The states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh share a connection.
India shares its borders with Maharashtra to the northwest, Karnataka to the west, and Chattisgarh to the northeast.
The former Andhra province, which encompassed the eastern part of Orissa, coastal Andhra, and the Rayalaseema region in the south, merged with Telangana in 1956 to create what is now known as Andhra Pradesh. The current area of this province is 114,840 square kilometers (44,340 square miles).
The Telangana region, located on the Deccan plateau west of the Eastern Ghats range, has a population of 30,987,271 according to the 2001 census. It includes the interior territories of Andhra Pradesh province and is divided into ten districts: Adilabad, Hyderabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, and Warangal.
The rivers Krishna and Godavari flow in an eastward direction in this area. Among the 34 regions in India experiencing significant agric...
ultural harm, nine are situated in Telangana. Furthermore, some of the territories identified for the Prime Minister's watershed development projects in 2006 were located within these areas across four provinces.
There are seventeen districts in Andhra Pradesh, with nine located in the Telangana region and the remaining eight situated elsewhere. On December 9, 2009, the Government of India declared its intention to potentially create a separate Telangana province. This decision would be based on a separation statement from the provincial assembly of Andhra Pradesh. To facilitate this process, a commission headed by Justice B.N. was established by the Government.
Srikrishna will assess the potential for establishing an independent Telangana state within India.
Hyderabad, the main city in the Telangana region
In Treta Yuga, it is believed that Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana migrated to Telangana from Dandakarany
(modern southern Chhattisgarh). At first, they resided in the Karimnagar area and occupied locations such as the Ramagiri hills and Illantha Kunta village.
They resided in Parnashala, which is located approximately 25 kilometers (16 mi) from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District, while moving along the Godavari River. Telangana, the homeland of the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE), housed their first capital at Kotilingala in Karimnagar before Dharanikota. Mintage of Simukha was discovered during excavations at Kotilingala.
Ganapatideva, the first Satavahana emperor, experienced the golden age of the Kakatiya dynasty. This Telugu dynasty ruled most parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323. Ganapatideva, considered the greatest of the Kakatiyas, was the first ruler after the Satavahanas to unite the entire Telugu country under one government. He ended the rule of the Cholas.
During the twelvemonth 1210, there were individuals who accepted his suzerainty. He was responsible for establishing order in his large territory, which extended from the Godavari delta in the East to Raichur in the West (located in modern-day Karnataka), and from Karimnagar and Bastar in the North to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the South. The construction of the Golkonda garrison took place during his reign. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were notable rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty.
Telangana was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate during the fourteenth century, followed by the Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis, and the Mughals.
The Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established Hyderabad as a separate province when the Mughal Empire started to disintegrate in the early eighteenth century. Later, Hyderabad formed a pact of subordinate confederation with the British Empire.
Telangana, the largest and most densely populated princely province in India, never came under direct
British rule like the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India’s Madras Presidency.
The Telangana region has a rich history, being the heartland of many dynasties. One notable location in this region is the Chowmahalla Palace, which served as the residence for the Nizams of Hyderabad.
The Telangana Rebellion, supported by the Communists, was a provincial uprising that occurred in the former princely state of Hyderabad from 1946 to 1951.
Led by the Communist Party of India, this rebellion started in the Nalgonda region and quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar regions. Peasant farmers and laborers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. The main objectives were to eliminate the unfair and excessive exploitation imposed by these feudal lords in the form of bonded labor (Vetti Chakiri).
Among the leaders at the forefront of the motion, which included Anabheri Prabhakar Rao, Bathini Mogilaiah Goud, Doddi Komraiah, and Bandi Yadagiri, was the most blatant demand for all debts of the provincials to be written off.
Suddala Hanumanthu, Acharya Konda Lakshman Bapuji, Chakalli Iylamma, Komaram Bheem, Puchalapalli Sundaraiah, Makineni Basavapunaiah.
Chandra Rajeswara Rao, Raavi Narayana Reddy, Arutla Laxmi Narsimha Reddy (known as AL by his companions), and Bommagani Dharma Biksham.
