Semester 2 sociology quizzes

question
Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa's hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of: a. A meritocracy b. A democracy c. A caste system d. A closed stratification system
answer
Meritocracy
question
Mohit spent his days combing through garbage in Mumbai, India with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Mohit is an example of someone living under: a. A meritocracy b. A dictatorship c. A caste system d. An oligarchy
answer
Caste system
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3. It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. His parents chose a bride for him whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as they did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________ marriage. a. Exogamus b. Endogamus c. Traditional d. Unconventional
answer
Endogamus
question
Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage. a. Exogamous b. Traditional c. Endogamus d. Unconventional
answer
Exogamous
question
Which factor is considered when evaluating someone's standard of living? a. Income b. Employment c. Class d. All of the above
answer
All
question
With the recent Occupy Wall Street Movement, the people of the United States keep hearing about the top 1%. How much of the United State's wealth rests in the hands of the wealthiest top 1% of people? a. 1/3 b. 1/4 c. 1/8 d. 1/16
answer
1/3
question
7. Charlotte was born to a lower class family in rural Pennsylvania. After taking a job in the mail room of a large corporate office, Charlotte is slowly promoted through the ranks and becomes CEO of the company by the age of 50. What type of stratification is shown in this story? a. Structural mobility b. Intergenerational mobility c. Intragenerational mobility d. Downward mobility
answer
Intergenerational mobility
question
What is particularly unique about the United States middle class? a. It is the smallest class in the United States. b. It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class. c. The people who are middle class often have little to no education. d. The upper class are as likely to become members of the lower class as members of the lower class are likely to become members of the upper class.
answer
It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class.*
question
Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today? a. World War I b. The Fall of the British Empire c. The French Revolution d. The Industrial Revolution
answer
Industrial revolution
question
Which classification method best shows how competitive a nation's economy is in global terms? a. Using phrases like "first world," "second world," and "third world." b. Calculating the GDP per capita of each country and using those numbers to create a global average that can be used as an economic yard stick. c. Classifying countries based on their level of development and using phrases like "more developed" or "less developed." d. Visiting each country and polling a select handful of the population about their income, etc.
answer
b. Calculating the GDP per capita of each country and using those numbers to create a global average that can be used as an economic yard stick
question
GNI PPP, or gross national income divided by purchasing power parity, helps measure: a. The standard of living in a country. b. The average level of education per person in a country. c. The amount of inflation affecting a country's currency. d. The average global interest rates for loans.
answer
The standard of living in a country
question
2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________. a. Social stratification b. Social inconsistency c. Horizontal mobility d. Downward mobility
answer
Downward mobility
question
Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class? a. Upper class is often defined as having control over one's life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one's own life. b. The upper class is split into "old money" and "new money" people, while the upper-middle class simply struggles to maintain its wealth. c. All upper class people enjoy opera and have been bred for their stations while the upper-middle class consists mostly of newly wealthy people who may not have had the same kind of upbringing. d. In the upper class, everyone knows everyone, but in the upper-middle class, the people do not comingle.
answer
Upper class is often defined as having control over one's life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one's own life.*
question
What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility? a. How well off your parents are. b. How much education you have. c. How many jobs you work. d. How much you spend on your personal appearance.
answer
How much education you have
question
A person's position in a country's social stratification is determined by: a. Wealth, power, income, race, education b. GNI PPP, GDP, GNI, the PRB, and standards of living c. Clothes, accessories, hobbies, shoes, and number of credit cards d. Prestige, family, legal records, occupation, and favorite food
answer
Wealth, power, income, race, education*
question
The Davis-Moore Thesis states: a. That economic hardship and skyrocketing inflation is the cause for all social stratification in the United States. b. That Karl Marx was correct and that stratification can only be solved by converting to a socialist government. c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make. d. That people constantly move up and down the social ladder, and this creates an unstable economy which will eventually collapse on itself.
answer
c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make.
question
Whose work do conflict theorists rely on to help form their arguments surrounding social stratification? a. Auguste Comte b. Émile Durkheim c. René Decartes d. Karl Marx
answer
Karl Marx
question
Hope is desperate for the new designer purse that she saw while window shopping at her local mall. She knew every girl in school would covet her bag and wish to be like her. When she walked in, she whipped out her credit card, and purchased the $5,000 bag. This kind of purchasing is called: a. Conspicuous consumption b. Popular consumerism c. Designer consumerism d. Credit card consumerism
answer
Conspicuous consumption
question
Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that: a. Most people do not care about social rank and standing. b. Only lower class people drink beer. c. Only upper class people can enjoy a good game of polo. d. Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.
answer
Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.*
question
One main issue in studying global social inequality is: a. Most countries keep their economic situations secret. b. Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures. c. The presence of tourism can make a country look richer than it really is. d. Most people live beyond their means which gives a false sense of wealth to a society.
answer
Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures.*
question
Which social class is quickly disappearing from modern economies? a. Upper Class b. Middle Class c. Lower Class d. The amount of people in each class has been about the same for the past 10 years.
answer
Middle class
question
How is global stratification different from social stratification? a. Global stratification only examines environmental inequalities among nations while social stratification examines inequalities among people. b. Global stratification can only measure the inequalities among purely democratic states, while social stratification can be expanded to apply to people in any country in the world. c. Global stratification examines a myriad of different types of prejudice and inequality, while social stratification covers the social class and standing of individuals. d. Countries cannot move up and down the global stratification ladder, unlike people who can use social mobility to climb or fall down the social stratification ladder.
answer
c. Global stratification examines a myriad of different types of prejudice and inequality, while social stratification covers the social class and standing of individuals.
