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Abstraction

This paper reviews the available literature on the relationship and impact online societal networking sites have on pupil battle and accomplishment. Online societal networking sites are plentiful. varied and easy accessible to pupils and instructors likewise. The potency for utilizing these SNSs to foster the end of instruction is huge. and instructors are doing the raid into the universe of on-line societal networking for educational intents. However. pedagogues can non presuppose that because SNSs are a timely engineering. they will needfully prosecute pupils and better pupil accomplishment. In fact. the research is inconclusive.

This paper will reexamine literature which has reported happening positive impacts of SNSs on pupil battle and accomplishment. and other literature which finds a negative correlativity. or at best. no conclusive cogent evidence that there is any sort of a nexus between the two. Aspects of on-line societal networking such as battle. coaction. creativeness. distraction. rate point norm and academic accomplishment are considered in the literature. Consequences of this reappraisal will bespeak that. while there are many cases of research coverage positive and negative consequences. there is no conclusive grounds either for or against the impact of SNSs on battle and accomplishment. Generally. engagement in online SNSs has a positive connexion to student battle. but a negative connexion to student accomplishment. The reappraisal concludes with suggestions and deductions for farther research.

Cardinal words: societal networking sites. pupil accomplishment. pupil battle

Facebook. MySpace. LinkedIn. Friendster. Cloudworks. Twitter. and Ning are but a few illustrations of the comparatively new phenomenon of on-line societal networking. Peoples of all ages are flocking to the Internet and are subscribing up for societal networking sites by the 1000000s. Facebook. for illustration. boasted 901 million monthly active users and more than 125 billion friend connexions at the terminal of March ( Key Facts. 2012 ) . This popularity of on-line societal networking sites ( SNSs ) is invariably turning. Educators are set to take advantage of the multiple coaction tools and treatment chances provided by societal networking sites for secondary and higher instruction ( Hoffman. 2009 ; Mason & A ; Rennie. 2008. as cited in Forkosh-Baruch. & A ; Hershkovitz. 2012 ) .

Despite the fact that there is limited counsel on how pedagogues can incorporate societal networking sites into topics which have been traditionally delivered face-to-face ( Andrews & A ; Drennan. 2009 ) . instructors are on the sentinel for information on the possible benefits or harmful effects utilizing SNSs as a new and advanced manner to seek to prosecute pupils and better pupil accomplishment. This attempt is supported by Munoz and Towner ( 2009 ) when they suggest that “the benefits of Facebook’s networking and societal communicating capablenesss can profit both the teacher and the pupil by tapping into a greater figure of larning manners. supplying an alternate to the traditional talk format. making an on-line schoolroom community. and increasing teacher-student and student-student interaction. ” ( p. 9 ) .

Consequently. if instructors are so encouraged to convey societal networking into the schoolrooms. so the research inquiry that begs to be asked. and which will be discussed in this paper. is “Does on-line societal networking have an impact on pupil battle and accomplishment? ”

For the intents of this paper. on-line societal networking sites will be defined as web-based services that permit persons to make a public or semi public profile. expose a list of other users with whom they portion a connexion. and position and navigate through their list of connexions and those made by others within the system. ( Boyd & A ; Ellison. 2008. p. 211 ) . Social networking could. in general footings. be seen as a manner of depicting the modeling of mundane patterns of societal interaction. including those that take topographic point within household constructions. between friends. and in vicinities and communities ( Merchant. 2012 ) . With on-line societal networking sites. these patterns of societal interaction are taken to the technological degree which allows for societal interactions within households. between friends. in vicinities and communities. and now. even the universe. through the development of on-line communities. Most societal networking sites incorporate a scope of communicating tools such as nomadic connectivity. web logs. and photo/video sharing ; with many platforms cross-posting to each other if the user so desires.

