sociology ch.2 – culture

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culture
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the ways of thinking, acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life
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non-material objects in culture
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ideas created by members of society
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material objects in culture
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physical things created by members of society
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culture is 3 things
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1. a way of life 2. a human trait 3. a product of evolution
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culture shock
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personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
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symbol
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anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
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language
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a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
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cultural transmission
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process by which one generation passes culture to the next
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Sapir-Whorf thesis
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the idea that people see and understand the world through a cultural lens of language
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values
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culturally defined standards the people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautiful these serve as broad guidelines for social living
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beliefs
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specific ides that people hold to be true
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norms
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rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
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mores
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norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
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folkways
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norms for routine or casual interaction
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social control
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attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors
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technology
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knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
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5 major levels of social evolution
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1. hunting and gathering 2. horticulture 3. pastoralism 4. agriculture 5. industry
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hunting and gathering
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use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
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horticulture
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use of hands and tools to raise crops
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patoralism
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the domestication of animals
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agriculturalism
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large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals
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industry
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the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
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What level of social evolution are we in now
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post-industrial: the production of information using computer technology
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high culture
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culture patterns that distinguish a society’s elite
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popular culture
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culture patterns that are widespread among a society’s population
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subculture
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cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population
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multiculturalism
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a perspective that recognizes the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
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eurocentrism
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the dominance of European cultural patterns
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afrocentrism
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emphasizing the promotion of African cultural patterns
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counterculture
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cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
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cultural integration
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the close relations among various elements of a cultural system
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cultural lag
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the fact that some cultural elements change faster than others, disrupting the cultural system
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cultural change is set into motion in 3 ways
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1. invention 2. discovery 3. diffusion
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ethnocentrism
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the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture
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cultural relativism
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the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
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global culture
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a void of cultural diversity
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3 key factors of global culture
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1. global economy 2. global communication 3. global migration
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structural-functional theory and culture
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culture is a relatively stable system built on core value all cultural patterns play some part in the ongoing operation of society
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social-conflict theory and culture
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culture is a dynamic arena of inequality and conflict Cultural patterns benefit some categories of people more than others
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cultural universals
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traits that are part of every known culture
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gender
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the personal traits and social positions that members of society attach to being male or female
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sex and gender are the same thing
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false
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sociobiology
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a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
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A Marxist analysis of U.S. culture suggests that our competitive and individualistic values reflect ________ Answers: the values of the \”founding fathers.\” trends in Western European history. this nation’s capitalist economy. this nation’s family system.
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this nation’s capitalist economy.
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_____ distinguish between right and wrong; _____ distinguish between right and rude. Answers: Mores; folkways Taboos; mores Folkways; mores Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
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Mores; folkways
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Among all forms of life, humans stand out as the only species that________ Answers: relies on culture to ensure survival. has patterned ways of living. has biological instincts. makes use of tools.
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relies on culture to ensure survival.
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Which theoretical approach states that the stability of U.S. society rests on core values shared by most people? Answers: The structural-functional approach The social-conflict approach The symbolic-interaction approach The sociobiology approach
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The structural-functional approach
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Sometimes the distinction between high culture and popular culture is not so clear, as shown by the television show Here Comes Honey Boo-Boo, because ________ Answers: the family in this show was always very rich. reality shows have made families that were low-income nationally-known media stars who are now earning a lot more money. Honey Boo Boo’s mother is a previous Miss America pageant winner. reality television never shows people who appear to be of low social position.
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reality shows have made families that were low-income nationally-known media stars who are now earning a lot more money.
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The early U.S. sociologist who described the difference between folkways and mores was ________ Answers: Emile Durkheim. William Graham Sumner. Harriett Martineau. George Herbert Mead.
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William Graham Sumner.
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The first type of society to generate a material surplus was ________ Answers: hunting and gathering. horticultural and pastoral. agrarian. industrial.
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horticultural and pastoral.
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A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as being \”backward\” for tilling his fields with horses and a plow instead of using a tractor is displaying ________ Answers: ethnocentrism. cultural relativism. cultural diffusion. cultural integration.
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ethnocentrism.
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Counterculture refers to ________ Answers: people who differ in some small way. popular culture. high culture. cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
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cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
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Other than English, which is the most widely-spoken language in the United States? Answers: French Spanish German Chinese
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spanish
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The concept of _____ refers to a shared way of life, and the term ____ refers to a political entity. Answers: culture; society country; nation nation; culture culture; nation
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culture; nation
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The theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality is the ________ Answers: structural-functional approach. social-conflict approach. symbolic-interaction approach. sociobiology approach.
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social-conflict approach.
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Elements of social control in everyday life include shame, guilt, and ________ Answers: ideal culture. real culture. sanctions. material culture.
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sanctions.
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The Sapir-Whorf thesis states that ________ Answers: language involves attaching labels to the real world. people see the world through the cultural lens of their language. most words have the same meaning if spoken in different languages. every word exists in all known languages.
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people see the world through the cultural lens of their language.
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What is the term for the application of cultural knowledge to the task of living in an environment? Answers: Real culture Ideal culture Cultural transmission Technology
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technology

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