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World Geography Elements of Culture and Religion

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Culture
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the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group:
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Society
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The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community:
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Ethnic Group
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a community or population made up of people who share a common cultural background or descent.
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Innovation
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a new method, idea, product, etc
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Diffusion
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the spreading of something more widely.
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Cultural Hearth
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any place where certain related changes in land-use appeared due to human domestication of plants and animals
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Acculturation
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the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group, esp. a dominant one.
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Dialect
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a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language
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Physical Geography
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the branch of geography concerned with natural features and phenomena of the earth’s surface, as landforms, drainage features, climates, soils, and vegetation.
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Human Geography
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is the branch of the social sciences that deals with world, its people and their communities , cultures, economies, and interaction with the environment
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Monotheism
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belief in only one God
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Polytheism
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belief in more than one god
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Religion
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The belief in and worship of God or gods; system of religious beliefs and practices
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Conversion
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A change in which one adopts a new religion, faith, or belief.
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Judaism
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A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
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Christianity
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A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
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Islam
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A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
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Hinduism
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A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
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Caste System
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A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
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Buddhism
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A religion based on the teachings of the Buddha.
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Siddhartha Gautama
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known as the Buddha; The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama are considered the core of Buddhism:
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Confucianism
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A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
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Taoism
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A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.
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Material Culture
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the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
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Non Material Culture
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the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values , of a group of people
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Technology
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How people modify the world around them to meet their needs or to solve practical problems
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Developed nation
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A nation with established agriculture and industry, advanced technology, and a strong educational system.
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Commercial Farming
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Producing crops for sale
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Developing Nations
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Nations that are economically and technologically less developed than industrialized nations.
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Tradition
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custom that has been handed down
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Custom
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Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group. Practice routinely followed by a group of people.
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How Does culture affect a group of people?
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your beliefs, patterns of behavior, diet, lifestyle can be affected by your culture
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In what two ways do cultures change?
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Diffusion and acculturation
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What must happen for a cultural change to occur?
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(1) Forces at work within a society, (2) Contact between societies, and (3) Changes in the natural environment.
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Why does cultural change take place rapidly today?
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Technology
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in what ways is language spread?
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diffusion and acculturation
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What are the 7 Elements of Culture?
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•SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. •CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS. •RELIGION. •LANGUAGE. •ARTS AND LITERATURE. •FORMS OF GOVERNMENT. •ECONOMIC SYSTEMS.
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What are some of the world’s major religions?
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Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
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What are the two sub sections of study that make up geography as a whole?
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Physical Geography and Human Geography
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What are the three most important aspects of determining where a culture begins?
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Identify the major religions of the world
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What is the major belief of Christianity?
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One God, Jesus
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What is the major belief of Judaism?
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One God, God is just and fair
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What is the major belief of Hinduism?
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Hinduism is based on the beliefs and behaviors of people and not on one particular book or person. It is a collection of ways of understanding universal Truth. Also believe in reincarnation
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What is the major belief of Buddhism?
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the “four noble truths”: existence is suffering ( dukhka ); suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment ( trishna ); there is a cessation of suffering,
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What is the major belief of Taoism?
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man’s close relationship with nature and the universe;Death is simply a transformation from being to non-being; from yang to yin.
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What is the major belief of Confucianism?
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social harmony is the ultimate goal of every follower. This means that everyone must know their place in the social order. Relationships among different groups of people, is key in Confucianism.
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What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
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Testimony, Prayer, Giving, Fasting , Pilgrimage
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Which religion believes in a caste system in which people are born into various levels; living a good life meant reincarnation into a higher caste?
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Hinduism
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What two religions have traditionally argued and fought with each other within the Middle East?
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Islam, Judaism
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Would religion be considered a part of material culture or nonmaterial culture?
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nonmaterial culture
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What is the difference between commercial and subsistence farming?
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commercial farming is done to make money and subsistence farming is done to survive
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What 3 things are cultural traditions based upon?
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Why do most cultures organize its members into smaller units?
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to create a social structure
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In all cultures, what is the most important unit of social organization?
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family