Flashcard maker : Jill Lopez
Water Distribution on Earth

97% Ocean

2% Ice Caps

1% Ground Water

.01% lakes

.001% Atmosphere

Residence time of Atmosphere
10 days
Residence time of the ocean
3000 years
trade winds
East to West at low latitudes
West to East at mid-latitudes

Direction of wind in the Upper Hemisphere


Lower Hemisphere

Upper Hemisphere = clockwise


Lower Hemisphere = counter clock wise

Direction of ocean in the Upper Hemisphere


Lower Hemisphere

Upper Hemisphere = clockwise


Lower Hemisphere = counter clock wise

Atmosphere is heated from?
Ocean Temp

75-200m = 18C

1000m – 3500m = 3C


sharply decreasing density that parallels the thermocline
Describe Salt Water Currents

sinks in thw norwegian seadown, down the atlantic, up into the pacific and indian ocean.


Exchange rate 100 – 1000 years

Chem that are well mixed and not well mixed


Residence/Mixing time?

Residence Time >>> Mixing Time =uniform concentration


Residence Time < Mixing Time = Non uniform




Residence time for any chemical cannot be longer than the water renewal time


Ocean Salinity



Depth Chart

35 parts per thousand 35g/kg



Lake and River Salinity
Major Cations
Major Anions
Cl-,SO42-, HCO3
H4SiO4,NO3-, PO4
Trace Metals
Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+
Expected Solid or solution phase?
Monovalent ion and Large Divalent have weak ionic bonds and are expected to be in solution and have long residence times
Only homogenious ocean ions
Anions and Cations
Absorbed particles in particulate matter have ____ residence times
short residence times
Ions that have a seasonal behavior in a lake
Cu, Ni, Cd are recycled behavior in summer and scavendeg in the winter
Equilibrium constant vs. Temp & Pressure

Increase Temp = Increased eq. Constant = more products only if endothermic (gets cold)


Increase Pressure = increased eq Constant = more products

Typical Lake Concentration Curve
Typical Lake Temp Curve

Ocean Acumulated Curve


Residence time



Ocean Trace Metals Curve
Lake Nutrients Curve
Ocean Oxygen Curve

Recycled Curve


Residence Time




Ocean Scavenged curve


Residence Time




Ocean Temp Curves


Low mid high latitudes


Acid Base Reaction


k name

Products are OH- or H+


k=dissociation Constant



k name

components are assembly into a product


k= stability constant

Dissolution Precipitation

Products are a breakdown of starting material


k= soulubility products

k= adsorption constant
activity coefficient of a solid

K High Ionic Strength = K


K low Ionic Strength =Kd


K>Kd = more soluable in High

K<Kd = more soluable in low

activity coefficient of ions in solution
always less than one. = minerals are more soluable in high ionic strength than low ionic strength

Henry’s Law Constant Vs.




Molecular Weight





HLC increases with decreasing Temp


HLC increases with increasing molecular weight


Large molecules are more polarized = more surface area to interact with water = prefer solution phase


salt reduces binding energy means more gas in freshwater

CO2 ___ in water
How to measure partial pressure



sealevel O2

1atm*21% = .21atm

water-air equilibrium

eq is water surface


flows high to low so if


[A] in soultion ; eq then fluxes to air and is super saturated


[A] in soultion ; eq then fluxes to water and is subsaturated


[]decreases with increasing temp

Transport Velocity


diffusion coefficint


film thickness

increases with diffusion coefficient


decreases with film thickness

film thickness
thinkness decreases with increased windspeed
CO2 concentration is greatest @

Equatordue to upwelling, everywhere else is subsaturated


Lakes are supersaturated especially during spring

Metabolic Processes uptake these elements
These compounds are depleted on the surface waters due to photosynthesis

CO2, H3SiO4, NO3, PO4


increase with depth

O2 levels and depth
Large number at surface, depeletes in depths
Shells are made of
SiO2 and CaCO3

