with one another.
answer

True.
question

How many strategies for establishing descent:
answer

Two.
question

Bilateral descent (cognatic descent)
answer

Related through mothers and fathers equally.
question

Bilateral descent results in the formations called:
answer

kindreds.
question

Relatives in Bilateral descent are from ________ parents’ families
answer

Both
question

Unilineral Descent
answer

formation of groups called lineages that trace descent through either the mother or the father.
question

LIneages
answer

Consanguineous members of descent who trace from known ancestors.
question

Lineages are _________ groups.
answer

Corporate.
question

Corporate groups control _______ property such as land collectively belonging to members.
answer

important
question

Lineages can have political significance and serve as a social foundation of social life
answer

True.
question

Lineage members recognize a known ancestor.
answer

True.
question

Clans are _______ groups.
answer

Descent
question

Members of clans believe they have a ______________
answer

common and sometimes mythical ancestor.
question

Clans are usually composed of _______
answer

lineages.
question

Kinship terminolofies select certain attributes to define different classes, including:
answer

Generation, gender, affinity, collaterality, bifurcation, relative age, gender of the linking relative. GGGCARB
question

Collaterality:
answer

involves making a distinction between kin believed to be in a direct line and those \”off to one side.\”
question

Bifurcation:
answer

involves kinship terms that distinguish the mother’s side of the family from the father’s side of the family.
question

Cousins may be parallel relatives or cross relatives.
answer

True.
question

Parallel Relatives:
answer

children of a person’s parents’ same gender siblings.
question

Cross cousins:
answer

children of a person’s parents opposite gender siblings.
question

Marriage
answer

institition or social process transforming status of participants.
question

Marriage includes:
answer

implications about sexual access, perpetuates social patters by birth of adopting offspring, creates relationships between kin and is symbolically marked.
question

Why is marriage a social process
answer

marriage creates new relationships between the kin of both spouses
question

Consanguineal relationships are…
answer

based on descent
question

Affinial relationships
answer

are based on marriage or affinity
question

Endogamy is based
answer

on marriage within a defined social group
question

Exogamy is based
answer

on marriage outside a defined social group
question

Neolocal
answer

a married couple sets up a household in an new location
question

Patriolocal
answer

a married couple sets up a household with the husbands father
question

Matrilocal
answer

a married couple sets up a household with the wife’s mother
question

Avunculocal
answer

a married couple sets up a household with the husbands mothers brother ?????
question

Monagamy
answer

marriage one person at a time
question

Polygamy
answer

marriage more than one person at a time
question

Polygamy has two forms
answer

Polygyny: a man has more than one wife Polyandry: a woman has more than one husband
question

Bridewealth
answer

transfer goods from family of groom to family of the bride at marriahe
question

Dowry
answer

transfer of wealth, usually from parents to their daughter, at the time of marriage
question

Conjugal family
answer

a family based on marriage
question

Non Conjugal marriage
answer

a women and her children
question

Nuclear family
answer

parents and their unmarries children
question

extended family
answer

parents, marries children, and grandchildren. Vertical connection over the generations.
question

Joint Family
answer

Brothers and their wives or sisters and their husbands living together with their children. Horizontal. not over generation.
question

Blended family
answer

when divorced or widowed people marry bringing children from previous families
question

Nation state is not always dealt with. T or F
answer

False. Nation state is always dealt with.
question

Each nation state has hierarchies of stratificaiton
answer

gender, class, caste, race, ethnicity, nationality. CREG NC.
question

Every hiearchy of stratification is a ___________ designed to create boundaries
answer

Cultrual invention
question

Historical Perspective
answer

Some patterns of stratifications may reach back thousands of years.
question

Historical perspective often associated with
answer

European capitalism and colonialism.
question

Structural violence
answer

results from the way that political and economic forces suffering within a population
question

