Agricultural Activities In Dungun Terengganu Sociology Essay Example
Agricultural Activities In Dungun Terengganu Sociology Essay Example

Agricultural Activities In Dungun Terengganu Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4397 words)
  • Published: July 19, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Chapter 1 - Background

The chapter focuses on the background of the survey, particularly on societal capital in relation to agricultural activities in Dungun Terengganu.


Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy, especially in developing nations. It serves as a primary source of national income (Ayob, 1994). Numerous policies have been implemented to ensure the long-term sustainability of agriculture as a key contributor to national income.

Various policies were put into action to guarantee sufficient food supply and eliminate national poverty. These include the National Agriculture Policy, the Agricultural Development Policy (Ayob, 1994), and the "1 Azam" Program (Government Transformation Programme: The Roadmap, 2010).

In poverty-stricken countries, agriculture plays a crucial role in ensuring food security and promoting economic development. However, the lack of interest among Malaysian youth in agribusiness hinders its potential. Therefore, the government must devise effective altern


atives to enhance agricultural activity and increase productivity. Liverpool-Tasie, Nail, & Ajibola (2011) state that improving agricultural productivity is a priority for government policies and development agencies. This aligns with the country's modernization efforts as the agriculture sector has also experienced significant changes.

The nomination method has expanded to include not only landowners but also people without land, allowing them to participate in gardening. This signifies an innovative approach to altering traditional agricultural patterns (Westendorp, A, Biggs). The Hydroponic and Fertigation System is a Malaysian invention for the agribusiness system that presents farmers with opportunities to boost their income. This is particularly significant as poverty often correlates with low income in the agricultural sector (Ayob, 1994). Several factors contribute to the success of agricultural areas.

Trust, interaction, networking, cognition sharing, and cooperation are vital for success in agriculture. However, the most

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crucial element for achieving success is societal capital. Societal capital pertains to the public resources that must be managed and shared through long-term cooperation by groups or individuals to ensure sustainable societal development (Yamaoka, 2007).

Social capital is essential for the success of innovative agricultural ventures, but its value must be recognized by individuals. This study explores how social capital relates to agricultural activities and its importance in hindering progress if not acknowledged.

Background of the Study

A country's modernity encompasses more than just technological advancements; it also includes innovation in agriculture. Over the years, numerous new agricultural methods have emerged on a global scale.

The agricultural industry has undergone a similar revolution as other sectors, as demonstrated by these examples. Heemskerk, Wennink, D.Parthasarathy, V.K.Chopde, Westendorp, and Biggs have all highlighted the significance of agricultural innovation in stabilizing production and improving productivity in agricultural areas, ultimately leading to community development. Different countries have implemented various innovations to stabilize their agricultural sector. For instance, Kinderen (2006) constructed small water reservoirs in Ghana; Westendorp and Biggs introduced non-toxic harvesting methods in Indonesia; D.Parthasarathy and V.K.Chopde utilized agricultural technologies for dryland and semi-arid areas in India; Njuki, Mapila, Zingore, and Delve (2008) implemented soil management options in Southern Africa. All of these agricultural innovations have positively impacted social capital.

Malaysia is known for its agricultural innovation called the fertigation project. Fertigation is a soilless cultivation production system that helps prevent crops from being infected by soil-borne root diseases. Red chili, Cucumis sativus, melon, courgette, eggplant, okra, pepper, and strawberry are some suitable crops for fertigation. Farmers commonly build a nursery called "Struktur Perlindung Tanaman" (STP) to protect the crops from leaf and

fruit infections and maintain the appropriate fertilizer concentration.

In addition to this, the medium used in this system for harvesting is coconut coir dust, which is also known as coconut pulverization or Cocos nucifera peat. This medium has the ability to absorb and store fertiliser solutions, and it is used by the roots as a place to trust. Moreover, it is inexpensive and readily available in the market. This system also utilizes a setting device timer to ensure that each harvest receives the fertiliser solution at the prescribed time. The frequency and duration of each drop depend on the type of crop and its age.

According to the sources, MARDI (Teknologi Penanaman Secara Fertigation), agribusiness organizations in various countries have introduced a new crop system called fertigation harvest. This system has become a popular trend in the agricultural field of Malaysia, with all organizations endorsing its use. When properly implemented, this crop system offers the assurance of a quick return on investment. There have been numerous success stories of farmers who have successfully utilized fertigation by following the cultivation technology provided by MARDI.