For illustration. a pupil or instructor could post a remark on Twitter and it would look in their web log or on a private or educational SNS such as Ning. Elgg. or Facebook. Presently. many pupils are utilizing this cross-connectivity of SNSs for non-academic ( or strictly societal ) intents ( Ahmed & A ; Qazi. 2011a ) . Merchant ( 2012 ) has suggested that there are three possible attacks to the usage of societal networking sites in educational scenes: larning about SNSs ( including apprehension and placing the cognition. accomplishments. temperaments and larning involved ) ; larning from SNSs ( to understand and appreciate the sorts of larning a societal networking site can back up ) ; and larning with SNSs ( doing usage of the student’s bing SNSs to back up and widen curriculum-based work ) ; proposing that these three countries describe how pupils and instructors presently use SNSs. and that they are relevant to instructors seeking to integrate SN work into their schoolroom ( p. 16 ) .

As farther support for instructors contemplating utilizing SNS in the schoolroom. it has been proposed that societal networking-type interactions such as choice relationships. connection. patterning positive behaviors and sharing information have been observed taking topographic point through societal networking sites ( Martin & A ; Dowson. 2009 ) . Sing the sum of research which surrounds the usage of SNSs in the instruction system. it is imperative to find whether or non societal networking sites have any impact on pupil battle and accomplishment. This paper will reexamine the available literature on the topic and represent it as positive. negative. or impersonal consequences of assorted surveies.

Background

Even though on-line societal networking sites are a comparatively new phenomenon. popularity is turning quickly among college-aged young person. with 95 % of 18 and 19 twelvemonth olds utilizing Facebook ( Smith & A ; Caruso. 2010 ) . The emerging literature suggests that SNSs are going omnipresent constituents of young person and immature grownup life. and the nature of SNSs was reported by Hargittai ( 2008 ) . who found few demographic differences between users and nonusers of societal networking sites in a sample of college pupils. In a survey set out to find the most effectual manner for module to utilize societal networking sites for educational intents. Nemetz. Aiken. Cooney. and Pascal ( 2010 ) stated once and for all that pupils use societal networking sites often and extensively. Facebook was ab initio designed by Mark Zuckerberg. Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes in 2004 as a agency by which fellow Harvard pupils could pass on. portion study-related information and socialize with equals at the University degree ( Calvi. Cassella. & A ; Nuijten. 2010 ; Ellison. Steinfield. & A ; Lampe. 2007 ) .

The popularity of Facebook and other societal networking sites is turning to include applications in formal educational scenes. such as learning direction systems and augmentation of content. and in informal educational scenes. such as relationship direction systems. in sharing. communicating. information find. and originative signifiers of behaviour ( Forkosh-Baruch. & A ; Hershkovitz. 2012 ; McLoughlin & A ; Lee. 2008 ) . Despite these statements by Forkosh-Baruch and Hershkovitz. this growing in popularity of societal networking sites appears to be underdeveloped in the field of instruction. with merely about 30 % of college respondents describing utilizing SNSs in their classs. despite the fact that about half of these same pupils use SNSs to join forces with schoolmates about course-related subjects ( Smith & A ; Caruso. 2010 ) . The instruction system has an chance to make the pupils in a manner of communicating they enjoy and use. but pedagogues are non making so ; a fact reiterated by Akyildiz and Argan ( 2010 ) when they concluded that pupils seldom used Facebook for educational intents.

In a similar mode. Nemetz et Al. ( 2010 ) found that pupils view SNSs otherwise when sing its usage for societal intents. as opposed to sing SNSs for educational intents. Even so. the research contains many cases of the educational potency of societal networking sites. For illustration. teachers. scholars. system interior decorators and determination shapers ( Forkosh-Baruch & A ; Hershkovitz. 2012 ) every bit good as pupils by their ain enterprise ( Selwyn. 2009 ) . are coming to utilize societal networking sites for educationally related activities. including important and new inventions in countries of synergistic and collaborative acquisition ( Schroeder. Minocha. & A ; Schneider. 2010 ) . These new societal networking patterns are being used in countries such as “knowledge sharing. development of thoughts. and originative production while leting for personal sense devising and reflection” ( McLoughlin & A ; Lee. 2008. p. 12 ) . Much of the research suggests that pupils. module. and disposals need to research the usage of on-line societal networking sites in instruction.

