The Lymphatic System Study Guide

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Primary Function of the Lymphatic System
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production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes to provide defense against pathogens and other environmental hazards, carried out by lymphoid tissue such as tonsils, spleen, and thymus gland
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Secondary Function of the Lymphatic System
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returns excess fluid from body tissues to the blood stream because capillaries deliver more fluid to peripheral tissues than they carry away and also helps transport lymphocytes and other defense cells from one organ to another
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Non-Specific Defense
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anatomical barriers that slow the entry of infectious agents, like the skin and mucus membranes
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Specific Defense
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lymphocytes attack a specific type of bacterium, an immune response
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T Cells
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thymus dependent, 80% of circulating lymphocytes, destroy viruses using cell-mediated immunity
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Cytotoxic T Cells
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attack cells infected by viruses involving direct contact, involved in cell-mediated immunity
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Helper T Cells
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stimulate activation and function of both T and B cells
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Suppressor T Cells (Regulatory T Cells)
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inhibit activation and function of both T and B cells
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B Cells
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bone marrow derived, 10-15% of circulating lymphocytes, associated with bacteria and antibodies, targets antigens like bacteria and allergens
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Plasma Cells
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produce and secrete antibodies or immunoglobulins
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Antigens
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specific chemical targeted by B cells, mostly consisting of proteins
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NK Cells (Natural Killers)
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large, granular lymphocytes that recognize and destroy abnormal cells when they appear in peripheral tissue but are not as specific in their attack
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Lymph Tissue
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connective tissue dominated by lymphocytes
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MALT
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collection of lymphoid tissues linked with digestive system
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Lymph Nodes
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small lymphoid organs ranging in diameter from 1mm to 25mm, purify lymph before it reaches the venous circulation
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Swollen Glands
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enlargement of lymph nodes, natural inflammatory response due to an increased number of lymphocytes and phagocytes in response to a minor localized infection
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Lymphadenopathy
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chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph node, a response to a bacterial or viral infection, endocrine disorder, or cancer
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Thymus
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located in the mediastinum just posterior to sternum, produces several key immune system hormones
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Thymosin
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hormone involved in the development of lymphocytes
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Spleen
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located along the left lateral border of the stomach, removes abnormal blood cells and other blood components, stores iron recycled from red blood cells, initiates immune responses by B and T cells, and contracts to push out blood, not able to be repaired as it is too fragile
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Tonsils
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large lymphoid nodules in the walls of the pharynx
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Inflammation
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localized tissue response to injury
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4 Cardinal Signs of Non-Specific Defense
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local swelling, redness, heat, and pain
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Causes of Non-Specific Defense
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impact, abrasion, distortion, chemical irritation, infection by pathogens, and extreme temperatures (hot or cold)
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Necrosis
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the death of cells or tissues from disease or injury
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Pus
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an accumulation of debris, fluid, dead, and dying cells, and necrotic tissue
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Abscess
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a localized collection of pus within a damaged tissue
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3 Benefits of a Fever
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high body temperature may inhibit some viruses and bacteria, body metabolism speeds up, and cell movement and enzymes reactions occur faster
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Cell-Mediated Immunity
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defends against abnormal cells and pathogens inside cells using phagocytosis and T cells, the primary defense against viruses
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Antibody-Mediated Immunity
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B cells defend against antigens and pathogens in body fluids, the primary defense against bacteria
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Innate Immunity
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genetically determined and is present at birth, no previous exposure to antigen required
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Acquired Immunity
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acquire immunity when exposed to antigen, not present at birth
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Vaccination/Immunization
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antigen from pathogen put in \”shot\” form, forces B cells to make antibodies to target antigen, antigen is neutralized and memory cells are made
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Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
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develops after birth as you encounter each \”new\” pathogen
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Induced Active Immunity
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develops after administration of antigen to prevent disease
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Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity
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from mother to child during gestation or breast feeding
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Induced Passive Immunity