In this research, the focus is on how societal capital contributes to the success of the fertigation project in Dungun Terengganu. The goal is to understand the relationship between societal capital and agriculture. According to Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku, and Ajibola (2011), social networks can influence agricultural practices by providing technological information or connections. This, in turn, impacts agricultural productivity as farmers gain valuable information to improve their crop system. Additionally, societal capital can enhance agricultural technology.

The reason for this is that social capital allows for development and can be used through various types of social networks

to create understanding between farming families and the farming community (D.Parthasarathy; A; V.K.Chopde). Social capital in agriculture benefits both farmers and nonfarmers. It increases awareness and appreciation of stakeholder interests, promoting trust and confidence in the actions of community members. With the presence of social capital, nonfarmers will support and respect local agriculture, while farmers will respect the concerns and needs of nonfarmers.

Hence, the creation of societal capital will foster mutual respect and a shared sense of community among individuals, ultimately supporting individual involvement and neighborhood participation (Wilkinson (1991) cited in Sharp & Smith). According to Aleksiev & Penov (2006), societal capital prompts individuals to strive for personal improvement as they have the opportunity to change their circumstances and modify the networks they belong to. BRUEGEL (2006) also notes the contrast between societies with and without societal capital, with Putman (1993) finding that high levels of mistrust indicate a low level of societal capital. Individuals with low levels of societal capital tend to disregard rules and regulations.

Therefore, the duration of any imposed penalty will be lengthy due to the severity of the committed offenses. Additionally, the researcher focuses on two forms of social capital: bonding and bridging. According to Yamaoka (2007), bonding social capital refers to a distinct group with members who have similar qualities and internal focus, while bridging social capital includes multiple cross-sectoral groups with an external focus. The objective of this study is to examine how social capital can contribute to the success of Malaysia's fertigation project, specifically in the case of Dungun Terengganu.

In Malaysia, there has not been any research conducted yet on the improvement of fertigation on societal capital.

Problem Statement


main focus of this research is social capital. Social capital is an important aspect of agricultural activities that provide benefits not only for organizations but also for individuals in achieving certain objectives. The role of social capital is particularly crucial in networking between people. In relation to social capital, learning, communication, and trust are significant attributes that can help measure the success of the fertigation project in Dungun Terengganu. The utilization of fertigation projects in Malaysia is increasing.

However, there are a number of issues linked to this undertaking. The issues include trust, cooperation, interaction, networking, and cognition sharing. However, all of these challenges can be overcome through societal capital. Trust is closely associated with societal capital and can be influenced by various factors that need to be explored by researchers.

According to an officer in the Dungun Agriculture Office, trust is not the only measure of cooperation between farmers and the organization. This is due to the fact that not all farmers are involved in all activities carried out by the organization. Additionally, interaction also plays a crucial role in accelerating social capital. Therefore, effective communication must be used to ensure that farmers understand the information and terms used in the fertigation project. It should be noted that effective interaction can influence social capital if the right tools are used. Networking plays an important role in ensuring the continuity of social capital in this study.

The research worker will analyze factors that influenced networking in the fertigation project. In addition, the researcher also focuses on knowledge sharing and its impact on social capital. There have been many studies on social capital, but this researcher specifically concentrates on

its relationship with agriculture. Heemskerk & Wennink (2004), D. Parthasarathy & V.K.Chopde, and Westendorp explore social capital and agricultural innovation, while Yamaoka (2007), Sharp & Smith, Kinderen (2006), and Liu & Besser (2003) examine social capital in relation to agricultural and rural development.

Authors Hong and Sporleder as well as Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku, and Ajibola conduct research on social capital in agriculture. However, the projects they discuss are not relevant to the fertigation project.

Research Question

This study addresses two research questions pertaining to the fertigation project: How does bonding contribute to its success? How does bridging contribute to its success?

Research Objective

The main objective of this study is to examine how social capital influences the fertigation project in Dungun Terengganu. Furthermore, it aims to explore factors such as trust, cooperation, interaction, networking, and knowledge sharing that impact social capital. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the relationship between social capital and the success of the fertigation project.

Scope of Study

This study focuses on organizations involved in agriculture in Dungun Terengganu including Malaysia's Department of Agriculture and Farmers' Organization Authority. It also includes farmers participating in the Fertigation Project in Dungun.

The text highlights the significance of trust, cooperation, interaction, networking, and knowledge sharing in developing societal capital. However, there are constraints to bear in mind when interpreting the survey findings. These limitations pertain to the study's particular geographic location (Dungun territory) and its narrow focus on farmers within that area. Consequently, the results may not fully depict the general situation. Furthermore, this study is confined to examining the fertigation project.

This study was conducted in two organizations chosen by the researcher, specifically focusing on the area of Dungun, Terengganu. It is important

to note that if the same study was implemented in another region, the results may vary.


