Understanding Social Problems Practice Test Chapters 1, 3, 4, 6

question

The objective element of a social problem A. is the only thing social scientists are concerned with B. Refers to the existence of a social condition C. Is the only part that can be measured D. Is unimportant
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B. Refers to the existence of a social condition
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Which of the following best illustrates the subjective element of a social problem? A. US censu stats that show the percentage of the US population who live in poverty B. Reports that show the percentage of people who have lost their jobs due to the closing of factories in the US C. The percentage of Americans who believe availability of child pornography on the Internet is harmful to society D. World Health Organization estimates of the number of people in the world who have died of the AIDS virus in the last five years
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C. The percentage of Americans who believe availability of child pornography on the Internet is harmful to society
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Society’s structure is made up of A. Beliefs, values, statuses, and roles B. Insitututions, social groups, norms, and symbols C. Beliefs, values, norms, and symbols D. Institutions, social groups, statuses, and roles
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D. Institutions, social groups, statuses and roles
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Which of the following is a group, according to the definition of your text? A. All of the people in your favorite shopping mall at noon Saturday B. People who usually watch NBC nightly news C. Your college sociology class D. Fans of the Yankee baseball team
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C. Your college sociology class
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Edward is an African American male, age 26, who married his high school sweetheart after he graduated from college. He is now the father of two children and employed as a chemical engineer. Which of the following is one of Edward’s achieved statuses? A. African American B. Male C. Chemical Engineer D. Adult
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C. Chemical engineer
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_________ are social agreements about what is considered good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable. A. Norms B. Values C. Roles D. Beliefs
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B. Values
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Jeff frequently picks his nose in class. He is violating a A. Value B. Folkway C. More D. Law
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B. Folkway
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Janet receives disapproving looks from strangers for singing obnoxiously while walking down the street. The disapproving look Janet receives are examples of A. Values B. Folkways C. Informal sanctions D. Informal sanctions
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C. Informal sanctions
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Which of the following conclusions BEST illustrates use of the sociological imagination? A. Jody’s parents are getting a divorce because they do not love each other anymore. B. Helen is not attending college because her parents do not have enough money to pay her expenses. C. Tony’s college failure illustrates problems of inner-city children whose schools inadequately prepare them for the rigor of college courses. D. Megan has to request welfare payments because she lost her job
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C. Tony’s college failure illustrates problems of inner-city children whose schools inadequately prepare them for the rigor of college courses.
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Structural-functionalists A. Emphasize the feelings of powerlessness of workers in industrialized societies. B. Focus on how groups with different interests compete for scarce resources. C. View society as a system of interconnected parts that work together to maintain balance. D. Focus on how a person’s self-concept is formed by his or her interaction with others.
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C. View society as a system of interconnected parts that work together to maintain balance
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A society is in a state of \”anomie\” when A. Norms are weak or in conflict with each other. B. The major social institutions reinforce the same cultural values. C. There are more secondary groups than primary groups. D. Some segments of society have more wealth than others.
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A. Norms are weak or in conflict with each other
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Contemporary Marxist theories believe that the main source of social problems is A. The weak social norms fo capitalistic societies B. Class inequality that is inherent in a capitalistic system C. Social disorganization that exists in both capitalistic and communist societies
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B. Class inequality that is inherent in a capitalistic system
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____________ are most likely to associate high levels of high school dropouts with the breakdown of the American family, a decline in religiosity, and inadequacies in the government and economy A. Social constructionists B. Conflict theorists C. Symbolic interactionists D. Structural functionalists
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D. Structural functionalists
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Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that A. Societal institutions meet the needs of people in society B. Institutional inequalities cause some people’s needs to be met more than other people’s needs C. Human behavior is influenced by the meanings that are created through social interaction D. The important symbols of society are distributed unequally
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C. Human behavior is influenced by meanings that are created through social interaction
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Which theoretical eprspective emphasizes that a condition must be defeined or recognized as a social problem in order for it to be a social problem? A. Structural-functionalism B. Marxist conflict theory C. Non-Marxist conflict theory D. Symbolic-interactionism
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D. Symbolic-interactionism
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Pharmacologically, a drug is a substance that A. Alters the structure or functioning of a living organism when it enters the bloodstream B. Positively or negatively affects the immune system of the human body C. Has a direct effect on the user’s physical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning D. Is physically addictive
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C. Has a direct effect on the user’s phsyical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning
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Using treatment and prevention strategies is a way of dealing with drug use from an A. Interdiction approach B. Medical model perspective C. War on drugs perspective D. Penalty approach
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B. Medical model perspective
