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Speech Ch. 1-5

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Define captive audience
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Individuals who feel they must attend an event
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What does the complete-sentence outline do?
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Clearly identifies all the pieces of information for the speech; puts ideas in order; forms the basis for developing the presentation outline
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Define working outline
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Outline that guides you during the initial stages of topic development, helping to keep you focused on your general purpose and clarify your specific purpose.
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Define internal consistency
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Logical relationship among the ideas that make up any main heading or subheading in a speech.
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What are you narrowing your speech down to in a presentation outline?
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Keywords and phrases, such as “quality of instructors” to just “instructors”. This is to remind the speaker of main points and the order of the speech.
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What is the Thesis?
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The topic sentence of the speech. It summarizes the entire speech and it’s points into one sentence.
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Define Relabeling
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Assigning more positive words or phrases to the physical reactions and feelings associated with speech anxiety
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Define Visualization
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Imagining a successful communication event by thinking through a sequence of actions in a positive, concrete, step-by-step way.
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What are the general purposes of a speech?
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To inform, to entertain, and to persuade.
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What is a specific purpose of a speech?
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Concise statement articulating what the speaker will achieve in giving a speech; it combines the general purpose, and the topic of a speech.
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What is an example of a specific purpose.
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“To inform my audience about the dangers of drinking and driving.”
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What is “Logos”?
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The logical appeal of a speech. It relies on facts, logic, and reason.
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What is “Pathos”?
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The emotional appeal of a speech.
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What is “Ethos”?
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Ethos is the ethical appeal of a speech. This reflects the speaker’s credibility, and personal characteristics.
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What is “rhetoric”?
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Aristotle’s term for public speaking. “Audience centered communication”
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What are Charles’ Lipson’s 3 essential principles for academic integrity?
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When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it. When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it. When you use their words, you quote them openly and accurately, and you cite them, too. When you present research materials, you present them fairly and truthfully. That’s true whether the research involves data, documents, or the writings of other scholars
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What are 4 things to consider when brainstorming?
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Interests Audience Resources Self (What you know)
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What are 6 components of listening? (Hurrier)
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Hearing – physiological Understanding – Basic assignment of meaning Remembering – Selective retention Interpret – Adding depth to understanding Evaluating – Critical Thinking Responding – Active (Agree, Challenge, Reframe)
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What is the 51% responsibility rule?
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That the speaker and the listener both assume 51% responsibility of the message. (Most of the blame).
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What does it mean if a word is “digital”?
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The word has a very specific meaning.
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What are the 5 axioms of communication?
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One cannot not communicate. All communication has both a content & relational dimension. Communication meaning is defined by the punctuation of sentences. Communication behaviors can be seen as either complementary or symmetrical. Communication is both analogic and digital.
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Define spotlight effect.
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Phenomenon that leads us to think other people observe us much more carefully than they actually do.
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What are the 4 components to credibility.
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Competence Trustworthiness Dynamism Sociability
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Define Competence
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Speaker’s qualifications for talking about a particular topic.
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Define trustworthiness
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Audience’s perception of a speaker as honest, ethical, sincere, reliable, sensitive, and empathic.
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Aristotle argued that a trustworthy public speaker demonstrates *goodwill* by..
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showing he has the audience’s true needs, wants, and interests at heart.
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Define dynamism
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Audience’s perception of a speaker’s activity level during a presentation.
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Define sociablity
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Degree to which an audience feels a connection to a speaker.
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What are Cicero’s 5 canons of public speaking?
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Invention – What you have/want to say Arrangement Style Memory Delivery
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What are some strategies for managing speech anxiety?
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Relabeling Visualization Relaxation
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Define demographics
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Ways in which populations can be divided into smaller groups according to key characteristics such as sex, ethnicity, age, and social class.
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Define psychographics
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Psychological data about an audience, such as standpoints, values, beliefs, and attitudes.
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Define standpoint
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Psychological location or place from which an individual views, interprets, and evaluates the world.
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Define values
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Enduring concepts of what is good, right, worthy, and important.
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Define attitude
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How an individual feels about something.
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Define belief
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Something an individual accepts as true or existing.
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What are the different types of listening?
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Empathic listening – listening for emotion Appreciative listening – listening for entertainment Listening for content Critical listening – evaluate the speaker’s credibility, ideas, and supporting evidence.
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Define the illusion of transparency.
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The tendency of individuals to believe that how they feel is much more apparent to others than is really the case.
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What are the 4 spheres of spheres of communication?
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Mass media Mediated Personal Communication – Mobile technologies and the internet Expressive Technology – ordinary people to gather information and creatively express themselves Face to face
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Define Invention
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Discovering what to say in a speech, such as by choosing a topic and developing good arguments.
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Define Arrangement
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Way in which ideas presented in a speech are organized.
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Define style
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Language or words used in a speech.
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Define memory
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Using the ability to recall information to give an effective speech.
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Define delivery
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Public presentation of a speech to an audience.
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What is a solution to information overload?
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Selective listening. Listening only for key points.