The variables examined in this study were trust, cooperation, interaction, networking, and knowledge sharing.

Significance of the Study

This study is significant as it will determine whether trust, cooperation, interaction, networking, and knowledge sharing among stakeholders contribute to the development of social capital in agricultural product development in Dungun, Terengganu. Social capital plays a crucial role in fostering a development community in the agricultural sector.

By creating robust networks, it is possible to achieve positive societal impact and enhance capacity building within the country. Furthermore, this fosters community progress by exposing them to fresh knowledge and involving them in novel missions and decisions. Another crucial facet of this research is acquiring new knowledge in this particular field. This will grant academics and organizations valuable understanding on cultivating social capital between farmers and agricultural organizations.

The collected information not only serves as a basis for future research but can also be utilized by other researchers to analyze global societal capital. Furthermore, the researcher will generate a theoretical component that can particularly benefit scholars studying societal capital in agricultural activities. Ultimately, this study aims to provide recommendations for improving the present condition.

Organizations can prevent, address, and resolve problems to ensure there are solutions in place and avoid repeating past mistakes.

Definition of Terms

Fertigation is a cultivation system (Teknologi Penanaman Secara Fertigation (MARDI)) that does not involve soil.

Social Capital

Cohen (2007) defines social capital as the network of informal trust relationships that serve as a vital social infrastructure for knowledge sharing and creation through combining existing knowledge. Woolcook and Narayan (2000, cited in Kilpatrick and Falk, 2003) further describe

social capital as encompassing norms and networks that enable correct action (pp. 501).

According to the World Bank as cited in Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku, and Ajibola (2011), "social capital refers to the establishments, dealingss and norms that shape the quality and measure of a society's interactions... Social Capital is not merely the amount of the establishments which underpin a society-it is the gum that holds them together."

Bonding societal Capital

The concept of bonding societal capital is defined as the connections between individuals or groups with similar goals within the network (Hong, G., & Sporleder).

Bridging Social Capital

Bridging societal capital refers to the ability of individuals or groups to establish connections with others outside of their organization, especially across social networks (Hong, G., & Sporleder). Measurement of societal capital
Social capital has various dimensions. In many developing countries, it is often measured through membership in community-based organizations and engagement in the community (Okunmadewa et al., 2007; Balogun and Yusuf, 2011a; Yusuf, 2008). Apart from these measures, there are other aspects of social capital that have been identified as important for a comprehensive understanding of the concept. Important facets of social capital identified in the literature include: 1) Groups and networks, measured by membership in formal or informal organizations or associations.

B ) Being able to obtain help from individuals outside of one's household and relatives during difficult times. degree Celsius ) Money sent back home. vitamin D ) Being able to learn from one's network or group, especially how it influences the acceptance of technology. vitamin E ) Having access to various markets (labor, resources, or products) through the group. 2 ) Trust and unity, measured by a ) People's

opinions on whether most individuals in the community can be relied upon. B ) People's perceptions on the social support given by group members to each other in times of hardship.

3) The level of corporate action and cooperation in the community is determined by:
a) The percentage of the community contributing financial resources or effort towards shared development goals.
b) The extent to which people in the community collaborate to solve common problems.
4) The level of information and communication in the community is determined by:
a) How often individuals read or listen to news sources such as radio, newspapers, and television.
5) The level of social coherence and inclusion in the community is determined by:
a) The presence of a strong sense of unity and belonging among community members.

B) Feeling safe from offense and force when alone at place.
6) Authorization and political action, measured by
a) Having control in making decisions that affect everyday activities
b) Political engagement such as voting and being voted for in local elections (Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku; A; Ajibola (2011))

To measure social capital, two indexes are utilized. The first point is a social network measure reflecting the extent to which occupants interact with farmers. The second social capital point represents trust and is an attitudinal measure of resident trust or confidence in local farmers.

The web inquiry asked respondents to indicate how often they saw or met farmers during the year, with response categories including never, a few times a year, once or a few times a month, and once a week or more (Sharp & Smith). This paper uses an inventions systems framework to analyze how social

capital in the overall agricultural and natural resources invention system in Nepal has exceeded expectations (Westendorp & Biggs).

Chapter 2


In the previous chapter, the researcher provides basic information on social capital. In this chapter, further exploration will be done on the elements of social capital that are relevant to the research. It explains the theoretical foundation for social capital in the agricultural sector in Dungun Terengganu. The researcher also provides an overview of how social capital can contribute to the success of the fertigation project in Dungun Terengganu.

