World History 1 SOL Review, Part 1

Flashcard maker : Steven Colyer
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Homo Sapiens
Modern Humans
Africa
Continent where Homo Sapiens emerged
South America
Continent where Homo Sapiens migrated LAST
Adaptations to environment
Igloos
Caves
Mud Huts
Grass Huts
Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age
Stonehenge
Prehistoric monument in England constructed during the Neolithic Age
Agriculture
Developed during Neolithic Age that allowed the beginning of permanent settlements
Rivers
Where the first civilizations developed
Archaeology
A scientific investigation of the cultural remains of people in the past
Sumer (Mesopotamia)
First civilization that was along the Tigris & Euphrates rivers known for its development of the first writing system
Cuneiform
\”Wedge shaped\” symbols, pressed into clay tablets known as the first writing system
Hieroglyphics
Ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Phoenicians
A maritime people known for their shipbuilding and alphabet
Nubian Kush
Were much like the Egyptians and is probably where the Egyptians obtained most of their culture.
Mesopotamia
\”Land between two rivers,\” home of the first civilization
Indus River Valley
Known for their plumbing and organized pattern streets; where the Harrapan people lived
Judaism
First monotheistic religion
Torah
Sacred text of Judaism
Diaspora
Exile of Jews from the Roman Empire
Jerusalem
Holy city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Abraham
Father of the Hebrews
Moses
Hebrew prophet who led the Hebrews from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
Road System
The Persians, Romans, and Incans were all known for having an extensive…
Persian Empire
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
Cyrus the Great
Persian emperor who led by toleration
Zoroastrianism
Monotheistic religion of the Persian Empire, which emphasized on Good vs. Evil and the belief in their one deity: Ahuramazda
Himalayas
Mountain range that stretches between India and China
Hinduism
A religion developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms.
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Dharma
In Hindu belief, a person’s religious and moral duties
Caste System
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
Aryans
An Indo-European people who crossed into India around 1500 BC
Vedas and Upanishads
Sacred writings of Hinduism
Moksha
Hindu concept of the salvation of the soul.
Buddhism
A belief system based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, which stress freeing oneself from worldly desires.
Siddhartha Guatama
A prince who founded Buddhism, and gave up his power to become enlightened.
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Mauryan Empire
This was the first centralized empire of India whose founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
Asoka
King of the Maurya dynasty. He ruled nearly the entire subcontinent of India. He also was instrumental in the spread of Buddhism after his conversion.
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
Qin Shi Huangdi
He was the Chinese emperor who founded the Qin dynasty (221-206 B.C.). He created the first united(combined) Chinese empire and began construction of the Great Wall of China. His name means first emperor.
Imperial Bureaucracy
Type of government of the Persian Empire
Confucianism
A Chinese philosophy that emphasizes proper behavior and education
Daoism (Taoism)
Philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu advocating a simple honest life and harmony with nature
Legalism
Chinese belief: strict, harsh rule; obey laws or else!
Colonization
Overpopulation and lack of fertile soil in Greece lead to this
Athens
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves (helots) for agriculture
Balkan Peninsula
Greece is located on this peninsula
City-States
A political unit that includes a city and its surrounding lands and villages
Polis
A Greek city-state
Greek Mythology
religion in which factors of life are represented by gods or goddesses
Persian Wars
5th century B.C.E wars between the Persian empire and Greek city-states; Greek victories allowed Greek civilization to define identity and lead to Athens’ Golden Age.
Golden Age of Athens
a period of growth in ancient Athens in intellectual & and artistic learning, including drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, & science
Euclid
\”Father of Geometry\”
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Philosophers of ancient Greece, examined beliefs creating a question answer method
Homer
A Greek poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
Phidias
Athenian sculptor who supervise the building of the Parthenon. built a statue of zeus at olympia was one of the seven wonders of the world
Pericles
(495? BCE-429? BCE) Athenian statesman. He was the central ruler of Athens during its golden age. He was the central patron behind many of their achievements. He was also a very skilled speaker. Athens City-State of Ancient Greece and center of Greek golden age that occurred in the 5th century BCE.
Parthenon
A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Phillip II
336 BC, was an ancient Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Hellenistic Age
324-200 BC; period of Greek history marked by great political and cultural change; ruled by Alexander the Great
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Three forms of Greek columns that represent what is still known as classical architecture. Doric is the simplest; Corinthian is the most elaborate.
Direct Democracy
Athenian form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Oligarchy
Spartan government ruled by a few powerful people
Italian Peninsula
A boot-shaped peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea and Alps Mountains
Both provide natural protection for Rome
Roman Mythology
like Greek mythology, it was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics and art
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Scipio
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
First Triumvirate
Included Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar. Is a government by three people with equal power. Crassus was killed. Caesar became dictator
Julius Caesar
100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by 14 senators in 44 BC because he was too powerful.
Octavian
Adopted grandnephew of Julius Caesar, later called Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Marc Antony and Cleopatra
Competitors for Caesar’s position after he dies vs. his grand nephew Octavian. They lose in the Battle of Actium.
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace in Rome.
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Huang He River
\”river of sorrows\” floods; located in the north east, very long. Also called the \”yellow river\”.
Indus River
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, the earliest Indian civilization began in the valley of this river
Nile River
Benevolent river running south to north; flooded regularly every year; source of life for Egyptians; yearly flooding refurbished land with silt.
Coined money, Paper, Silk, Porcelain
Four major inventions of ancient China
Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire.
Royal Road
A road for the government use built by the ancient Persian ruler Darius which helped unite the empire
Edict of Milan
(313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Christianity
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Plebeians
Farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman Population
Patricians
Powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society
Consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Constantine
(274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Diocletian
(245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
Roman Colosseum
used for Gladiator fights, housed 50,000 people, the first and largest amphitheater to be built in Rome
Pantheon
A domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BCE to worship all of the gods
Fall of the Roman Empire
Social, Political and Economic problems, plus invasions by Germanic tribes lead to this

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