Arjula Ramana Reddy, Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Hassan Nasir, and Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy are all notable individuals in their respective fields.
Mallu Venkata Narasimha Reddy, Mallu Swarajyam, Arutla Ramchandra Reddy, and his wife Arutla Kamala Devi, Kolluru Ramchandra Reddy, and his wife Kolluru Susheela Devi. The violent stage of the motion concluded when the central government deployed the army.
In 1951, when the CPI started, its approach
aimed to introduce communism in India while respecting the principles of Indian democracy. Time magazine had previously described Hyderabad province as the wealthiest native province in India in 1937.
When India gained independence from the British Empire in 1947.
The Nizam of Hyderabad desired for Hyderabad State to remain independent, following the specific provisions granted to princely provinces. However, there was a rebellion taking place across the province against the Nizam's rule and his army, known as the Razakars, led by their leader Qasim Razvi.
Many people were massacred and Rebels were stamped down in order to suppress the movement. Numerous temples and memorials throughout the province were destroyed. The mass killings were comparable to the Jallianwala Bagh slaughter.
Throughout the province, events occurred which led to the Government of India annexing Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948. This action, known as Operation Polo, was carried out by the Indian Army. Following India's independence, the Telugu-speaking population was dispersed across around 22 regions.
There are 9 of these provinces in the former Nizam's rules in Hyderabad, 12 in the Andhra region of the Madras Presidency, and one in the French-controlled Yanam. The civil retainer was appointed by the Cardinal Government, M.K.
Vellodi served as the First Chief Minister of Hyderabad province on 26 January 1950. He governed the province with the assistance of administrative officials from Madras province and Bombay province. In 1952, Dr.
Burgula Ramakrishna Rao became the Chief Curate of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. At that time, some Telanganites staged violent protests to remove administrative officials from Madras province and to fully enforce the regulations by indigenous people of Hyderabad. Meanwhile, other events were taking place.
in the Andhra part, including Kurnool as its capital, were separated from the former Madras province by leaders like Potti Sri Ramulu to establish Andhra State in 1953.
Amalgamation of Telangana and Andhra
In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) was appointed to create provinces based on language. However, the SRC did not support the immediate merging of Telangana with Andhra, despite their shared language.
Paragraph 382 of the SRC Report states that in Andhra, most of the public is in favor of creating a larger unit. However, in Telangana, public opinion remains unsure. Leaders in Andhra acknowledge that any merging with Telangana should only happen if the people are willing and choose to do so. The ultimate decision about their future lies with the people of Telangana due to their multiple concerns.
Telangana had a less advanced economy than Andhra, but a larger overall base, primarily due to its taxation of alcoholic beverages instead of prohibiting them. The people of Telangana were worried that this larger economic base might be used for the benefit of Andhra. Furthermore, they were concerned that proposed irrigation projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not provide proportional benefits to Telangana, even though they controlled the headwaters of these rivers. The people of Andhra were also feared in this regard.
The committee proposed that individuals who received a better education under British rule would have an unfair advantage when applying for government and educational positions. They also suggested establishing Telangana as a separate province, with the option of merging with Andhra after the 1961 general elections if supported by a two-thirds majority in the Telangana assembly. The Chief Minister of Hyderabad State
would ultimately make this decision.
Burgula Ramakrishna Rao stated that most people in Telangana opposed the merger. He backed the Congress party's key decision to unite Telangana and Andhra, despite resistance in Telangana. The Andhra province assembly, on 25 November 1955, passed a resolution to provide safeguards for Telangana. The resolution assured the people of Telangana that their development would be given special attention and certain priorities and protections would be provided for their improvement.
Telangana leaders expressed concerns about the reservation of services and educational establishments based on population and irrigation development. However, these precautions were deemed ineffective. Due to lobbying by Andhra Congress leaders and pressure from the Central-leading Congress party, Telangana leaders reached an agreement with Andhra leaders on February 20, 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra. Assurances were given to safeguard Telangana's interests. Initially, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had reservations about the merger due to fears of expansionist imperialism.
