The Role of Alcohol: Evaluating its Implication on College Campus Crimes
The Role of Alcohol: Evaluating its Implication on College Campus Crimes

The Role of Alcohol: Evaluating its Implication on College Campus Crimes

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  • Pages: 4 (1836 words)
  • Published: November 20, 2021
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Colleges and schools are highly valued institutions that aid in building the nation’s roots and serve as a platform where the development and stability of posterity commences. This fact makes crime in these institutions one of the most unnerving social issues in the nation today. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2015), some of the gravest offenses reported in these institutions include murder and intentional manslaughter, robbery, rape, burglary, aggravated assault, arson, and larceny-theft. Stampler (2014) reported that the number of sex crimes in the US campuses had increased by 50% over the decade from 2200 in 2001 to 3300 in 2011. The FBI report also highlighted a steady increase in college crimes over the first six months of 2015 by 1.7%. The number of reported incidents in colleges was 84627 in 2000 and 132121 in 2004 (The FBI, 2015). A steady rise in the level of crime has been observed over the past decade.

The purpose of conducting this literature review is to explore the implications of alcohol consumption on students in light of the rising levels of campus crimes in the United States. Nicholson, Maney, Blair, Wamboldt, Mahoney, & Yuan (1998) conducted a study to measure the frequency of college students’ involvement in both sexual and non-sexual violence, data were collected through the use of questionnaires. A total of 1087 students completed the survey in 1994, and of this number, 567 were females, and 520 were males. In 1996, 950 students completed the survey; 462 females and 488 males. Both surveys were conducted in classrooms where the students were given questionnaires to fill in, and there was a 100% response rate in

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both instances. The researchers found that the number of crime or violent incidents had increased significantly from 1994 up to 1996 (Nicholson et al., 1998). In 1996, three times the number of females as compared to their male counterparts stated that they were victims of unwanted sexual activity and approximately 85% of both genders reported that alcohol was involved (Nicholson et al., 1998).

Howard, Griffin, and Boekeloo (2008) assessed the psychological links of sexual assaults that were spurred by alcohol consumption. They conducted their study on university students. They used 1269 students (635 females and 634 males) for their investigation and administered questionnaires to them. 551 students responded, and of this number, 227 were males, representing a 35.3% response rate and 324 were females, representing a 51% response rate. The overall response rate was 43.4%. The males reported a lower prevalence of alcohol-related sexual violence as opposed to their female counterparts (6.6% vs. 20.4%). The likelihood for females who reported binge drinking and other forms of assaults linked to the consumption of alcohol to report alcohol-related sexual violence was higher as compared to the males who only reported other variants of alcohol-related savagery. Howard et al. (2008) established that alcohol-related sexual violence is linked with certain other risk factors such as a person’s gender that need consideration through intervention efforts and longitudinal examination.

Wilke, Siebert, Delva, Philip, and Howell (2005) studied the “gender differences in college students high-risk drinking as measured by an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC

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based on gender, height, weight, self-reported number of drinks, and hours spent in drinking.” (Wilke et al., 2005, p. 79). 1422 students at a big university in the South East were used. Data was collected through a probability sample survey of students via mail survey. The study found that more women were high-risk drinkers according to their eBAC as opposed to the men. High-risk drinking is a state when a person’s BAC gets to be at 0.08 or above that level after drinking. The researchers cited the limitations of the instruments employed as a factor that could discredit their finding but still maintained that they were consistent and individual factors such as the person’s gender were the foremost “predictors of high-risk drinking.” (Wilke et al., 2005, p. 79).

Similarly, Walter, Florkowski, Anderson and Dunn (2014) made a study on the perception of safety between drinkers and non-drinkers among U.S. college students. In this study, 56,811 students responded to Core Alcohol and Drugs Survey during the 2010 academic school year. Numerous universities administered the survey and students participated in the survey either in class or electronically. Walter et al. (2014) found that students who drink may have false senses of security that could spur them to take unnecessary risks or place themselves in dangerous situations. Alcohol use was found to be linked with verbal aggression, and there was a reduction in condom use among students who consume alcohol; hence, high risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies amongst these students. Consequently, alcohol use was associated with occurrences of coercion and aggression, and the males were noted to display more pro-violent attitudes as compared to females. Walter et al. (2014) also found out that excessive consumption of alcohol causes poor academic attainments.

Walter et al. (2014) also explored racial differences. African-American male youths were no more likely than Caucasian youths to initiate minor or major non-violent acts and less likely to initiate violent acts though these findings may be influenced by extraneous variables such as parental supervision or influence of peers. White women were more likely than black women to be under the influence of alcohol at the time of the sexual assault as well as their assailants while black women were more likely to have been assaulted with a weapon. Walter et al. (2014) also did an assessment on the prevalence of alcohol-related violence amongst students of different grades and established that savagery was more rampant amongst the students in the higher grades as compared to those in the lower grades. More violence was noted as one moved higher up the grades. These findings demonstrated the fact that alcohol use plays a vital role in the race and sexual based violence towards women and should be taken into consideration when formulating prevention strategies.
White & Hingston (2013) conducted a similar study on excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among both drinking and non-drinking college students. They established that drinking to intoxication leads to widespread impairments in cognitive abilities, which included but not limited to decision-making and impulse control, and impairments in motor and movement skills. Traffic crashes and accidents were also as a

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