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Telangana ( Telugu: ??????? . Urdu: ???????? . Hindi: ???????? ) is a part in Andhra Pradesh. India. The part borders the provinces of Maharashtra on the north-west. Karnataka on the West. Chattisgarh on the north-east. Orissa on the E. the Coastal Andhra part on the E and the Rayalaseema part on the South. Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema were portion of the former Andhra province which was merged with Telangana to organize the current province of Andhra Pradesh in 1956. The part has an country of 114. 840 square kilometers ( 44. 340 sq myocardial infarction ) . and a population of 30. 987. 271 [ 1 ] per the 2001 nose count. The part lies on the Deccan tableland to the West of the Eastern Ghats scope. and includes the northwesterly interior territories of the Andhra Pradesh province.
Telangana part has 10 territories: Adilabad. Hyderabad. Khammam. Karimnagar. Mahbubnagar. Medak. Nalgonda. Nizamabad. Rangareddy. and Warangal. The Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the part from West to east. Of the 34 territories in India which face acute farm hurt. nine are in Telangana. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] In 2006. of the 31 territories identified in four provinces for the Prime Minster’s bundle for watershed development undertakings. nine are in Telangana part and eight are in other parts of Andhra Pradesh. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] On December 9. 2009. the Government of India announced that the procedure for the formation of Telangana province would be considered upon debut and transition of a separation statement by the province assembly of Andhra Pradesh. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The Government of India constituted a five-member commission headed by Justice B. N. Srikrishna to analyze the feasibleness of a separate Telangana province within the Indian Union.
Hyderabad is the largest metropolis of the Telangana part
In Treta Yuga. it is believed that Rama. Sita. and Lakshmana arrived in Telengana from Dandakaranya ( contemporary southern Chhattisgarh ) . They ab initio came to Karimnagar territory and lived in topographic points like the Ramagiri hills and Illantha Kunta small town. They so moved along the Godavari River spent their lives in expatriate at Parnashala. which is about 25 kilometers ( 16 myocardial infarction ) from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District.
Telangana was the fatherland of the Satavahana dynasty ( 230 BCE to 220 CE ) . Kotilingala in Karimnagar was their first capital. before Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed mintage of Simukha. the first Satavahana emperor.
The part experienced its aureate age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty. a Telugu dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323. Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas. and the first after the Satavahanas to convey the full Telugu country under one regulation. He put an terminal to the regulation of the Cholas. who accepted his suzerainty in the twelvemonth 1210. He established order in his huge rule that stretched from the Godavari delta in the E to Raichur ( in modern twenty-four hours Karnataka ) in the West and from Karimnagar and Bastar ( in modern twenty-four hours Chattisgarh ) in the North to Srisailam and Tripurantakam. near Ongole. in the South. It was during his reign that the Golkonda garrison was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were outstanding swayers from the Kakatiya dynasty.
Telangana came under the Muslim regulation of the Delhi Sultanate in the fourteenth century. followed by Bahmanis. Qutb Shahis. and the Mughals. As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early eighteenth century. the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate province known as Hyderabad. Later. Hyderabad entered into a pact of subordinate confederation with the British Empire. and was the largest and most thickly settled princely province in India. Telangana was ne’er under direct British regulation. unlike the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema parts of Andhra Pradesh. which were portion of British India’s Madras Presidency. The Telangana part was the bosom of legion dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad province.
Chief article: Telangana Rebellion
The Telangana Rebellion was a provincial rebellion which was subsequently supported by the Communists. It took topographic point in the former princely province of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. This was led by the Communist Party of India.
The rebellion began in the Nalgonda territory and rapidly distribute to the Warangal and Bidar territories. Peasant husbandmans and laborers revolted against the local feudal landlords ( jagirdars and deshmukhs ) and later against the Osman Ali Khan. Asif Jah VII. The initial purposes were to make away with illegal and inordinate development meted out by these feudal Godheads in the name of bonded labor ( Vetti Chakiri ) . The most blatant demand was for all debts of the provincials to be written off.
Among the well-known persons at the head of the motion were leaders like Anabheri Prabhakar Rao. Bathini Mogilaiah Goud. Doddi Komraiah. Bandi Yadagiri. Suddala Hanumanthu. Acharya Konda Lakshman Bapuji. Chakalli Iylamma. Komaram Bheem. Puchalapalli Sundaraiah. Makineni Basavapunaiah. Chandra Rajeswara Rao. Raavi Narayana Reddy. Arutla Laxmi Narsimha Reddy ( known as AL by his companions ) . Bommagani Dharma Biksham. Arjula Ramana Reddy. the Urdu poet Makhdoom Mohiuddin. Hassan Nasir. Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy. Mallu Venkata Narasimha Reddy. Mallu Swarajyam. Arutla Ramchandra Reddy and his married woman Arutla Kamala Devi. Kolluru Ramchandra Reddy and his married woman Kolluru Susheela Devi.