He likened the amalgamation to a marital union with "provisions for divorce" in case the spouses in the union cannot get along well. After the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government formed a unified Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956. The agreement offered assurances to Telangana in terms of power-sharing, administrative residency rules, and distribution of expenses in different regions. Anti-Nehru politics arose with the suppression of the Telangana movement; several members of the Congress Party supported left-wing causes.
Feroze Gandhi was among them.
The motion for a separate Telangana province
The advocates for a separate Telangana province believed that there were various unfairnesses in the distribution of resources such as water, budget allotments, and jobs. Telangana receives significantly less budget allotment compared
to the overall budget of Andhra Pradesh. Additionally, there have been accusations that this has been the case for several years.
Telangana JAC leaders allege that the finances assigned to Telangana have not been fully used. They assert that Telangana comprises only 20% of the overall government employees, less than 10% of secretariat employees, and less than 5% of section heads in Andhra Pradesh government.
The Sri Krishna Committee did not dismiss the allegations due to lack of information, but instead chose to compare the regions (Seema-Andhra vs Telangana) rather than investigating the people (Seema-Andhrites vs Telanganites). Advocates for a distinct Telangana state contend that the promises, initiatives, and assurances made by both the legislative assembly and Lok Sabha in the last fifty years have not been honored.
Due to neglect, exploitation, and feeling abandoned, Telangana has opted for separation as the most appropriate solution. The movement's background can be summarized as follows:
A Summary of the Movement's Background
The movement gained momentum after the establishment of Andhra Pradesh state.
The displeasure of the people of Telangana regarding the implementation of the understandings and warrants was evident. The discontent grew stronger in January 1969 when some of the agreed-upon warrants were expected to be put into effect. The students at Osmania University in Hyderabad initiated a protest demanding proper execution of the understandings, which later spread to other parts of the region. This protest finally concluded in September 1971 when it became clear that the Prime Minister was not supportive of a separate Telangana province. In 1973, there was further unrest in the Seema-Andra region, protesting the safeguards for Telangana.
The introduction of the Six point expression by the cardinal authorities weakened
the safeguards in Gentlemen's agreement, resulting in the emergence of several political parties calling for Telangana statehood. One such party was the Telangana Praja Samithi political party, which was established in 1969. In 1971, this party successfully won 10 out of 14 Parliamentary constituencies, and this trend persisted during the 1990s.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) pledged to create a separate Telangana province with Hyderabad as its capital. To achieve this, they formed the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) party in 2001 under the leadership of Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (KCR), which was solely dedicated to realizing a distinct Telangana province.
In the 2004 Assembly and Parliament elections, the Congress party and the TRS formed an electoral confederation in the Telangana region. Their promise was to establish a separate Telangana State. The Congress party won the elections and formed a coalition government at the Centre. The TRS joined this government in 2004 and successfully achieved their goal of creating a separate Telangana province as part of the alliance's minimal programme.
In September 2006, TRS withdrew support from the Congress-led alliance government due to their failure in fulfilling their promise to create a separate Telangana province. Then, in July 2008, Devendra Goud and other leaders including E. Peddi Reddy resigned from the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and established a new party called the Nava Telangana Praja Party (NTPP), with the main objective of achieving Telangana formation.
After extensive internal discussions, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), the main opposition party in the province, declared its endorsement for the formation of Telangana on 9 October 2008. The TDP pledged to actively advocate for the establishment of the state of Telangana. The Praja Rajyam
Party (PRP) also showed its support.
Movie star Chiranjeevi recently founded the Nava Telangana Praja Party, which supports Telangana statehood. The party has declared its intention to merge with PRP, as they believe there is not enough political space for two Telangana parties with a focus on statehood. This decision was made on 29 November 2009.
TRS president K. Chandrashekar Rao (KCR) initiated a hunger strike named "fast-unto-death" to pressure the Congress party into presenting a Telangana bill in Parliament. Subsequently, the authorities of Andhra Pradesh detained him.
Student organizations, employee brotherhoods, and assorted organizations all participated in the movement. As a result, general strikes effectively paralyzed Telangana on both December 6th and 7th.