In fact. the National School Board Association ( United States ) recognizes the possible value of utilizing SNSs in the schoolroom. urging that school board members find ways to tackle the educational value of societal networking. confab suites and collaborative online diaries ( Gewertz. 2007 ) . In a survey of the usage of alternate societal networking sites in instruction. Brady et Al. ( 2010 ) put frontward that. to day of the month. the higher educational community has been perceptibly slow in following societal networking engineerings into the course of study. Ajjan and Hartshorne ( 2008 ) . back up the call for pupils. module. and disposals to research the usage of SNSs in instruction in their research into module determinations to follow Web 2. 0 engineerings in their schoolrooms. The writers suggest that societal networking sites could be used to set up a series of academic connexions. or to further coaction and cooperation in the higher instruction schoolroom. There are some cases where this potency for the usage of societal media has been recognized.

Griffith and Liyange ( 2008 ) suggest that the positive facet of SNSs and their usage is get downing to be seen. as pupils are utilizing SNSs in their academic surveies for group and team-based work. Social networking sites are besides seen to be in usage in assorted academic activities. including pass oning with module and lectors. and discoursing academic issues with schoolmates ( Helou & A ; Ab. Rahim. 2000 ) . While it is evident that the educational potency of SNSs exists. this potency is non ever exploited. and sentiments vary as to whether or non it should be exploited. These challenges associating to the possible value of societal networking sites as an educational tool are summed up by Hoffman ( 2009 ) in a presentation to the Technology Colleges and Community when she states “Social networking is a tool. with both its advantages and jobs for use in instruction and learning” ( p. 98 ) .

This sentiment is echoed by Hamid. Waycott. Kurnia. and Chang ( 2010 ) who studied the usage of on-line societal networking for higher instruction and conclude that. despite the possible benefits they have identified. tackling societal engineerings offers both chances and challenges. This paper explores many of these chances and challenges. Despite being a timely inquiry. research on societal networking sites and pupil battle and accomplishment is limited when compared to surveies of SNSs associating to other issues such as pupil privateness. safety. societal capital. and psychological wellbeing ( Ahn. 2011 ) . What so. does the research say about on-line societal networking sites impacting pupil battle and accomplishment?

Definitions

While analysing the research available it was noted that surveies by and large focused on pupils at the University degree. with the occasional survey concentrating on the secondary school pupil. As a consequence. this paper focuses chiefly on this degree of higher instruction. In the context of this reappraisal. societal networking sites ( SNSs ) refers to general societal networking sites such as Facebook or MySpace which pupils are free to fall in and which enable “friending” other pupils. placing of exposures and information. leting uninterrupted position updates. the possible for coaction and chatting. and promote the connection of “groups” reflecting personal involvement. In this paper. the definition for pupil accomplishment is derived from the Report of the Student Achievement Task Force based in British Columbia. which states that “Student accomplishment is an betterment in larning that develops both the person and the individual’s ability to lend to society” ( Brownlie & A ; Renihan. 2003. p. 9 ) . combined with the suggestion put away by Ahmed and Qazi ( 2011b ) that the usage of engineering such as the Internet ( and by extension. societal networking sites ) is one of the most of import factors that can act upon educational public presentation of pupils positively or adversely.

Similarly. for the intents of this paper pupil battle is defined as the clip and attempt pupils invest in educational activities ( Kuh. 2009 ) . Since one of the primary ends of the instruction system is to heighten pupil battle and progress pupil accomplishment. it seems logical to analyse what the research has to state about the impact of societal networking sites on the battle and accomplishment of pupils. Whether defined as pupil accomplishment. or pupil battle taking to student accomplishment. this paper will analyze the research associating to the impact societal networking sites has on both.