The violent stage of the motion ended after the cardinal authorities sent in the ground forces. Get downing in 1951. the CPI shifted to a more moderate scheme of seeking to convey communism to India within the restraints of Indian democracy.
In 1937. Time magazine said Hyderabad province was the richest native province in India.
When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947. the Nizam of Hyderabad wanted Hyderabad State to stay independent under the particular commissariats given to princely provinces. Rebellion had started throughout the province against the Nizam’s regulation and his ground forces. known as the Razakars. The Razakars. led by their head. Qasim Razvi. massacred many people and Rebels to stamp down the motion. They destroyed many temples and memorials across the province. Mass blackwashs. similar to Jallianwala Bagh slaughter. took topographic point through out the province.
The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948. in an operation by the Indian Army called Operation Polo. When India became independent. Telugu-speaking people were distributed in approximately 22 territories. 9 of them in the former Nizam’s rules of the deluxe province of Hyderabad. 12 in the Madras Presidency ( Andhra part ) . and one in French-controlled Yanam.
The Cardinal Government appointed a civil retainer. M. K. Vellodi. as First Chief Minister of Hyderabad province on 26 January 1950. He administered the province with the aid of administrative officials from Madras province and Bombay province. In 1952. Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief curate of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this clip there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to direct back administrative officials from Madras province. and to purely implement regulation by indigens of Hyderabad. [ 18 ]
Meanwhile. Telugu-speaking countries in the Andhra part were carved out of the erstwhile Madras province by leaders like Potti Sri Ramulu to make Andhra State in 1953. with Kurnool as its capital. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ]
Amalgamation of Telangana and Andhra
In December 1953. the States Reorganization Commission was appointed to fix for the creative activity of provinces on lingual lines. [ 22 ] The States Reorganisation Commission ( SRC ) was non in favor of an immediate amalgamation of Telangana part with Andhra province. despite their common linguistic communication.
Paragraph 382 of the States Reorganisation Commission Report ( SRC ) said “opinion in Andhra is overpoweringly in favor of the larger unit ; public sentiment in Telangana has still to crystallise itself. Important leaders of public sentiment in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the fusion of Telangana with Andhra. though desirable. should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is chiefly for the people of Telangana to take a determination about their future” . The people of Telangana had several concerns.
The part had a less-developed economic system than Andhra. but with a larger gross base ( largely because it taxed instead than prohibited alcoholic drinks ) . which people of Telangana feared might be diverted for usage in Andhra. They feared that planned irrigation undertakings on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would non profit Telangana proportionally. even though people of Telangana controlled the headwaters of the rivers. It was feared that the people of Andhra. who had entree to higher criterions of instruction under the British regulation. would hold an unjust advantage in seeking authorities and educational occupations.
The committee proposed that the Telangana part be constituted as a separate province with a proviso for fusion with Andhra province. after the 1961 general elections. if a declaration could be passed in the Telangana province assembly with a two-thirds bulk.
The Chief Minister of Hyderabad State. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao. expressed his position that a bulk of Telangana people were against the amalgamation. [ 23 ] He supported the Congress party’s cardinal leading determination to unify Telangana and Andhra despite resistance in Telangana. [ 24 ] Andhra province assembly passed a declaration on 25 November 1955 to supply precautions to Telangana. The declaration said. “Assembly would farther wish to guarantee the people in Telangana that the development of that country would be deemed to be particular charge. and that certain precedences and particular protection will be given for the betterment of that country. such as reserve in services and educational establishments on the footing of population and irrigational development. ” [ 25 ]
Telangana leaders did non believe the precautions would work. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] With buttonholing from Andhra Congress leaders and with force per unit area from the Central leading of Congress party. an understanding was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to unify Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana’s involvements. [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
Prime curate Jawaharlal Nehru ab initio was disbelieving of unifying Telangana with Andhra State. fearing a “tint of expansionist imperialism” in it. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] He compared the amalgamation to a marital confederation holding “provisions for divorce” if the spouses in the confederation can non acquire on good. [ 32 ] [ 33 ]
Following the Gentlemen’s understanding. the cardinal authorities established a incorporate Andhra Pradesh on November 1. 1956. [ 19 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] The understanding provided reassurances to Telangana in footings of power-sharing every bit good as administrative legal residence regulations and distribution of disbursals of assorted parts.