Student organizations organized a mass meeting on December 10th at the province Assembly. However, the authorities cautioned that the meeting did not have permission and stationed police personnel across Telangana. On December 7th, all opposition parties in the province expressed support for the establishment of Telangana state during an all-party meeting. Additionally, on December 9th, P., the Union Minister of Home Affairs, made an announcement.
Chidambaram announced that the procedure of organizing a separate Telangana province would be initiated by the Indian authorities. This would happen pending the debut and transition of a separation declaration in the Andhra Pradesh assembly. KCR, after ending his 11-day fast, stated from his infirmary bed that this was a “true triumph of the people of Telangana.” Pro-Telangana protagonists celebrated the decision made by the central government.
Protests took place in the Andhra part of Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema due to discontent. The Government of India made an announcement on 23 December that no decision regarding Telangana would be made until all
parties reached a consensus. Rallies and work stoppages were organized as a form of protest.
Protests and suicides in Telangana persisted in opposition to the delay in dividing the State. The Telangana Joint Action Committee (JAC), which includes all political parties, initiated a series of hunger strikes and warned that all legislators would resign on 28 January. They demanded that the Center address their concerns and provide a timeline for the changes. On 3 February, the government established the Srikrishna commission, consisting of five members, to investigate the Telangana issue with a deadline of 31 December 2010.
Srikrishna Committee study
The Srikrishna Commission on Telangana completed its study and submitted it in two volumes to the Home Ministry of India on December 30, 2010. On January 6, 2011, during an all-party meeting, the Home Ministry made the 505-page report of the Srikrishna Commission study public. Section 9-3 (page 440) of the study presents six potential solutions. The Committee emphasized their recommendation to keep the State united.
The text emphasizes the need for socio-economic development and political authorization of Telangana through the creation of a statutorily-empowered Telangana Regional Council. Telangana leaders advocate for the formation of a separate Telangana province with Hyderabad as its capital, which they believe is the best option based on the findings of the Sri Krishna commission study. They plan to exert pressure on the Central government to focus solely on this feasible option.
Telangana is located in the central stretch of the eastern coastline of the Indian Peninsula. Among the three parts of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana has the largest territory, as depicted in white on the map.
The Deccan tableland, which covers
an area of 114.800 square kilometers (44.300 sq myocardial infarction), is drained by two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna.
Telangana is home to a large portion of the Krishna River and Godavari River catchment country, with 69% and 79% respectively. Additionally, there are other rivers present in the region including Manair, Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Munnar, Moose, Penang, Praanahita, Peddavagu, and Taliperu. The country itself is separated into two main parts: the Eastern Ghats and the peneplains. Throughout the surface, there are numerous low depressions scattered about.
The part has highly valuable coal mines in Ramagundam.
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Telangana has 45% of the forested area in the province, which is spread across five territories. Additionally, 20% of the coal sedimentations in the state are located in Telangana. The Singareni Collieries Company carries out coal excavations for industrial purposes and thermic power stations.
The power generated in this area is provided to the whole of South India. Additionally, there are limestone sedimentations that serve cement mills. Telangana also possesses other resources like bauxite and isinglass.
The Government of India recognizes 9 out of 10 territories in the Telangana region as backward, with the exception of Hyderabad. According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009-10, 13 such territories are found in Andhra Pradesh, with 9 belonging to Telangana and the rest scattered in other regions.
Telangana (including Hyderabad) has a Hindu population of 86%, Muslim population of 12.4%, and Christian population of 1.2%.
The religious composition of
Hyderabad metropolis is 55.4% Hindu and 41.2% Muslim.
2.4% of the population in Telangana are Christians, while outside of Hyderabad territory, the Muslim population makes up 8.4%. Additionally, over 90% of the people in Telangana speak the Telangana variant of the Telugu language.
The dominant language in Telangana is Telugu with some Urdu influences. Approximately 11% of the population speaks Hyderabadi Urdu, which is mainly spoken by Muslims, although people of other ethnicities also use it in their daily lives. Hindi is spoken by people from other regions of North and Central India, such as Gujarat and Maharashtra. Kannada and Marathi are also spoken in Telangana.
Telugu, Urdu, and English are the official languages spoken in this region.
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