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Which of the following terms refers to a condition of compulsive drug use? A. Chemical dependency B. Drug abuse C. Illicit drug use D. Illegal drug us
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A. Chemical dependency
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The structural-functional perspective is more likely than the conflict or symbolic interactionist perspective to view drug abuse as A. Due to the weakening norms in society B. A response to the inequality perpetuated by the capitalistic system C. Learned through itneraction in small groups D. The consequence of a psychological predisposition toe xperience pleasure from drugs
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A. Due to the weakening of norms in society
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According to the conflict perspective, alcohol is legal because it A. Is one of the safest drugs available B. Is often consumed by those who have the power to define its acceptability C. Plays an important role in relieving social stress D. Provides a pleasureable experience to people when they first try it
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B. Is often consumed by those who have the pwoer to define its acceptiability
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Individuals who are poor and minorities may abuse drugs as a result of alienation from society due to unpleasant and low-paying jobs. This illustrates which of the following types of sociologiucal explanations? A. Structural-functionalist B. COnflict theory C. Symbolic interactist D. Biological
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B. Conflict theory
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The crimilization of opium use in the US can be traced tow hich of the following? A. the high birth defects linked to the use of opium by pregnant women B. The high rate of death among loberrers who used opium while building Us railroads C. The use of opium among Chinese immigrant laborers, who threatened white jobs D. The fear that white American youth would learn the techniques and motivations to use opium
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C. The use of opium among Chinese immigrant laboreres, who threatened white jobs
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Becker (1966) studied how marijuana users learn to ingest and enjoy the effects of marijuana. This study fits with which theoretical perspective? A. Symbolic interaction B. Conflict C. Structural-functional D. Social pathology
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A. Symbolic interaction
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A meta analysis of the popular DARe program found A. The program was most effective in preventing drug use when it was started in kindergarten B. The program was most effective in preventing drug use among girls C. The program reduced drug use by fourty percent for all participants D. The program did not significantly prevent drug use among school-age children
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D. The program did not significiantly rpevent drug use among school-age children
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___________ theories propose that some individuals are predisposed to drug abuse A. Conflict B. Symbolic interaction C. Biological D. Psychological
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C. Biological
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Many have argued that alcohol prohibition in 1920 was A. Highly supported by the American population B. A \”moral crusade\” against immigrant groups C. Modeled after a highly effective program in Canada D. Highly effective at reducing alcohol consumption
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B. A \”Moral crusade\” against immigrant groups
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The most widely used and abused drug in America is A. Tobacco B. Marijuana C. Alcohol D. Heroin
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C. Alcohol
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Tobacco advertisers have been found to target A. Minorities and women B. College students C. The wealthy D. White men
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A. Minorities and women
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Anti-cocaine sentiment in the US emerged int eh early 1900s in response to cocaine’s heavy use among A. Pregnant women B. Teenagers C. European immigrants D. Urban blacks
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D. Urban blacks
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Children who live with at least one parent in need of treatment for drug and alcohol dependency are more likely to A. Live in a conflict-free environment B. Avoid a similar fate when they are adults C. Be unaffected by the parent’s behavior D. Suffer physical illness
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D. Suffer physical illness
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Which of the following statements is true regarding drug use and crime? A. Surveys of prisoners show that nearly two thirds were under the influence of drugs when they commiteed their offense B. Experimental studeis show that individuals are twelve times more likely to commit a crime when under the influence of drugs C. Sociologists disagree on whether drugs cause crime, criminal activity leads to drug involvement, or some other factor is related to crime and drug use D. A meta analysis of research studies shows no relationship between drug use and crime
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C. Sociologists disagree on whether drugs cause crime, criminal activity leads to drug involvement, or some other factor is related to crime and drug use
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All of the following are true about crime throughout the world EXCEPT A. There is no country where crime does not exist B. Most countries have police, courts, and prisons C. Worldwide, adult males make up the largest category of crime suspects D. Violent crime is a relatively common event in all countries
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D. Violent crime is a relatively commone event in all cuontries
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Which of the following is ane xample of a transnatinoal crime? A. A father who lost custody of his child abducts the child and takes him or her to another country B. A citicenze of Mexico illegally crosses the Us border in search of employment C. An international child porn ring offers online videos of children being sexually abused D. A US criminal flees to South America to avoid arrest and criminal prosecution
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C. An international child porn ring offers online videos of children being sexually abused
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A shortcoming of the statistics in the Uniform Crime Reports is that A. Many incidents of crime are not reported to police B. They provide more info about crime victims than offenders C. Individuals may exaggerate the number of crimes they have committed D. It is difficult to distinguish criminals from non-criminals because virtually every adult has engaged in some type of criminal activity
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A. Many incidents of crime are not reported to police