Structural Violence can take many forms
answer

disease, famine, torture, rape. FTRD.
question

Dimensions of Inequality
answer

CREG NC
question

Gender Stratification
answer

create and rank categories of people.
question

Gender stratification typically makes males the subordinate. T/F
answer

False.. Females.
question

Marxists feminists argue subordination connected to rise of _________
answer

private property and rise of states.
question

Class is defined by
answer

wealth, occupation, other.
question

Classes are ________
answer

Open
question

Castes are ranked groups within hiearchally stratified society that is closed, prohibiting individuals to move. T/F
answer

True.
question

Jatis
answer

local caste divisions
question

Rules of purity and pollution defined based on
answer

occupations their members perform and the foods they eat
question

Race
answer

is a human population catefory whose boundaries supposedly correspond to distinct sets of biological attributes.
question

Traditional concept of race in western society is incoherent and biologically meaningless. T/F
answer

True
question

Race is a ___________ constructed social categroy
answer

culturally
question

Imagined communities
answer

so called races whose boundaries were forged during the 19th century
question

Race is a _________ invention.
answer

Recent.
question

Middle ages did not have a structure of equality because of skin color. T/F
answer

True
question

Racism can exist _______ being as absolute and encompassing as seen in the U.S.
answer

without
question

Colorism
answer

a system of social identities negotiated simultaneously along a continuum of skin colors between white and black
question

Ethinicy emerges from…
answer

from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality
question

Nations
answer

group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even physical substance.
question

Nationality
answer

sense of identification with and loyalty to a nation state.
question

Nation States
answer

ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide
question

Nationalsism/Nation Building
answer

attemps made by the government officials to instill into the citizens of a state a sense of nationality.
question

Nationalist thinking
answer

aims to create a political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide.
question

Genocide and ethnic cleaning occur when
answer

subordinate groups resist
question

Transformist hegemonies
answer

define nationality so that is preserves the cultural domination of the ruling group.
question

Naturalizing discourses represent the deliberate representation of particular identites as if they were the result of biology or nature
answer

True.
question

These identities of CREG NC are viewed as eternal and unchanging rather than the product of history and culture
answer

True.
question

_________ to anthropological view of culturally created social categories (Naturalizing discourses)
answer

Opposite
question

Modernization
answer

there are a series of stages by which new underdeveloped nations could become prosperous.
question

Neolliberalism
answer

nation states could not rely on itself and should seek a niche in global capitalist market
question

Western leaders say an opportunity to bring the world into a
answer

capitalist economy
question

Others suspected that forces after Cold War were remaking global __________ in new ways with outcomes no one could predict or control
answer

political economy
question

Globalization
answer

reshaping of local conditions by powerful global forces on an ever intensifying scale
question

Anthropologist approach globalization from what perspective
answer

of those among whom they do their reserch
question

Most antrhopologists agree that the effects of globalization are uneven. T/F
answer

True
question

In a globalizing world, wealth, images, people, things and ideologies are __________
answer

deterritorialized
question

__________ in some parts of the world benefit from global flows, contracts, and exchanges, whereas other are bypassed entirely
answer

select groups
question

Globalization studies
answer

emphasize that the global articulates with the local
question

Global forces ________ local societies
answer

affect
question

Anthropologists document and investigate the specific local details of_______________________________
answer

the effects of flobal forces in local setting
question

GLobalization is seen in:
answer

growth of corporations, tourism (the largest) and migration
question

Some anthropologists had seen global processes as coherent part of a world system or….
answer

flow of people, technology, ideologies and generate global processes that are disorganized and unpredictable.
question

The flows unleashed by globalization have…
answer

undermined the ability of nations states to police their boundaries effectively.
question

Forces of globalization made weakened states vulnerable to….
answer

chaos and violence
question

Massive globalization of people have characterized
answer

western modernity
question

Western modernity starting with slave trade and movement of _______
answer

indentured servants
question

Today ____________ and east transportation have increased volume and speed of migration
answer

desperate ecomonic condiotions
question

Because of economic conditions _______ may live in enclaves in poorer areas
answer

Migrants
question

Increases hostility towards migrants especially during economic downturn
answer

True
question

Transborder identities
answer

may be developed by contemporary migrants crossing national boundaries.
question

Diaspora
answer

migrant populations with a shared identity and a form of transborder identity that does not focus on nation building.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member