Sociology Schaefer – Ch. 7-8 terms

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Control theory
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a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms.
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Crime
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a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
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Cultural transmission
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a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
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Deviance
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behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
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Differential association
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a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
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Differential justice
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differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups
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Formal social control
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social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers
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Index crimes
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the eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports: murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
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Informal social control
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social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule
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Labeling theory
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an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
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Law
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governmental social control
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Obedience
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compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
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Organized crime
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the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs
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Professional criminal
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a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals
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Sanction
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a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
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Social constructionist perspective
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an approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity
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Social control
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the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
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Social disorganization theory
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the theory that crime and deviance are caused by the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions
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Societal-reaction approach
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another name for labeling theory.
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Stigma
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a label used to devalue members of certain social groups
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Transnational crime
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crime that occurs across multiple national borders
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Victimization survey
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a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime
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Victimless crime
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a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
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White-collar crime
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illegal acts committed by affluent, \”respectable\” individuals in the course of business activities
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Anomie
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Durkheim’s term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
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Anomie theory of deviance
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Robert Merton’s theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both
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Conformity
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going along with peers – individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
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Social control
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a society uses this to encourage the acceptance of basic norms
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Conformity/obedience
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Stanley Milgram defined this as going along with one’s peers; and this as compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
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Laws
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some norms are so important to a society, they are formalized into________. Socialization is a primary source of conforming and obedient behavior, including obedience to ______.
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Deviance/Stigma
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deviant behavior violates social norms. Some forms of _________ carry a negative social _______, while other forms are more or less accepted.
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Functionalist
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from this point of view, deviance and its consequences help to define the limits of proper behavior
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Cultural transmission
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some interactionists maintain that people learn criminal behavior by interacting with others. This is called
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Differential association
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to certain interactionists, deviance results from exposure to attitudes that are favorable to criminal acts
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Absolute poverty
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a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
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Achieved status
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a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
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Ascribed status
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a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics
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Bourgeoisie
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Karl Marx’s term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production
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Capitalism
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an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
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Caste
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a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
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Class
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a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income
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Class consciousness
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in Karl Marx’s view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change
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Class system
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a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
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Closed system
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a social system in which there is little or no poissibility of individual social mobility
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Corporate welfare
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tax breaks, bailouts, direct payments, and grants that the government gives to corporations
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Digital divide
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the relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries
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Dominant ideology
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a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
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Estate system
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a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. Also known as feudalism
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Esteem
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the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
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False consciousness
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a term used by Karl Marx to descrive an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
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Feminization of poverty
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a trend in which women constitute an increasing proportion of the poor people of the United States
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Horizontal mobility
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the movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank
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Income
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salaries and wages
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Intergenerational mobility
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changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
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Intragenerational mobility
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changes in social position within a person’s adult life
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Life chances
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the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
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Objective method
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a technique for measuring social class that assigns individuals to classes on the basis of criteria such as occupation, education, income and place of residence
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Open system
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a social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status
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Power
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the ability to exercise one’s will over others
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Precarious work
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employment that is poorly paid, and from the worker’s perspective, insecure and unprotected
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Prestige
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the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
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Proletariat
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Karl Marx’s term for the working class in a capitalist society
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Relative poverty
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a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole
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Slavery
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a system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people
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Social inequality
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a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
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Social mobility
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movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society’s stratification system to another
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Socioeconomic status
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a measure of social class that is based on income, education, and occupation
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Status group
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people who have the same prestige o lifestyle, independent of their class positions
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Stratification
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a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
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Underclass
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the long-term poor who lack training and skills
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Vertical mobility
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the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank
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Wealth
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an inclusive term encompassing all a person’s material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property

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