Review of related research and literature

Positive impact of SNSs on pupil battle and accomplishment

It is of import to understand the connexion between pupil accomplishment and pupil battle. Much of the research indicates that pupil academic accomplishment may be increased by heightening pupil battle. and consequently. pupil battle has been identified as a important forecaster of academic public presentation ( Zhao & A ; Kuh. 2004. p 1332 ; Wise. Skues. & A ; Williams. 2011 ) . The connexion between academic battle and academic public presentation is supported by Junco. Heiberger and Loken ( 2011 ) . when they report that they know that academic and co-curricular battle are powerful forces in pupil psychosocial development and in academic success.

Brady. Holcomb and Smith ( 2010 ) . in a survey of the educational benefits of the societal networking site Ning province that. since societal networking sites are centered on the person. instead than on the category. they have the possible to increase pupil battle. These same writers besides noted that the bulk of participants in their survey highlighted the educational advantages of SNSs and the teachers observed positive effects of utilizing Ning on pupil battle ( 2010 ) . These types of interactions begin to place how relationship development in a societal networking scene may lend to increased battle and acquisition.

Facebook and Twitter. two really popular societal networking sites are frequently mentioned in relation to student battle. In a survey analyzing the relationships among frequence of Facebook usage and engagement and pupil battle. Junco ( 2011 ) . a fecund research worker on modern engineering and its effects on instruction. suggests that utilizing Facebook in certain ways is positively prognostic of pupil battle ( p. 169 ) . Wise et Al. ( 2011 ) promote the information-sharing societal web ‘Twitter’ as holding positive potency for bettering academic battle. Support for the connexion between pupil battle and pupil accomplishment. in relation to the effects of societal networking is provided by Hoffman ( 2009 ) when she states that among the positive properties of societal networking are impacts on affectional facets of the acquisition environment. every bit good as impacts on motive and pupil battle.

As was antecedently mentioned. instructors are looking to the Internet to happen new and advanced ways to prosecute and learn pupils. Bettering pupil accomplishment is foremost on their heads. Many writers report positive impacts on pupil accomplishment as a consequence of engagement in societal networking sites.

After carry oning a survey of the influence of societal networking sites on students’ academic public presentation in Malaysia. Helou and Ab. Rahim ( 2011 ) found that the bulk of the respondents agreed that societal networking sites have a positive impact on their academic public presentation ; despite the fact that they besides reported that they chiefly engaged in societal networking sites for societal grounds instead than academic grounds. The Brady et Al. ( 2010 ) survey of the educationally-based societal networking site Ning besides provided grounds of a positive impact on pupil accomplishment. observing that the bulk of pupils reported positive e-learning benefits in their classs including increased coaction and exchange of information compared to face-to-face classs. It is of import to observe that in both the Brady et Al. ( 2010 ) and Helou and Ab Rahim ( 2011 ) surveies pupils were self-reporting their feelings on the impact of their usage of societal networking sites.

In a survey designed to look into the consequence of societal networking site ( Facebook. YouTube and Twitter ) battle on cognitive and societal accomplishments. Alloway and Alloway ( 2012 ) suggested that some activities predicted higher tonss in verbal and visual-spatial on the job memory public presentation. Consequences such as these would propose a possible connexion between this SNS battle and betterment of pupil accomplishment. In fact. Alloway and Alloway province in their treatment that. given the importance of working memory in instruction. farther research should look into this possible connexion. Similarly. Yu. Tian. Vogel and Kwok ( 2010 ) determined that on-line societal networking can better students’ psychological wellbeing and accomplishment development ; desired acquisition results.

While societal networking sites are non frequently used in schoolrooms yet the potency for the educational impact of societal networking sites on academic accomplishment is recognized and good reported. Beach and Doerr-Stevens ( 2011 ) confirm the possibility that societal networking sites can hold a positive impact on pupil accomplishment. observing that the collaborative nature of societal networking sites could hold a positive consequence on the development of civic battle in pupils. Furthermore. in another survey back uping the positive impact of societal networking sites. Forkosh-Baruch and Hershkovitz. ( 2012 ) concluded that Twitter could really increase pupil battle and better classs in educationally relevant ways and so was a utile tool in instruction.

