World History: Module 3 Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Richard Lattimore
oral tradition
the spoken relation and preservation, from one generation to the next, of a people’s cultural history and ancestry
griots
a West African word for a person who plays music and tells the legends, myths, and stories of a people
Sahel
an arid area at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, which stretches from Mauritania to Chad
Sahara Desert
The Sahara Desert is the largest in the world. The Sahara is also one of the hottest and driest deserts, reaching temperatures of 136 degrees Fahrenheit. The Sahara desert receives very little rain, some years it does not receive rain at all. In these extreme conditions, very few animals and plants can survive.
Inland Delta
The Inland Delta lies at the middle point of the Niger River. This area floods almost every year during its wet season. Near the border of the inland delta is the town of Djenne. This area helps people have the resources to survive.
The inland Delta provides fishing, water to grow crops, and land for animals to graze.
Yoruba
a member of a people of southwestern Nigeria and Benin
Benin
a country in West Africa
kola nuts
large brown nuts containing caffeine; source of cola extract
Gold Coast
a section of coastal western Africa along the Gulf of Guinea that corresponds to present-day Ghana
Ivory Coast
a section of coastal western Africa along the Gulf of Guinea corresponding to present-day Côte d’Ivoire; it was named for the large quantities of ivory traded there in pre-colonial times
animists
the belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena
matrilineal
tracing decent through the mother’s ancestors
Malinke
also known as Mandinke, is a large ethnic group in West Africa that became the known as the Mali Empire
Sundiata
the founder of the Mali Empire, organized many of the Mandé chiefs to fight a rival, the Soso Kingdom
Dyula
a Mande ethnic group inhabiting West Africa
Mansa Musa
a king of Mali who went on pilgrimage to Mecca, brought back an Arab architect, Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, who changed the way the people of Mali built their homes
Timbuktu
a city of central Mali near the Niger River northeast of Bamako, City of The Great Mosque, and a center of learning
Sunni Ali the Great
founder of the Songhai empire, led the Songhai in conquering the cities of Mema and Timbuktu
Kings and Nobility
At the top were the king and his family who ran the country, followed by a lower level of nobles. They were comprised of the local nobility, who held lesser positions in the government.
Freemen
Freemen Below the nobility were the freemen, the citizens of the empire. The freemen could be Muslim clerics, craftspeople, griots, and artists.
Slaves and War Captives
Slavery in Songhai was different than the institution that developed later in the Americas. In Songhai, a slave might have a very high position in society or a very low one. As the Songhai armies captured more land, entire towns might be considered slaves, but they remained on their land and farmed it because that was how they could best serve the kingdom.
Bantu Migrations
a series of
movements between around 2000 BCE and 500 CE during which large numbers of
Bantu-speaking peoples left their homeland in the Niger River Valley and resettled in central, eastern, and southern Africa
city-state
a city that is also an independent state with its own system of governance
Imperial
relating to the building of an empire, or a political entity that rules over multiple territories and peoples
indigenous
native to a certain place; aboriginal
Beringia
an ancient land bridge between what is now Siberia and Alaska
Pre-Columbian
the designation referring to the history of the Americas prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1492
Mesoamerica
a region that is defined by the cultural similarities of its indigenous populations; it extends from central Mexico through most of Central America, including Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
mother cultures
cultures that had a direct influence on later civilizations in the region
Olmec
the first known pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilization
glyphs
a character, usually engraved in stone, that represents a word
Zapotec
a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilization that followed the Olmec; their descendents still live in Oaxaca today
Oaxaca
a state in Mexico
Andes
a region in Peru (mountain range)
Chavin
the first known pre-Columbian Andean civilization
motifs
a decorative design or pattern
Nazca
a pre-Columbian Andean civilization that followed the Chavin
Nazca Lines
line drawings created out of stone by the Nazca that are so massive that you can only see them from the air
Moche
a pre-Columbian Andean civilization that followed the Chavin and Nazca
maize
from the American Native Indian word, mahiz; this is the term the Europeans gave \”corn\”
Archeology
the study of the past through artifacts
Artifacts
man-made objects left behind by a civilization
Quipu
messages encoded on knotted lengths of string
Inca
The Inca was the largest civilization in pre-Columbian America, which lasted from the 12th through the 16th centuries CE. The Incas were an advanced civilization and ruled an enormous area in the Andes of South America. By the time the Spanish arrived there were 15,000,000 people in the empire.
Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu is an ancient Incan city in the Andes Mountains. It is one of the few pre-Columbian cities to have avoided destruction by the Spanish. The city, which is high in the mountains, is a remarkable feat of engineering. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.
codices
a paper book from Mayan or other ancient American civilizations; plural codices
Aztec
The Aztec was the major civilization in Central America from the 12th through 16th century CE. The civilization’s capital was Tenochtitlan. By the time of conquest, the empire included 400-500 small states and nearly six million people.
Tenochtitlán
the great capital city of the Aztecs, founded in the 14th century on islands in Lake Texcoco
Moctezuma II
the ninth Aztec emperor, conquered and imprisoned by the conquistador Hernán Cortés
Chinampa
a farming process through which the Aztecs converted most of the lake into farmland
Mestizos
a term traditionally used in Latin America and Spain for people of mixed European and Amerindian heritage or descent
Pacal the Great
Pacal the Great was a powerful king of the Mayan city of Palenque which was a city in southern Mexico. Pacal ruled for about 67 years, from 615 to 683 CE, during which time Palenque gained power and prestige. Pacal is known today for the many magnificent buildings and temples he created during his reign, the most famous of which is the Temple of Inscriptions.
Moctezuma I
Moctezuma I was the fifth Aztec emperor of Tenochtitlan. He is credited with expanding the Aztec empire by conquering neighboring tribes. Under his reign, Tenochtitlan also began to dominate the Triple Alliance.
Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac was the eleventh ruler of the Inca Empire. He ruled from 1493 to 1525 CE. Capac did not conquer as much territory as previous emperors, but he did build a new capital at Tumibamda in present-day Ecuador. It is believed Capac died of smallpox or some other European disease. Before he died, Capac divided his empire between his two sons. Unfortunately for the Incas, this divided empire was easier for the Spanish to conquer.
Palenque
a city of ancient Maya in southern Mexico, now existing in ruins
Crypt
an underground chamber or vault, used as a burial place
Triple Alliance
agreement formed between the Aztecs and the cities in the Valley of Puebla-Tlascala to fight wars and gain prisoners for human sacrifice
Aqueduct
an artificial channel for conveying water, typically in the form of a bridge supported by tall columns across a valley.
smallpox
an acute, highly infectious, often fatal disease caused by a poxvirus; it is characterized by a high fever, aches, and a pimple-like blistery rash
Mita
a system of the Incan government in which a commoner is called upon for public service and in return the commoner’s family and land is taken care of
Maya
The Maya was a civilization in Central America inspired by the Olmec. The classic period of the Mayan civilization lasted from 250 to 900 CE. At the empire’s height, the Mayans may have numbered up to two million. The Mayans were experts in math and astronomy. Remnants of the Mayan civilization can be seen today in sites such as Chichen Itza.

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