Anti-Nehru political relations emerged with the repression of the Telengana motion ; many within the Congress Party extended their custodies to left-of-center causes. Feroze Gandhi was among them. [ 36 ]
Separate Telangana province motion
Chief article: Telangana motion
Grudges of Telangana advocates
Advocates of a separate Telangana province citation perceived unfairnesss in the distribution of H2O. budget allotments. and occupations. Budget allotments to Telangana are by and large less than 1/3 of the entire Andhra Pradesh budget. There are allegations that in most old ages. financess allocated to Telangana were ne’er spent. Telangana JAC leaders say that merely 20 % of the entire Government employees. less than 10 % of employees in the secretariat. and less than 5 % of section caputs in the Andhra Pradesh authorities are from Telangana. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] None of these allegations were proved incorrect by the Sri Krishna Committee due to miss of informations. and its pick to compare parts ( Seema-Andhra vs Telangana ) non its people ( Seema-Andhrites V Telanganites ) . [ 41 ] [ 42 ]
Advocates of a separate Telangana province feel that the understandings. programs. and confidences from the legislative assembly and Lok Sabha over the last 50 old ages have non been honoured. and as a effect Telangana has remained neglected. exploited. and rearward. They feel that separation is the best solution. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ]
History of the motion
In the old ages after the formation of Andhra Pradesh province. the people of Telangana expressed dissatisfaction over how the understandings and warrants were implemented. Discontent intensified in January 1969. when the some of the warrants that had been agreed on were supposed to sink. Student agitation for the proper execution of the understanding began at Osmania University in Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the part. [ 46 ] This agitation came to an terminal in September 1971 when people realised that the Prime Minister was non inclined to towards a separate province of Telangana. [ 47 ] Due to agitation in the Seema-Andra part in 1973 protesting the protections for Telangana. the cardinal authorities diluted the protections in Gentlemen’s understanding by originating the Six point expression.
Assorted political parties were formed with a platform of prosecuting statehood for Telangana. including the Telangana Praja Samithi political party in 1969. which won 10 out of 14 Parliamentory contituencies in 1971. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] In the 1990s. the Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP ) promised a separate Telangana province if they came to power. [ 50 ] A new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi ( TRS ) . led by Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao ( KCR ) . was formed in 2001 with the single-point docket of making a separate Telangana province with Hyderabad as its capital. [ 51 ]
For the 2004 Assembly and Parliament elections. the Congress party and the TRS had an electoral confederation in the Telangana part that promised a separate Telangana State. [ 52 ] Congress came to power in the province and formed a alliance authorities at the Centre. TRS joined the alliance authorities in 2004 and was successful in doing a separate Telangana province a portion of the common minimal programme of the alliance authorities. [ 53 ] In September 2006. TRS withdrew support from the Congress-led alliance authorities because of their failure to present on their promise to make an independent Telangana province. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ]
In July 2008. Devendra Goud and other leaders such as E. Peddi Reddy resigned from Telugu Desam Party ( TDP ) and formed a new party called Nava Telangana Praja Party ( NTPP ) with Telangana formation as its chief end. [ 57 ] After extended internal treatments. the TDP. the chief resistance party in the province. announced its support for the creative activity of Telangana on 9 October 2008. [ 58 ] The Telugu Desam Party promised to work for Telangana statehood. The Praja Rajyam Party ( PRP ) . freshly founded by movie star Chiranjeevi. supported Telangana statehood. [ 59 ] The Nava Telangana Praja Party announced that it would unify with PRP after it concluded that there was non plenty political infinite for two sub-regional Telangana parties that had Telananga statehood as their chief docket. [ 60 ] [ 61 ]
On 29 November 2009. TRS president K. Chandrashekar Rao ( KCR ) started a fast-unto-death. demanding that the Congress party introduce a Telangana measure in Parliament. He was arrested by the authorities of Andhra Pradesh. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ] Student organisations. employee brotherhoods. and assorted organisations joined the motion. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] General strikes shut down Telangana on 6 and 7 December. [ 70 ] Student organisations planned a monolithic mass meeting at the province Assembly on 10 December. The authorities warned that the mass meeting did non hold permission and deployed constabulary military personnels throughout Telangana. [ 71 ] All resistance parties in the province favoured creative activity of Telangana province at an all-party meet held on 7 December. [ 72 ]
On 9 December 2009. Union Minister of Home Affairs P. Chidambaram announced that the Indian authorities would get down the procedure of organizing a separate Telangana province. pending the debut and transition of a separation declaration in the Andhra Pradesh assembly. [ 73 ] KCR ended his 11-day fast. stating from his infirmary bed that this was a “true triumph of the people of Telangana. ”
Pro-Telangana protagonists celebrated the cardinal authorities determination. while those from the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema parts ( Andhra part ) protested. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] Due to protests in the Seema-Andhra part. On 23 December. the Government of India announced that no action on Telangana would be taken until a consensus was reached by all parties. [ 76 ] Rallies. hungriness work stoppages. and suicides continued throughout Telangana to protest against the hold in bifurcating the State. [ 77 ]
The all-party Telangana Joint Action Committee ( JAC ) started relay hungriness work stoppages and threatened the surrenders of all legislators on 28 January. demanding that the Centre enchantment out its purposes and make a timetable for alteration. [ 78 ] On 3 February the authorities announced the five-member Srikrishna commission on Telangana that would look into the issue. [ 79 ] with a deadline of 31 December 2010.
