sociology 201 final exam

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examples/ types of authority
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traditional, rational, charismatic; the opposite of authority is coersion
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Berger suggest that _____ is the ultimate foundation of any political state
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violence
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types of democracy
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direct democracy and representative democracy
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pluralism
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power is divided among many special interest groups, so that it is difficult for one group to dominate
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power elite
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those who make the big decisions in America
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the three conditions identified by Nicholas Timasheff that is essential to incite war
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a cultural tradition of war, an antagonistic situation in which two or more states confront incompatible objectives and a ‘fuel’ that heats the antagonistic situation to a boiling point so that war is finally declared.
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the first noticeable conditions of social inequality occurred in human societies when:
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surplus became available
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forms of capitalism
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laissez-faire and socialism
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the theorist who contended that an item’s value is based on the work that has gone into it, and the only way that a profit can be made is to pay workers less than the value of their work was:
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Karl Marx
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the primary criticisms of socialism and captialism
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socialism: does not fully respect individual rights capitalism: produces severe social inequality
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systems of descent
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bilateral patrilineal matrilineal
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functionalist argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm because it:
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helps families to avoid role confusion
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second shift
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women take on house work/ caring for kids along with having a career
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marital homogamy
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the marriage of people with the similar characteristics
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there are approximately _____million married couples in the united states, of which ____ million are mixed marriages
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60 million; 3.5 million
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marriage squeeze
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The effect on marriage of an imbalance between the numbers of males and females
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the primary source of strain in the typical one parent family is
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money/income
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sociologist Blumstein and Schwartz found that same sex couples faced the same problems that heterosexual couples did but they were:
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more likely to break up
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serial fatherhood
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A pattern of parenting in which a father, adter a divorce, reduces contact with his own children, serves as a father to the children of the woman he marries or lives with, then ignores these children, too, after moving in with or marrying again.
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when it comes to injuries incurred during battering:
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gender equality vanishes with more wives than husbands requiring medical attention
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credential society
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diplomas determine job eligibility
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manifest and latent functions of American education system
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manifest: intended goals latent: consequences, not intended
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according to conflict theorist, the hidden curriculum perpetuates
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social inequality
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Durkheim referred to any group of people united by their religious practices as an….
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moral community
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rituals
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Ceremonies or repetitive practices; in religion, often intended to evoke a sense of awe of the sacred.
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cosmology
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techniques or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world
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the phrase \”Religion is the sigh of the oppressed…the opium of the people,\” can be credited to
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Karl Marx
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protestant ethic
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Weber’s term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life accompanied by hard work and frugality
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Sunday morning between ten and eleven has been called \”the most segregated hour in the United States.\” The reason for this segregation is that people:
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most people go to churches ; same racial categories
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modernization
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changes that result from industrialization 4 types: General (formal education, life expectancy, residence Material (industrialized, division of labor) Social (gender equality, social stratification) Norms (social controls, tolerance of differences, views of morality)
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geopolitics is the realignment of national-regional powers that occurred after:
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World War 2
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an important threat to global control by the G8, the group of nations that decide world policy, is the:
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dealing with ethnic conflicts worldwide
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multilinear & Unilinear evolutionary theories of societies
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Multilinear: different routes lead to the same stage of development Unilinear: all societies flow the same evolutionary path
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according to historian Arnold Toynbee, all civilizations
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face challenges to its existence (reach a peak,then decline and die)
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According to Marx, human history shows that struggle develops between the thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis. Marx called this historical change a ________.
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conflict over power (dialectical process of history)
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all societies use technology, but chief characteristic of postmodern societies is technology that increases our ability
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-communication -gather information -travel
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Sociologist Mayer Zald suggests that during some periods of time there are very few social movements in a society and, at other times, a wave of social movements will emerge. He suggests that the number of social movements increases:
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cultural issues/crisis
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different types of social movements
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alternative: seeks to alter behavior among individuals redemptive: seeks total change among individuals reformative: seeks to alter/reform society transformative: seek to change/transform society transnational: seek to change social conditions globally metaformative: seeks to change the social order of the world
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unit 2 study flash cards
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social stratification
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A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige.
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slavery and ancient Greece and Rome
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When Greece was a collection of city states, when a new city was conquered; it was common for the remaining people to become slaves. When the roman empire came to power, they did the same. slavery was a sign of debt, crime, or defeat in battle.
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India’s caste system
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Determined by birth and is a lifelong condition. Each caste has a set of acceptable jobs and they marry into their own castes. Formally abolished by the government but is still practice in a de facto manner.
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ascribed and achieved statuses
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ascribed: things that cannot be changed (race, gender) achieved: things that are earned by the person
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social class according to Marx
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Bourgeoisie are those who own the means of production. Proletariat or those who work for the owners
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false consciousness
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Workers mistakenly thinking of themselves as capitalists.
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social class according to weber
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wealth, prestige, and power
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ideology versus force as a means to maintain stratification
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???
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in democracies, the ruling elite use two methods to control information. These two methods include:
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technology and media (selective release of information)
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the three world model
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\”First World\” refers to so called developed, capitalist, industrial countries, roughly, a bloc of countries aligned with the United States after World War II Second World\” refers to the former communist-socialist, industrial states, (formerly the Eastern bloc, the territory and sphere of influence of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) today: Russia, Eastern Europe \”Third World\” are all the other countries, today often used to roughly describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
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global stratification
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it is an uneven distribution of privileges, material rewards, opportunities, power, prestige and influence among individuals and groups.