This section will address both theoretical considerations and empirical research on issues related to agriculture. The researcher will also present a conceptual framework. The figure below provides an outline of this chapter:

Problems in Agriculture

Every project undoubtedly has its own challenges and difficulties. In this study, the researcher focuses on problems that arise in the agriculture sector to understand the specific challenges faced in this field. Heemskerk & Wennink (2004) discuss the impact of group size.

The countries of agribusiness, whether they are large or small, face a struggle when it comes to determining the optimal group size to utilize. According to Pretty (2003), every agribusiness project should have a group size between 20 and 50 people. However, even if the group size is smaller than 20, farmers can still work effectively. This study discusses the advantages of both small and large group sizes. A small group size can have a stronger influence on social capital as there are fewer members to manage, leading to easier administration and increased dynamism.

However, the large size will result in a vast experience

as it impacts various ranks. Therefore, the size of the group becomes an issue for many engaged in agribusiness to ensure social capital occurs. Moreover, different parties are also involved in agricultural activities (Enserink (2004) as cited in Kinderen (2006)). According to this study, farmers with different inclinations tend to solve their own problems without consulting the responsible party. This is because they have their own perspectives and prefer to solve problems in their own way. This is also supported by Wilber (1981) as cited in Kinderen (2006), where farmers in such situations no longer seek to resolve issues but would rather live with instability and inequalities.

In addition, according to Ogunanya (2009) and Ekunwe, Orewa and Emokaro (2008) as cited in Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku & Ajibola (2011) and Ayob (1994), low-skilled and low-educated individuals are often forced to take on multiple jobs in the agricultural sector. This phenomenon is driven by poverty, which primarily affects farmers. Furthermore, since most impoverished regions are located in agricultural areas, a lack of education among farmers has a detrimental impact on agricultural productivity. It hinders their ability to acquire new skills and develop their agricultural pursuits. Additionally, the low income in the agricultural sector can be attributed to the low educational and skill levels of farmers.

Thus, the need to supplement their income resulted in farmers engaging in other occupations (Fasoranti 2006; Okafor 2004; Adewuyi and Okunmadewa 2001; Yusuf et Al. 2009; Peke 2008; Adewuyi 2006; Adejoh 2009 cited in Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku & A; Ajibola 2011). These challenges in the agricultural sector have spurred innovation, such as the fertigation project in Malaysia, aimed at assisting farmers in the country.

Social Capital

Social capital

is described as an asset, which offers various benefits including increased productivity, efficiency, innovation, and development. Social capital exists not only within an individual, but also within the relationships between individuals and socioeconomic institutions they are a part of (Coleman 1988 cited in Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku & A; Ajibola, 2011).

The survey of societal capital has attracted the interest of various scholars. Social capital refers to the established process through which individuals build and develop relationships with others to provide goods or services (Keyes, 2006). Currently, individuals recognize the value of their collaborative relationships and have been reaping the rewards of effective teamwork. Social capital cannot be observed directly, but it unmistakably exists in the real world and can be experienced through interaction.

According to Woolcock (1999) cited in Bostrom (2002), social capital can be found in organizations, associations, and communities where people can meet and work together. According to Huotari & A; livonen, social capital is associated with trust in a relationship. If the actors in a relationship trust each other, it not only increases social capital but also facilitates knowledge creation for innovation. This is also supported by Ji et al (2010), who found a relationship between social capital and trust in an empirical study. Before discussing this further, let's understand how social capital can occur.

According to Morrice (2207), individuals possess varying amounts of social capital, unsure of whether it is significant or minimal. Nevertheless, when an event occurs involving people's participation, they become unified and form a bond amongst one another. Once united, this bond becomes doubly strong.

All challenges faced would be resolved collectively, resulting in benefits for the group, as the web has grown

more powerful. Interaction and acquisition are integral components of social capital (Maskell, 2000 cited in Chou, 2006), existing within society as processes of interaction and acquisition.

This is because people interact more with co-workers than with household members and friends. Therefore, social capital emerges in workplaces and aids cooperation in occupations. Social capital will continue to exist if individuals use even a small amount of it for societal involvement (Diaz Andrade & Urquhart, 2009). According to them, social capital provides a framework for understanding the structure and intensity of interaction between individuals in a network. Additionally, social capital can foster innovation.

According to Westendorp & Biggs, agriculture not only improves productivity and reduces costs, but also strengthens institutional linkages and promotes the development of social capital. Additionally, storytelling can enhance social capital by reinforcing norms and trust within organizations (Hope Cheong, 2006). Networks possess four characteristics: pluriformity, mutuality, closedness, and dynamism (de Bruijn and heuvelhof, 2000 cited in Kinderen, 2006). Pluriformity refers to the variety within a network, encompassing individuals' characteristics, knowledge, power, financial resources, and goals. When implementing new policies, pluriformity is necessary as conflicts may arise within the network.