Srikrishna Committee study
The Srikrishna commission on Telangana submitted its study in two volumes to the Home Ministry of India on 30 December 2010. [ 80 ] In an all-party meeting on 6 January 2011. the Home ministry made the 505-page Srikrishna commission study populace. Section 9-3 ( page 440 ) of the study [ 81 ] discusses six solutions. [ 82 ] [ 83 ]
The Committee announced that they were urging maintaining the State united. and advised constitutional and statutory steps for socio-economic development and political authorization of Telangana part through the creative activity of a statutorily-empowered Telangana Regional Council. Telangana leaders say the best option from the Sri Krishna commission study is the formation of separate Telangana province with Hyderabad as its capital. They plan to coerce the Cardinal authorities to zero in on this option as the lone feasible 1. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ] [ edit ] Geography
Telangana part marked in white within the province of Andhra Pradesh
Telangana is situated in the cardinal stretch of the eastern seaside of the Indian Peninsula. Of the three parts of the province of Andhra Pradesh. [ 88 ] Telangana has the largest country. with 114. 800 square kilometers ( 44. 300 sq myocardial infarction ) . The Deccan tableland is drained by two major rivers. the Godavari and the Krishna. 69 % of the Krishna River and 79 % of the Godavari River catchment country is in Telangana. Tthere are other rivers such as Manair. Bhima. Dindi. Kinnerasani. Manjeera. Munneru. Moosi. Penganga. Praanahita. and Peddavagu and Taliperu.
The country is divided into two chief parts. the Eastern Ghats and the peneplanes. The surface is dotted with low depressions. The part has really valuable coal mines in Ramagundam.
This subdivision does non mention any mentions or beginnings. Please assist better this article by adding commendations to dependable beginnings. Unsourced stuff may be challenged and removed. ( December 2009 )
45 % of the forested country in the province is in Telangana part. spread across five territories. 20 % of the coal sedimentations in the state is in Telangana part. The Singareni Collieries Company excavates coal for industrial intents and for thermic power Stationss. The power generated is supplied to to the full of South India. There are limestone sedimentations in the part. which cater to cement mills. Telangana has other resources such as bauxite and isinglass.
9 out of 10 territories in the Telangana part are recognized by the Government of India as backward. The lone exclusion is Hyderabad territory. Harmonizing to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10. 13 such territories are located in Andhra Pradesh ; 9 are from Telangana and the remainder are from other parts. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Telangana ( inc. Hyderabad ) has 86 % Hindu. 12. 4 % Muslim. and 1. 2 % Christian population. Hyderabad metropolis has 55. 4 % Hindu. 41. 2 % Muslim. 2. 4 % Christian population. Telangana territories outside of Hyderabad territory have 8. 4 % of the Muslim population. [ 92 ] [ 93 ]
More than 90 % of Telangana people speak the Telangana idiom of Telugu. which is chiefly Telugu with Urdu influences. [ commendation needed ] About 11 % of Telangana people speak Hyderabadi Urdu. Urdu talkers are largely Muslims. though people of other ethnicities besides use Urdu for daily life. [ 94 ] [ 1 ] Hindi is spoken by people from other provinces of North India and Central India like Gujarat and Maharashtra. Kannada and Marathi are besides spoken. Telugu. Urdu. and English are the official linguistic communications of the part. [ edit ] Culture and individuality