spring semester exam Flashcard

The force that holds two atoms together is called a chemical bond.
Chemical bonds may form as a result of the attraction of a nucleus for another atom’s electrons.
To form a negative ion, a neutral atom must lose electrons.
The reactivity of an element depends mainly on the number of ______.
Valence electrons
The electron structures of transition-element ions that have outer configurations with full s, p, and d sublevels are called ______.
Pseudo-noble gas configurations
What is the electron configuration for the noble gases other than helium?
How many outermost d electrons are there in an ion that has achieved a pseudo-noble gas configuration?
A cation is a negatively charged particle.
F, positively
The force that holds two atoms together
chemical bond
A positively charged ion
A negatively charge ion
In the ionic compund sodium chloride, the one-to-one ratio of monatomic ions produces a binary crystal.
F, cubic
When ionic compounds form, positive and negative ions are packed together in an ionic oxide.
F, crystal
The formation of ionic compounds from positive and negative ions is almost always endothermic.
F, exothermic
In a crystal lattice, each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions.
The more negative the lattice energy is, the stronger is the force of attraction between the ions of an ionic compound.
An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity
The name for most ionic compounds other than oxides
metallic bond
The energy needed to seperate the ions of an ionic compound
lattice energy
The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together
ionic bond
The simplest ratio of the ions represented in an ionic compound is called a formula unit.
The overall charge of a formula unit for a compound is never zero.
F, always
A sulfate ion contains fewer oxygen atoms than a sulfite ion does.
F, more
In naming ionic compound, the cation is named first.
In naming a monatomic anion, the suffix -ide is used.
The prefix per- is used in naming the anion with the most oxygen atoms.
The anion that has the formula ClO^-1
hypochlorite ion
Where does a subscript that indicates the number of atoms appear, relative to a chemical symbol in a formula?
to the lower right
What is the formula of calcium phosphate, which is made up of ions Ca^+2 and PO4^-3?
For a monatomic ion, is equal to the charge
oxidation number
A charged particle containing more than one atom
polyatomic ion
A charged particle containing only one atom
monatomic ion
A polyatomic ion composed of an element bonded to at least one oxygen atom
Shows the simplest ratio of ions in an ionic compound
electron sea model
When a double covalent bond is formed, two electrons are shared.
F, four
In a pi bond, electrons are shared in an area centered between the two bonding atoms.
F, sigma
There is a(n) indirect relationship between bond energy and bond length.
F, direct
Flourine exists as a diatomic molecule because the shared pair of electrons enable each atom to form an octect.
According to the octect rule, most atoms that bond covalently achieve the electron configuration of a ______.
noble gas
Which of the following indicate that a bond is strong?
high bond dissociation energy and short bond length
In the formation of a covalent bond, electrons are
Which of the following elements normally exists in the form of diatomic molecules
Four electrons are shared in a ________.
double covalent bond
Which of the following molecules contains only sigma bond?
Which of the following molecules contains a triple bond?
How pi bonds are there in a triple bond?
Which of the following molecules would be expected to have the greatest dissociation energy?
Any bond in which there is electron sharing
covalent bond
The particle formed when two more atoms bond covalently
Reactions that occur when more energy is released forming new bonds than is required to break bonds in the intial reactants
A kind of bond in which electrons are shared in an area centered between two atoms
sigma bond
A kind of bond formed by overlap of parallel orbitals
pi bond
Reactions that occur when more energy is required to break existing bonds in reactants than is released when new bonds form in the product molecules
In naming a binary compound, the prefix used to indicate the presence of four atoms of a given kind is quadri-.
F, tetra
The suffix for an oxyacid that contains an anion ending in -ite is -ous.
Hydrochlric acid is an example of an oxyacid.
F, binary acid
In a chemical name, the prefix used to indicate the presence of two atoms of a given kind is bi-.
F, di
The prefix hydro- is used in naming binary acids.
Any acidic compound that contains oxygen
Resonance is a condition that occurs when only one valid Lewis structure can be written for a molecule.
F, more than
Resonance structures differ only in the number of the electron pairs.
F, position
In Lewis structures, hydrogen is always a terminal atom.
In the carbon dioxide molecule, the central atom is a carbon atom.
In the compound BH3, the boron atom has more has more than an octect of electrons.
F, less
Which of the following is an exception to the octect rule?
A model that shows how atoms are arranged in a molecule.
structural formula
A condition that occurs when more than one valid Lewis structure can be drawn for a molecule
A kind of bond in which one of the atoms provides both electrons for sharing
coordinate covalent bond
The VSEPR model is used to determine the size of a molecule.
The VSEPR model is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared electron pairs around the central atom.