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According to the structural-functional theoriest Emile Durkheim, crime A. Can strengthen group cohesion B. Usualy leads to negative social change C. Reflectus the social inequalities of a society D. Is dysfunctional to all members of society
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A. Can strengthen group cohesion
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According to Merton, _________ explains the high rate of crime by uneducated and poor Americans
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A. Conformity B. Innovation C. Retreatism D. Rebellion
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The research finding that retaliatory homicide is a response to group norms of violence ins ome neighborhood supports _________ theory A. Strain B. Control C. Subcultural D. Labeling
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C. Subcultural
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According to conflict theory, the more _________ in a society, the greater the crime rate in that society A. Wealth B. Industrialiation C. Social change D. Inequality
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D. Inequality
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According to labeling theory, one way the label of deviant causes further deviance is the labeled pereson A. Is often denied opportunities for engaging in nondeviant behavior B. Addopts the crime-promoting attitudes and values of the society C. Reject society’s cultural goals of material achievement D. REjects a deviant self concept
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A. Is often denied opportunities for engaging in nondeviant behavior
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The most common kind of larceny is A. Shoplifting B. Purse-snatching C. Bicycle theft D. Theft involving automoibles and auto accessories
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D. Theft involving automobiles and auto accessories
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If a company produces toys for children that knowingly contain lead paint, it is an example of A. Organized crime B. Corporate violence C. Occupational crime D. Vice crime
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B. Corporate crime
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Strain theory suggests that criminal activity is more prevalent among indivudiauls in their teens and early 20s because younger individuals A. Have fewer attachments to others B. Are influenced by the deviant youth subculture C. Have less access to letimate means for acquiring material goods D. Are unawareisies of the law
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C. Have less access to legit means for acquiring material goods
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The principle of deterrence is based on the assumption that A. Offenders act spontaneously when committing crime B. Individuals who commit crimes will continue to commit more crimes, even after serving time in prison C. \”get-tough\” policies will result in other social problems D. Potential offenders weigh the costs and benefits of their actions
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D. Potential offenders weigh the costs and benefits of their actions
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Opponents to capital punishment argue all of the following except A. Death sentences are racially discriminatory B. Most homicide offenders consider the consequences of their actions before they commit the offense C. Since 1989 there have been 239 post-conviction exonerations using DNA evidence D. The murder rate in the Us is higher than in many Western European nations that do not practice capital punishment
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B. Most homicide offenders consider the consequences of their actions before they commit the offense
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The majority of Americans favor which type of approach to dealing with crime? A. Developing social programs B. Increased police presence C. Increased incarceration rates D. Mandatory minimum sentences
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A. Developing social problems
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The term __________ refers to the lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical depirvation A. Socioecononic inequality B. Absolute poverty C. Lower class D. Relative poverty
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B. Asolute poverty
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The Multideminsional Poverty Index includes all of the following measures of depirvation EXCEPT A. Deprivation of Health (nutrition, child mortality) B. Deprivation of Education (years of schooling) C. Deprivation of Affection (love, family) D. Deprivation in Standard of Living (cooking fuel, toilet, water)
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C. Deprivation of affection
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What trend generally describes the income distribution in the Us over the last 30 years A. Those in the top 1- percent have seen their overall share decline substantially as a result of the recession B. While the share of the top 10 percent increased overall, the top 1 percent saw their share decrease C. Those in the top 10 percent have seen their gains increase dramatically D. Everyone’s gains have been about equal
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C. Those in the top 10 percent have seen their gains increase dramatically
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Which of the following perspectives are most likely to argue that physicians should be paid higher than most occupations because their job is more important than most and requires so much education and training? A. Structural functionalist B. Conflict C. Symbolic interactionism D. Feminist theory
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A. Structural functionalist
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According to modern conflict theorists, the pwoer to influence economic outcomes in a society comes from all of the following EXCEPT A. Ownership of the means of production B. Advertising C. Interlocking board memberships D. Control of media
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B. Advertising
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Which of the following is an example of corporate welfare? A. A large corporation donates money to a homeless shelter B. SEverance pay and unemployment insurance C. Low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations D. Employee assistance programs
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C. Low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations
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As companies relocate to poor countries with abundant supplies of cheap labor, wages decline and A. Consumer spending decreases B. Quality of life increases C. More industries grow and prosper D. Unemployment rates decrease
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A. Consumer spending decreases
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Which sociological eprspective is most likely to focus on the label’s attached to differnt groups of people based on their socioeconomic position? A. Structural-functionalism B. Conflict theory C. Symbolic interactionism D. Feminist theory
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C. Symbolic interactionism
question