This is because people have diverse characteristics and they will act based on their characteristics. In this survey, there is a portion of society in Africa that supports the allocation of limited resources, while some do not want to participate. The exclusiveness of the network is a feature that is easily recognized in these societies. Often, competition between different cultural groups exists in African villages, and having affinity with a group is a significant factor in being part of it or not. The exclusiveness of an organization

(read: village/community) is the result of its frame of reference, which is shaped by core values deeply ingrained in the organization and determining its actions to a large extent.

Administrations usually take notice of interventions that align with their own reference framework (de Bruijn and Heuvelhof, 2000: 27). Thus, identifying that reference framework helps determine the success of the intervention. Furthermore, there is a level of interdependence among individuals within a group or society, which is influenced by the degree of connectivity within the group.

When the web has strong bonding, it will foster mutuality. However, predicting this is difficult. Therefore, actors in the web should be cautious to prevent others from taking advantage of them. Lastly, the web is dynamic and holds significant power to influence people online.

This is because dynamic web can be interfered with from outside sources. Additionally, Maertens (2010), as cited in Liverpool-Tasie, Kuku & Ajibola (2011), mentioned that a dynamic web can influence people to engage in new activities because their web is strong. Based on this model, there are three blocks of variables: the first block represents the pre-condition and precursors of societal capital - a factor in societal construction and the placement of individuals within societal construction, which can either restrict or facilitate societal capital. The second block represents the component of societal capital, while the last block represents the opportunities for societal capital return. The first block explains the formation of inequality in societal capital.

The text discusses a structural component that will affect the likelihood of conceptual success and the preservation of societal capital. In the second paragraph, it further elaborates on two components of societal capital: access to

societal capital and utilization of societal capital. These two elements together explain the process of mobilizing societal capital.

The third block, in addition to discussing the three ingredients, also explains the interconnection between better accessible embedded resources and better embedded resources that can be used by individuals. This process, from the second block (societal capital) to the third block (result), represents how societal capital generates returns and explains the outcomes we obtain from societal capital.

The Importance of Social Capital

According to Grooteart (2004), cited in Kinderen (2006), social capital can predict aspects of society such as crime, health, poverty, and unemployment. It can also improve the efficiency of production, happiness, life satisfaction, and community well-being (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004, cited in Kinderen, 2006). In addition to this, social capital is now seen as an important asset that is equal to natural, physical, financial, human, and political capital (Dll Meinzen-Dick, 2004, cited in Kinderen, 2006). Social capital helps to strengthen democracy in society and enhances efficiency in work (Safr and Sediackova, 2006, cited in POSPAsCH & SPAsA NA, 2011). When networking within a strong community, all activities carried out will proceed smoothly because of the presence of cohesion.

In addition to this, societal capital also played a role in sustainable support (Pretty, 2003). This is because it was associated with societal bonding, where individuals with strong societal bonds will succeed in their activities and also influence living stability. Moreover, societal capital had an impact on knowledge sharing, which is a crucial component of societal capital. Putnam (1993) stated that the uniqueness of societal capital lies in people's willingness to share. Therefore, all activities will

be successful because people are aware of what they need to do and can increase their knowledge.

Social capital is characterized by several key features. One of the main characteristics is that it can accumulate resources and provide various benefits. According to Westendorp & Biggs, social capital goes beyond just the values of social organizations or institutions. It can enhance productivity and improve output in various activities.

In addition, working together can reduce costs and increase societal capital. People will have confidence to invest in corporate activities (Pretty, 2003). According to Pretty and Ward (2001) and Pretty (2002), as cited in Pretty (2003), there are four aspects that can be ensured in societal capital. These aspects include the relationship of trust, reciprocality and exchanges, common regulations, norms and countenance, and connection, web and group.

Impact of Social Capital to Agriculture

According to Bourdieu (1983) as cited in Wolz, Fritzsch, & Reinsberg (2004), obtaining societal capital through purposeful action can lead to its conversion into other types of capital, such as physical capital.

Investing in social capital is a long-term process that yields positive results. Social capital generates economic income and fosters innovation in agriculture. Having a wide network of personal connections helps individuals market their agricultural productivity. In Nepal, the natural resources innovation system exceeded expectations.

In the context of the growth of the agribusiness sector and the development of both urban and rural regions, societal capital is viewed as the readiness and capability to collaborate. This survey includes factors like water p

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