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antibodies are administered to fight an infection or prevent a disease
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Autoimmune Diseases
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occurs when immune response inappropriately targets normal body cells and tissues – psoriasis, vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Grave’s disease
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Immunodeficiency
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the immune system fails to develop normally or immune response is blocked in some way, results from problems with embryological development of lymphoid organs and tissues, infection with a virus like HIV which suppresses immune function, or treatment with or exposure to immunosuppressive agents such as radiation or drugs
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Allergies
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an inappropriate or excessive immune response to an antigen
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Histamine
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a chemical released by mast cells to initiate an inflammatory response
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Antihistamine
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chemical that stops body from producing histamine
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Anaphylaxis
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a circulating allergen affects mast cells in your body
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Anaphylactic Shock
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severe reaction to allergen that includes rapid decrease in blood pressure and vasodilation, can lead to circulatory system collapsing or even death
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Mast Cells
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release histamines, located in the immune system in lymph
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Lymph Vessels vs. Blood Capillaries
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lymph originate as pockets rather than forming continuous tubes, have larger diameters, thinner walls, and have valves and are pale green in color
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Superficial Lymphatics
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located in the subcutaneous layer deep to skin, found in mucus membranes lining digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
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Deep Lymphatics
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larger lymphatic vessels that accompany deep arteries and veins, supply skeletal muscles and other organs of neck, limbs, and the trunk
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Lymphatic Trunks
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larger than superficial and deep lymphatics and empty into thoracic and right lymphatic ducts
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Thoracic Duct
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collects lymph from right side below diaphragm and entire left side
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Right Lymphatic Duct
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smaller than thoracic duct, collects lymph from right side superior to diaphragm
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Lymphedema
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blockage of lymphatic drainage from a limb, causes swelling and grossly distended parts, can be permanent if left untreated
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Lupus
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a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of your body, including your skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, heart and lungs, episodes tend to come and go throughout your life, and they may make you feel tired and achy
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Crohn’s Disease
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inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract, can cause severe bouts of watery diarrhea and abdominal pain
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Autoimmune Hepatitis
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a disorder in which the immune system attacks the liver, causing chronic inflammation of the liver
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Type 1 Diabetes
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develops when your pancreas makes little or no insulin, insulin acts like a key to unlock microscopic doors that allow glucose into your cells, instead of being transported into your cells, glucose accumulates in your bloodstream and eventually is excreted in your urine
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Scleroderma
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a rare, progressive disease that involves hardening and thickening of the skin and may damage internal organs as well
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Rheumatic Fever
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a serious inflammatory condition that can affect many parts of your body – heart, joints, nervous system and skin, symptoms generally appear within five weeks after an untreated streptococcal throat infection
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Rheumatoid Arthritis
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the synovial membrane that protects and lubricates your joints becomes inflamed, causing pain and swelling, joint erosion may follow
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Glomerulonephriitis
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a type of kidney disease that affects your kidneys’ filtering function, complications include high blood pressure and kidney failure
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Sarcoidosis
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starts in your lungs but can cause inflammation in any part of your body, it can last a lifetime – or disappear in a few years
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Myasthenia Gravis
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a condition of muscle weakness caused by a breakdown in communication between nerves and muscles
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Multiple Sclerosis
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a chronic, potentially debilitating disease that affects the brain and spinal cord
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Physical Barriers
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prevent approach of and deny access to pathogens
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Phagocytosis
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remove debris and pathogens
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Inflammatory Response
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blood flow increased, phagocytes activated, capillary permeability increased, complement activated, clotting reaction walls off region, regional temperature increased, specific defenses activated
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Fever
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mobilizes defenses, accelerates repairs, inhibits pathogens
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Pathogens
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disease causing agent, like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites
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HIV
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original diagnosis that progresses into AIDS, a virus
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AIDS
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has progressed from HIV because it has a secondary disease associated with it

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