Abstract or Outline Essay
he Abstract or Outline for the Research Paper Organizing Your Paper and Writing the Abstract or Outline If you have chosen to do an MLA paper you will do an outline for your paper. This will be the second page of the paper. If you are doing an APA paper, you will do an abstract of your final paper.
This will page two. Consult Little Brown Brief, pp. 510-517or examples of what a properly formatted paper looks like. IF YOU DO NOT HAVE THIS TEXT, A GOOD SAMPLE CAN BE FOUND AT: www. dianahacker.
com/resdoc At this point you should have completed the majority of your research.Writing the Abstract and/or Outline will confirm whether or not you are ready to begin composing your paper. Although the format for abstract and outline is standard, you may find that the organizational pattern given may not quite fit your research paper. The organizational pattern I am going to give you is one of the most highly recommended patterns for an argumentative paper. In organizing and writing your abstract or outline, remember the Thesis Statement for your Research Paper is the answer to your research question.
Other format styles include problem/solution, advantages/disadvantages, or reasons why. Feel free to adapt the organizational pattern I have given below to fit one of these other forms of documenting your paper. THE ABSTRACT Your abstract should be one very well developed paragraph, up to about ? of a page. An easy pattern to follow Includes the following in this order: • Briefly introduce and explain the issue, ending with your answer to the thesis question. • Explain the opposition’s point of view. • Refute the opposition’s point of view • Support your claims with evidence.
Do not get into great detail in the abstract, but forecast what the claims will be and hint at the evidence (statistics will show; major authorities in the field have been consulted, studies have proven). • Restate your position in slightly different language. Format of the Abstract • The abstract will be page 2 of your research essay. • Center the word Abstract before you begin to write.
• The Abstract should be double-spaced. • The abstract is just one paragraph. • Do not indent the paragraph THE OUTLINE The outline has a very formal style. Watch your spacing.
Remember for every I. here must be a II. For every A. there must be at least a B.
For every 1, there must be a 2, and so on. Every item should be stated as a complete sentence. The Format • Center the title of your paper on the page • Double space • Write your thesis statement • Double space • Begin with your I. Single-space the outline from this point on. • All of the statements in the outline must be sentences. Example: Title of Your Paper Thesis statement: Tighter regulations on the fishing industry need to be put in place so that dolphins will no longer be the victims of tuna fishing.
I. This is the opposition’s point of view. A. The first major point of opposition is that …. B.
The second major point of opposition is that… II. Although the opposition’s point of view is strong, the opposition must consider the following: A. Refutation of the first major point is… B. Refutation of the second major point is … III.
The contention that new regulations are needed stands because of the following: (This is the most fully developed part of your outline. 0 A. This is claim number 1. 1. Evidence of the claim … 2.Evidence of the claim ….
(you should have at least two points of evidence for each claim. 3. Give the regulation that could correct this problem (claim). B.
This is claim number 2 and so on. IV. Restatement of the thesis idea in a new way. Sample Abstract Josh DeMarre Eng 201 Abstract for Research Project May 4, 2003 Abstract The Department of Ecology along with the Spokane Regional Health District, the FDA, and the Washington State Department of Health suggest that small amounts of chemically polluted Spokane River fish can be safely eaten.After scrutinizing the available information one is led to think otherwise.
No amount of Spokane River fish can be ‘safely’ eaten. The fish themselves are not safe. Toxic and poisonous chemicals such as mercury, arsenic, lead and PCB’s (polychlorinated-biphenyl) have been found in the tissues and bones of all fish studied in the Spokane River. The fish’s food sources and even the beach sand along the riverbank have been found to contain harmful levels of these chemicals.Studies on the effects of PCB’s on human memory loss and learning disabilities have been conducted by four universities around Lake Michigan over a 9 year period showing a direct link between PCB levels in adults and their lower scores on learning tests.
People who eat a certain amount of either commercially available fish or sports fish have sometimes as high as four times in parts per million the amounts of mercury and lead that the FDA would approve. The sources of these pollutants are industrial waste and some naturally occurring elements.Mining in Idaho has historically been the prime factor in the declining water quality of the Spokane River in Washington State and has been the focus of our national Superfund clean-up efforts. Products banned from use in the past have pervasive and lingering effects on the health of the fish in the river and the folks who might eat them. A little bit of deadly poison goes a long way in the environment. Eating fish caught between the Idaho border and Nine Mile Dam is fraught with real dangers and should be avoided completely.