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core nations
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Countries that industrialized first and became rich and powerful. Ex) Britain, France, Holland, and Germany.
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semi-periphery nations
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the economy of these nations, located around the Mediterrainean, stagnated because they grew dependent on trade with core nations
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periphery nations
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fringe nations, developed even less than semi. Eastern European countries, which sold cash crops to core countries
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external areas
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areas that are left out of the development of capitalism all together.
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wealth and income
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wealth: property, something you obtain income: what you make, the flow of money
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income inequality in the United States over the past 60 years
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bottom 20%: decrease from 5.4% to 3.4% top 20%: increase from 41% to 50.4%
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democratic facade
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power is in the hands of the elite
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power elite
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those who make the big decisions in America
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Erik’s Wright’s revision of Marx’s concept of social classes
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1)capitalist 2) petty burgouise 3) managers 4) workers
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the social class most shaped by education is the:
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upper middle class
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The upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next describes ________ mobility.
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intergenerational mobility
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The working poor and underclass together account for approximately ________ of the U.S. population.
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20%
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most of the poor in the United States are
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white males
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feminization of poverty
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families headed by mothers have much higher chances of suffering from poverty
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the meaning of race
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category of people who see themselves and are seen by others as different because characteristics that are assumed to be innate and biologically inherited
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minority and dominant groups
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minority: group that is being discriminated against or singled out for unequal treatment dominant: the group with most power, privilege, and social status
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ethnic work
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the way people construct their ethnicity 4 factors: 1) relative size of group 2) power of group 3) appearance 4) discrimination
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prejudice and discrimination
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prejudice: an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way. discrimination: an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or group.
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individual discrimination
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The negative treatment of one person by another
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institutional discrimination
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How discrimination is woven into the fabric of society
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selective perception
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seeing certain features of an object or situation but remaining blind to others
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reserve labor force
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the unemployed
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split labor market
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workers split along racial, ethnic, gender, age, or any other lines’ this split is exploited by owners to weaken the bargaining power of workers.
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colonization
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A way for the most industrialized nations to exploit the least industrialized
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internal colonialism
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the policy of economically exploiting minority groups
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assimilation
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the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture
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genocide
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killing or attempted killing of people because presumed race or ethnicity
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forced assimilation
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the dominant group refuses to allow the minority to practice its religion, to speak its language, or to follow its customs
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first wave of feminism
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goal was to win the vote for women
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second wave of feminism
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goal was to raise women’s pay to changing policies o violence against women and legalizing abortion
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glass ceiling
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the most invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
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sexual harassment
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un-welcomed sexual attention at work or at school
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Merton’s strain theory and five adaptations
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we are all socialized to want certain cultural goals but we dont all have the means to attain those goals -conformity: the most common response to strain and is a non-deviant response -innovator: wants to achieve cultural goals but uses illegitimate methods -ritualism: has given up on attaining cultural goals but still clings to conventional means of conduct -retreatism- rejects cultural goals and means to attain those goals -rebellionsism: reject cultural goals and tries to replace them with own goals
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social control theory
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we all want to commit deviant acts but we dont because of inner and outer controls
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differential Association
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we learn to deviate by those we associate within our lives
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the size of the different correctional populations
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correctional population: 7 million behind bars: 2.2 million community supervision: 4.8 million 1 out of every 32 american adults in the correctional system
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formal and informal norms
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formal: laws informal: frowned upon by society
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unit 1 study flash cards
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positivism
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The application fo the scientific method to the social world. Proposed by Comte during the French Revolution.
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values
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Ideas of what is desirable in life, how people define what is good and bad.
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norms
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expectations, rules of behavior governed by a culture’s values
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mores
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norms that are essential to our core values (murder, rape, domestic violence)
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taboos
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strongly ingrained norm; violation is offensive (cannibalism, incest)
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culture
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the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that characterize a group and are passed on through generations. two types: 1)material 2) non-material
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sanctions
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reactions to following or breaking the norms positive: expresses approval of following norm (high-five) negative: reflects disapproval of breaking norm
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gestures
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movement of the body to communicate with others
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subculture
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The Values and related behaviors of a group that distinguishes its members from the larder culture. ex) jobs, religion, status, age.
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total institutions
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a place that is almost totally controlled by who runs it
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role
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the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
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Auguste Comte
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founder of sociology
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Herbert Spencer
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disagreed with Comte about the role of sociologist as reformers coined the phrase: survival of the fittest
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Karl Marx
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believed that conflict was caused by economic inequalities \”if your not an owner, your a worker\”
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Harriet Martineau
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published a report on family race and gender politics and religion in America
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Jane Adams
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sociologist and reformer Hull House only sociologist to win the Nobel Peace Prize (1931)
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W.E.B Du Bois
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founded the NAACP
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Talcott Parsons
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social theorist focus on equilibrium
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Charles Horton Cooley
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the looking glass self
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George Herbert Mead
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play is essential in development
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Ernest Burgess
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the sector model
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conflict theory
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society is composed of groups that compete with one another for scarce resources
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structural Funcitonalism
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society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
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symbolic interationism
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symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another

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