The \”feminization of poverty\” refers to the A. Higher proportion of females than males in poverty B. Dependence upon female income that occurs with male unemployment C. Higher percentage of females who become poor in their old age D. The fact that more females than males are born to poor families
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A. Higher proportions of females than males in poverty
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The term \”couch-homeless\” refers to homeless indivuduals who A. Sleep on park benches B. Spend as much time as possible in city homeless shelters C. Stay at the home of family or friends D. Became homeless because they did not want to work the jobs that were available
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C. Stay at the home of family or friends
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Living wage lawas require state or municipal contractors, recipients of public subsidies or tax breaks, or, in some cases, businesses to pay employees A. Overtime wages if they work over 40 hours per week B. Wages below the federal minimum wage for disabled workers C. Wages below the federal minimum wage for legal immigrants with work visas D. Wages significantly above the federal minimum, enabling families to live above the poverty line
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D. Wages significantly above the federal miniumu, enableing families to live above the poverty line
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The term \”human capital\” refers to which of the following? A. The skills, knowledge, and capabilities of the individual B. The average wage in a society C. The productiveity of the average worker D. The total personal wealth of all membmers of a society
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A. The skills, knowledge, and capabilities of the individual
question

Microcredit programs A. Provide loans to people who are generally excluded from traditional credit services because of their low socioeconomic status B. Require an applicant to provide a 20% minimum capital investment and have good credit C. Offer world bank loans to large capital investors who agree to established manufacturing industries in developing countries D. Do not require repayment of loans if the recipients establish businesses in low-income areas
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A. Provide loans to people whoa re generally excluded from traditional credi services because of their low socioeconomic status
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Which of the following families is most likely to be poor? A. A married-couple family B. A female-householder, no spouse present C. Male-householder, no spouse present D. An elderly married couple
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B. A female householder, no spouse
question

Your text mentions all of the following as factors contributing to poverty among minorities EXCEPT A. Discrimination B. Large numbers of children C. The loss of manufacturing jobs from the inner city D. The movement of whites and middle class black out of the inner city
answer

B. Large numbers of children

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