The VSEPR model is based on the idea that in a molecule, nuclei repel each other as much as possible.
Predict the shape of a molecule of nitrogen trifluoride(NF3).
trigonal pyramidal
The creation of a set of new,identical orbitals bye the rearrangement of valence electrons within an atom is called _________.
In a linear molecule shape, the bonding electrons will have a maximum separation of ____________.
A model used to determine molecular shape
VSEPR model
The combining of orbitals in an atom to form new, identical orbitals
The greater the electronegativity difference is between two bonding atoms, the more ionic the bond tends to be.
The examples of covalent network solids are praffin and quartz
The tendency of an atom in a compound to attract electrons
A kind of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons
polar covalent
The heat and light given off when butane burns is evidence of a physical change
A number written in front of a chemical formula
A statement that uses chemical formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the substances involved in a chemical reaction
chemical equation
A starting substance in a chemical reaction
A substance formed during a chemical reaction
When an acid is added to silver sulfide, gas bubbles that smell like rotten eggs are released. How do you know that a chemical reaction has occurred?
A gas is given off, and a change in odor occurs
When magnesium metal is added to a zinc sulfate solution, a reaction occurs because magnesium is a more active metal than zinc.
When a lead(IV)nitrate solution is mixed with a sodium iodidesolution, solid lead(IV)iodide and aqueous sodium nitrate form in a single-replacement reaction.
In an aqueous solution, the solvent is always water
Identify the type of chemical reaction shown below:2C2H6(g)+7O2(g)->4CO2(g)+6H2O(g)
Identify the type of chemical reaction shown below:CO2(g)+CaO(s)->CaCO3(s)
Identify the chemical reaction shown below:2H2O2(l)->2H2O(l)+O2(g)
Identify the type of chemical reaction shown below:2KOH(aq)+H2SO4(aq)->K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)
Identify the type of chemical reaction shown below: Mg(s)+2AgNO3(aq)->2Ag(s)+Mg(NO3)2(aq)
A reaction in whicha compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds
decomposition reaction
A solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution
A reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases heat and light energy
combustion reaction
A reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound
single-replacement reaction
A reaction involving the exchange of positive ions between two compounds dissolved in water
double-replacement reaction
The process by which the atoms of one or more substance are rearranged to form different substances
chemical reaction
A reaction in which two or more substance react to produce a single product
synthesis reaction
The liter is the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substnace.
Chemists use the mole as the unit to represent the number of representative particles in a sample of a subsance
One mole of any substnace contain 6.02*10^23 representative particles of that substance.
Avogadro’s number is a very small number because its purpose is to count very small particles
There are 6.02*10^23 formula units of methane (CH4) in 0.8500 mol CH4.
One mole of water contains 6.02*10^23 representative particles of that substance.
A mole of potassium chloride (KCl) contains 6.02*10^23 _________.
formula units KCl
SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance
Avogrado’s number
The mass of a sodium-23 atom is 23 amu; therfore, the mass of one mole of sodium-23 atoms is exactly 23 kg.
F, g
Two moles of indium(In) has a mass of 229.64g. (The molar mass of indium is 114.82g/mol.)
The percent composition of carbon is equal to carbon’s atomic mass and has the units g/mol.
F, molar mass
The SI unit of molar mass is the _____.
Which compound has the smallest molar mass?
Mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance
molar mass
One mole of beryllium aluminum metasilicate(Be3Al2(SiO3)6) contains 1 mol Si atoms.
F, 6
How many moles of oxygen atoms do 1.5 moles of CO2 contain?
3 mol
Which of the following statements about the reaction represented by the following balanced chemical equation is false?
The number of reactant molecules equals the number if product molecules.
How many mole ratios can be derived from the following balanced chemical equation?
Stoichiometry is based on the law of conservation of
In a balanced chemical equation, the number of individual particles and the numbers of moles of particles are represented by the
Mole ratios for a reaction are obtained from the
balanced chemical equation
In the decomposition reaction of compound AB into substances A and B, what is the number of mole ratios?
A(n) ________ is a ratio between the number of moles of any two substances in a balanced chemical equation.
mole ratio
The study of the quantitative relationships among the amounts of reactants used and the amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction is called ________.
What is the first step in solving any stoichiometric problem?
Balance the chemical equation representing the reaction.
Calculating the mass of a reactant and product from the number of moles of another product or reactant in a chemical equation is an example of a _______.
mole-to-mass conversion
Gay-Lussac’s law states that the volume and kelvin temperature of a contained gas are directly proportional if pressure is constant.
F, Charles’s Law
Boyle’s law states that the pressure and volume of a contained gas are inversely proportional if temperature is constant.