In the decision of their survey on the utility of the educationally-focused societal networking site called Ning. Brady et Al. ( 2010 ) reported that. for a bulk of pupils. societal networking sites provide important e-learning benefits in their classs. Mahadi and Ubaidullah ( 2010 ) indicate that societal networking sites can heighten linguistic communication. peculiarly 2nd linguistic communication. larning since the societal interaction. genuineness. feedback. and learner liberty found in a SNS are besides the cardinal features of successful linguistic communication acquisition. and that instructors should see SNSs as an engaging option. As the research suggests. pupil battle and accomplishment can be impacted positively by pupil usage of societal networking sites. and. whether through self-reporting or independent research. a correlativity between betterments in pupil battle and accomplishment has been identified.

Negative impact of SNSs on pupil battle and accomplishment

While instructors may be looking towards societal networking sites for inspiration. a expression at the research suggests the connexion between SNSs and pupil battle and accomplishment is non ever a positive 1. Several surveies have found a negative relationship between pupil usage of SNSs and battle and accomplishment.

Even before the development of societal networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace. research was describing that Internet usage in general could do some pupils academic troubles ( Kubey. Lavin & A ; Barrows. 2001 ) . In a much reported exploratory survey to find whether differences existed in the academic public presentation of college pupils who were Facebook users. and those who were non Facebook users ; sing Facebook as an activity that pupils carry out while analyzing – in other words. multitasking ; Kirschner and Karpinski ( 2010 ) reported important findings. The writers found a negative correlativity between Facebook and pupil accomplishment. relaying that Facebook users reported holding a lower mean grade point norm ( GPA ) . They besides reported passing fewer hours per hebdomad perusal. and engaged in stalling behavior. This survey seemingly reflects the frights pedagogues have about the dangers of societal networking sites. and how they will be merely a hurt to student battle and accomplishment.

In a similar but larger-sampled additive arrested development analysis of the relationship among frequence of Facebook usage ; engagement in Facebook activities ; clip spent fixing for category ; and existent. as opposed to self-reported. overall GPA ; Junco ( 2012 ) . suggests several negative forecasters of overall GPA. including chew the fating. checking. and posting position updates on Facebook. The writer places farther accent on this negative correlativity in his treatment when he states “Specifically. big additions in clip spent on Facebook relate to take down overall GPAs” ( p. 194 ) . Junco ( 2012 ) continues to associate how this increased clip on Facebook would surely take away from clip spent concentrating on academic work. and would negatively impact academic success. Flad ( 2010 ) agrees. describing that SNS usage can hold a negative impact on survey wonts and prep completion. with pupils in their survey acknowledging to holding exhausted clip on SNSs instead than analyzing. and that clip spent on a SNS has prevented them from finishing prep. Similar findings were reported by Paul. Baker and Cochran ( 2012 ) in a really recent survey of the relationship between clip spent on on-line societal networking sites and academic public presentation. saying that clip spent on SNSs is shown to negatively impact academic public presentation.

In a 2nd disclosure happening coming from their survey. Paul et Al. ( 2012 ) besides reported that as the degree of attending shortage increased. the sum of clip spent on societal networking sites increased. “implying that increased degrees of attending shortage have a negative. although indirect [ through increased clip on SNSs ] impact on academic performance” ( p. 7 ) . As a consequence of these findings. Paul et Al. ( 2012 ) even go so far as to propose that pupils should be made cognizant of the possible damaging consequence SNSs can hold on their academic accomplishment. Adding to the research keeping a negative correlativity between SNSs and academic accomplishment is a survey comparing the usage of Facebook as a medium for societal interaction or informal acquisition. Madge. Meek. Wellens. and Hooley ( 2009 ) came to the decision that clip spent on Facebook for societal intents was sometimes to the hurt of clip available for academic survey. Any clip spent off from clip allotted to academic survey could be viewed as a negative influence. Jacobsen and Forste ( 2011 ) concur in a survey of the academic and societal results of electronic media use among university pupils.