Type of Shell Produced







Coccolithophorida = Calcite

Foraminifera = Calcite

Pteropods = aragonite

Diatoms = Opal

Radiolarians = Opal

Limiting Nutrient in Oceans
Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Iron in Austrailia, Silica in South America
Letter representing element loss into sediments
Letter representing element loss into deep waters
Fraction of element lost during each mixing cycle
Ocean Mixing time Letter
TM = 1000 years
Biolimiting features

High g =; high level of mixing

Low f =; low loss into sediments

Residence time = 10^5 – 2*10^4


Cs/Cr very different from Cd/Cr

Biointermediate Features

g around .7-0

f = .1

Residence Time = 10^4 – 8*10^5

Cs/Cr close to Cd/Cr


Biounlimited Features

no g

no f

Residence Time = 6*10^7 – 1*10^8

Cs/Cr = Cd/Cr

Lake names for surface, deep, and sediments
Epilimnion, Hypolimnion, sediements
Acids and Bases = H+

Acids give H+

Bases recieve H+

Strong Acids




Titration Volume Equation
H2CO3* Equilibiria

H2CO3*-; HCO3 + H+

HCO3 -; CO32- + H+

H2O -; H+ + OH

H2CO3* Alkalinity Equation
[ALK]= [HCO3] + 2[CO32-] +[OH] – [H+]
Soluibility and pH change
Metals: solubility increases as pH increases
saturation, rainy vs. arid regions

Rainy: low concentrations of ions are undersaturated with respect to CaCO3, CO2 added by decomposing matter causes further dissolving of CaCO3


Arid: High ion concentration and are supersatured with respect to CaCO3

Types of Weathering and how they are done

Physical Weathering – wind abrasion, ice, plant rooots

Chemical Weathering – Dissolved species into water


Chemical Weather is effect by



Water Flow



pH: Low pH Increases weathering


Temperature: Increases weathering


Water Flow: Increases weathering


Solubility: high Sol. Increases weathering


Vegatation: Releases organic acids into soil and Increases weathering

Rock Types and Description

Igneous – crystallization from melted rock at high temps


Sedimentary – Sedimentation in water formed by various debris


Metamorphic – Recrystallization of igneous and sedimentary at high temp and pressure without melting


75% of surface is sedimentary

Rock classes and dissolved in water

Evaporites: 17%

Carbonate: 38%

Silicates: 45%


*Lower % is better for abundance

SiO4 charge and Structure

Si = 4+

O = 8-

Total = -4


More SHARED Oxygen is better in crystal

SiO2 is strongest

SiO4 weakest (most soluble)

Riverflow highest and lowest

highest: low ; high latitudes

Lowest: mid latitudes


Inorganic Particles

Major Dissolved Species

Inorganic Particles: Al, Fe, Si, Ca

Major Dissolved Species: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+

Things that increase sediment load


Things that reduce sediment load

High elevation

easily eroded materials

heavy rainfall



large drainage areas ; lakes reduce

Total concentration of dissolved ions in rivers
Red Clay
Covers entire ocean floor, Thickest deposits near mouths of rivers and along coast, composed of silicate minerals

formed by the desposition of phytoplankton and zooplankton, If not red clay than this or opal, Organsims that produces this are much more uniform; thus more distributed throughout oceans,


made by organisms that use nitrates and phosphate but not silica making them soft and easily dissolved in surface waters and distributed


some waters are under/over-saturated with respect to CaCO3 determining dissolving


dominate atlantic sediments


16% preserved in sediments


formed by the desposition of phytoplankton and zooplankton, If not red clay than this or CaCO3,


highly nonunifrom, near upwelling since silica is not recycled easily. most in equator, antartica and pacific. LEAST in atlantic


Ocean is undersaturated with repsect to opal so always will dissolve

Hard Sphere Ions

Low Polarizability

Electrostatic Bonding


Soft Sphere Ions

High Polarizability

Covalent Bonding


Metal/Ligand Absorption Curve




[] Absorbed

Organic Matter and pH
Organic matter absorption increases at low pH and decreases as pH rises

Oxidation Number




Reduced travel =

Oxidized travel =

O2 = 0

O = -2

H = +1



Reduced travel = more –

Oxidized travel = more +

Release of absorbed particles
When particles enter deep water that is low in oxygen metal return to solution phase and diffuse back to surface where they are reabsorbed again.

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