Assuming all other variables remain constant, when you sqeeze a balloon, the pressure inside the balloon decreases.
F, increases
Which equation shows Boyle’s law?
P1V1=P2V2, at constant temperature
Which equation shows Charles’s law?
V1/T1=V2/T2 at constant pressure
Which equation shows Gay-Lussac’s law?
P1/T1=P2/T2 at constant volume
The pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant.
Gay-Lussac’s law
The volume of a given amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure.
Boyle’s law
The volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant pressure.
Charles’s law
_______ states that the volume of one mole of any gas at STP is 22.4 L.
Avogrado’s principle
Which of the following are the conditions known as standard temperature and pressure(STP)?
0C and 1.00 atm
In the combined gas law, this variable is always constant.
number of moles of gas
In the combined gas law, this variable is inversely proportional to pressure.
In the combined gas law, this variable is directly proportional to volume.
In the combined gas law, this variable is inversley proportional to volume.
Which equation shows the combined gas law?
What volume will one mole of a gas occupy under standard temperature and pressure?
22.4 L
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
Avogrado’s pronciple
One mole of any gas will occupy a volume of 22.4 L at STP.
molar volume
Temperature, pressure, and volume are related for a fixed amount of gas.
combined gas law
Consider the ideal gas law and the ideal gas constant. What information do you need in order to determine the volume of the gas if you know the pressure, the temperature, and the ideal gas constant?
the number of moles of the gas
Real gases deviate most from ideal gas behavior at ________.
extremely high pressure and low temperature
Which equation shows the ideal gas law?
What variable is mentioned in the ideal gas law that is assumed to be constant in the other gas laws?
number of moles
R represents the relatonship among pressure,volume,temperature, and the number of molecules of gas present.
ideal gas constant
The physical behavior of an ideal gas can be expressed in terms of the pressure,volume,temperature, and number of moles of gas present.
ideal gas law
A substance that dissolves in a solvent is said to be soluble in that solvent.
Two polar liquids will most likely be immiscible when mixed together.
Shaking and stirring decreases the rate of solvation by moving the solvated particles away from the contact areas more quickly.
A solution may exist a gas,a liquid or a solid depending on the state of the solvent.
The most common solvent amongF, liquid solutions is ethanol.
F, water
The most common solvent among liquid solutions is ethanol.
F, water
Nonpolar solvents are more soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A supersaturated solution contains less dissolved soluter than a saturated solution at the same temperature.
F, more
A dilute solution contains a small amount of solute relative to the solute’s solubility.
After adding a small crystal of copper sulfate to an aqueous solution of copper sulfate, a large amount of copper sulfate precipitate forms. Which of the following terms describes the original solution?
supersaturated solution
Which of the following statements explains the solubility of ionic substances in water?
Water molecules are polar
The overall energy change that occurs when a solution forms
heat of solution
The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution
The process of surrounding solute particles to form a solution
The statement that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
Henry’s law
A saturated solution is more dilute that an unsaturated solution
f, concentrated
Molarity is more likely to be affected by temperature than is molality
Molar solutions are calculated and expressed in grams per liter
f, moles per liter
What term describes a solution in which the dissolved solute is in equilibrium with the undissolved solute?
dilute solution
A measure of how much solute is in a specific amount of solvent or solution
The ratio of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent
mole fraction
The colligative properties of a 1M aqueous solution sodium chloride will be different from the colligative properties of a 1M aqueous solution of potassium bromide.
f, the same as
The boling point elevation is the difference between a solute’s boiling point and a pure solvent’s boiling point.
f, solution’s
The lowering of the vapor pressure of a pure solvent when a solution is formed is a colligative property
A 1m solution of a nonelectrolyte will have a lesser effect on the colligative properties of its solution than a 1m solution of an electrolyte on the colligative properties of its solution.
Boiling point depression is the temperature difference between a solution’s and a solvent’s boiling point.
f, boiling point elevation
The diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermiable membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to aras of higher solute concentration
The amount of additional pressure caused by water molecules moving into a solution
osmotic pressure
Colloids are heterogenteous mixtures that contain particles between 1 nm and 1000 nm in diameter.
The dispersing medium for an aerosol is a gas.
Heating may interfere with the electrostatic layering of a colliod, causing the particles to form a solution.
f, settle out
Attractions between the dispersed particles and the particles of the dispersing medium of a olloid produces magnetic layers that keep the dispersed particles from settling out.
f, electrostatic
The ability to be seperated by paper filtration is a characteristic of which mixture?
A mixture with particles that settle out if undisturbed
The erratic movement of colloid particles
Brownian motion
A heterogeneous mixture of intermediate size
The scattering of light by dispersed colloid particles
Tyndall effect

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