In this survey pupils indicated that electronic media ( which the writers describe as including Facebook and instant messaging ) is negatively associated with classs. and that since pupils report utilizing this electronic media in category or while making prep. the distractions would be damaging to student public presentation. In fact. after commanding for offline clip usage. Jacobsen and Forste conclude “there is a important negative association between societal networking site exposure and academic performance” ( p. 278 ) . Similarly. in a appropriately titled paper “No A 4 U 
 . ” which examines the sensed academic effects of instant messaging. Junco and Cotton ( 2012 ) . reported that pupils in their sample seemed to be cognizant that divided attending. or multitasking. is damaging to their academic accomplishment.

Yet pupils reported go oning with these same activities. In a recent survey to research the relationship between SNSs and educational public presentation of pupils. Ahmed. Amir. Qazi and Jabeen ( 2011 ) sampled 1000 pupils from assorted universities in Pakistan. comparing facets of SNS use in countries such as pupil gender. forte country of survey. age. survey wonts. leisure activities. clip and aim on the cyberspace. clip spent on SNSs. and most significantly for this paper – the consequence of utilizing societal networking sites on their studying wonts. and the differences of academic public presentation of pupils. The writers found survey wonts were significantly affected by clip spent utilizing societal networking sites reasoning that Internet and SNS use “significantly [ negatively ] impact the analyzing wonts of the pupils and finally their academic performance” ( p. 156 ) .

This is supported by Oye. Helou. and Ab. Rahim ( 2012 ) whose participants related that passing more clip on SNSs resulted in them acquiring lower classs. and some perceived the distractions of SNSs runing from “mere distraction” to “obsession” ( p. 27 ) . Even the research survey which by and large reported a positive relationship between the societal networking site Ning and instruction. found that some pupils did place clip and handiness as major restrictions to utilizing Ning to assist them to win academically. and 54 % besides expressed a penchant for face-to-face communications over Ning ( Brady et al. . 2010 ) . proposing a penchant off from academic usage of societal networking sites. Although reasoning with positive comments about Twitter. Wise et Al. ( 2011 ) argue that Facebook. a medium for societal interaction. has merely a limited function. if any. to play in advancing pupil battle from an academic or institutional position.

Despite the purposes of many research workers to happen a conclusive impact of usage of societal networking sites on battle and accomplishment. many reported no such findings. reasoning merely that there was no existent connexion to be found.

Impersonal research on the impact of SNSs on pupil battle and accomplishment

While many research workers weigh in on the positive or negative side of the impact of societal networking sites on pupil battle and accomplishment. other literature is reported as being impersonal. This is supported in research concentrating on societal networking and gender when the writer states “The relationship between pupils who are actively involved in societal networking and their academic public presentation is inconclusive” ( Flad. 2010. p. 38 ) . Ahmed and Qazi ( 2011b ) besides reported consequences from their survey which explored the relationship between SNS use and educational public presentation of the pupil user. happening that cyberspace or SNS use was non important plenty to impact the academic public presentation of pupils adversely.

In a presentation to Technology. Colleges and Community ( TCC ) which focused on measuring societal networking tools for distance acquisition. Hoffman ( 2009 ) stated that there was deficient grounds to propose that Ning straight impacted single pupil accomplishment. even though pupils commented that they felt societal networking did hold a positive impact on pupil battle and satisfaction. As good. no association was found between grade point norms of pupil Facebook users and nonusers in a survey which examined a random sample of Facebook profiles at a Northeast University in the USA. ( Kolek & A ; Saunders. 2008 ) . A connexion between usage of societal networking sites and betterments in self-esteem and development of the whole individual. which can finally take to public presentation proficiency and future success was noted by Yu et Al. ( 2010 ) . but despite this positive mentality. they caution the “coin has two sides” ( p. 1501 ) and the negative side of SNS use. such as distraction. must besides be considered and reviewed.

In the coverage of their findings. many of the research workers who reported impersonal consequences frequently suggested developing similar surveies. but with more scrutinizing standards. to find if there is in fact a unequivocal impact of societal networking sites on pupil battle and/or accomplishment.

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