question
In recent times, scholars have been trying to sort out why the countries on the continent of Africa, as a whole, have trouble competing to today's global, capitalist economy. While an answer to this question is complex and carries with it many ambiguities, most scholars point to European colonialism as a key to understanding the current state of Africa. A sociologist studying this topic, would ascribe to which theoretical paradigm? a. Structural functionalism b. Symbolic interactionism c. Conflict theory d. Feminist theory
answer
Conflict theory
question
4. The Kurds are a people group with no homeland. They often are the victims of intimidation and violence which has resulted in their impoverished status as a group. A sociologist studying the Kurds would likely approach his conclusions from the ____________ theoretical perspective. a. Structural functionalist b. Symbolic interactionist c. Conflict d. Feminist
answer
Conflict
question
Immanuel Wallerstein's classification of nations uses which set of terms? a. super powers, allies of super powers, enemies of super powers b. primary nation, secondary nation, tertiary nation c. first world, second world, third world d. core nation, peripheral nation, semi-peripheral nation
answer
d. core nation, peripheral nation, semi-peripheral nation*
question
Which statement explains why Immanuel Wallerstein's classification is preferred by sociologist? a. Wallerstein's classification uses neutral terms that allow his classification of nations to be less biased and appear less ethnocentric. b. Wallerstein's classification uses the United States as a point of comparison so that people can understand what he is saying. c. The former Cold War era classifications are outdated and no longer accurately show the economic state of individual nations. d. Wallerstein's classification is based more on sociological data than economic data, and because of that, applies to the field of sociology better than the Cold War era classification.
answer
a. Wallerstein's classification uses neutral terms that allow his classification of nations to be less biased and appear less ethnocentric.
question
In the United States, where outsourcing is almost always addressed negatively, companies still get away with outsourcing. How do they do this? a. Capital flight, caused by outsourcing, helps local economies thrive, so Americans are willing to make the trade off. b. Deindusrialization, also caused by outsourcing, is better for the environment, so Americans are in favor of it. c. Americans want lower prices for their consumable products, and the only way for companies to deliver those low prices is to outsource the work to cheaper laborers. d. Companies find that the many U.S. restrictions on manufacturing can seriously disrupt production, which leads to profit loss, which in turn results in outsourcing.
answer
c. Americans want lower prices for their consumable products, and the only way for companies to deliver those low prices is to outsource the work to cheaper laborers.
question
Which number does the World Bank use to determine the status and classification of each nation? a. Gross National Income b. Gross Domestic Product c. Purchasing Power Parity d. Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development data
answer
Gross national income
question
Which trend has the World Bank seen in its study of poverty in low-income nations? a. Equal numbers of men and women live in poverty. b. More men live in poverty than women. c. More women live in poverty than men. d. Children can avoid living in poverty if they live with their fathers.
answer
More women live in poverty than men
question
10. 88 million people live on less than $1.00 a day. These people are said to be living in _____________. a. Subjective poverty b. Marginal poverty c. Absolute poverty d. Relative poverty
answer
Absolute poverty
question
11. Maria babysits as a form of income while she is in college. Because the amounts she gets per job are not huge, Maria never bothers to report her earnings to the IRS. Maria is a part of the _____________. a. Underground economy b. Under-reported economy c. Under-earning economy d. Under-paid economy
answer
Underground economy
question
12. Which continent has the greatest number of impoverished nations in the world? a. Africa b. Asia c. South America d. North America
answer
Africa
question
Which continent has the largest number of people living in poverty in the world? a. Africa b. Asia c. South America d. North America
answer
Asia
question
What has been the main factor that has aided the financial situations of many countries in Latin America? a. Taking legal steps to prevent drug trafficking and guerilla warfare b. Borrowing money from countries like China and the United States c. A greater emphasis on educating young people d. Allowing residents to engage in the underground economy
answer
A greater emphasis on educating young people
question
Child labor and sweatshops have existed since the Industrial Revolution and even before that. Many products sold today are created in these sweatshops, even though, living in the 21st century, we like to think we are above such practices. What is one practical way we can try and stop multinational companies from using such labor? a. We can ignore the problem because it will eventually go away. b. We can trust that the CEOs and the members of the board of the companies will do the right thing. c. We can justify such practices because they are legal in other countries. d. We can be responsible consumers and research products before buying them.
answer
d. We can be responsible consumers and research products before buying them.
question
Which is an effect of absolute poverty that also contributes to its cyclical nature? a. Lack of education b. Home foreclosures c. Massive credit card debt d. Excellent healthcare
answer
Lack of education
question
17. Which statement would you find in the analysis of poverty by Neckerman and Torche? a. People will take advantage of social welfare programs if you do not watch them carefully. b. People live in poverty because they are lazy and lack meaningful work. c. Once poverty has entered an geographic location, it is very difficult to get rid of. d. People living in poverty enjoy living in poverty.
answer
Once poverty has entered an geographic location, it is very difficult to get rid of.
question
An example of slavery, according to Anti-Slavery International, is: a. Factories employing adults at salary level b. Factories using child labor c. Children attending school d. Children playing with friends
answer
Factories using child labor
question
Areas that once had vast economic growth and large amounts of industry, but are now suffering from the effects of outsourcing are going through a period of: a. Industrialization b. Deindustrialization c. Industrialization transition d. Post-industrialization
answer
Deindustrialization
question
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was created by: a. Core nation countries b. Third world countries c. Middle-income countries d. Asian and American countries
answer
Core nation countries
question
In the United States, which race would be considered the dominant group? a. Hispanic b. White c. Black d. Asian
answer
White
question
Which of the following is an example of racial steering? a. Real estate agents directing white clients to look for housing in certain neighborhoods, and non-white clients to others. b. The Trail of Tears, when the United States government forced Native Americans to permanently leave their homes and territory. c. Kiki being told she'll be bad at math because she is a girl. d. Jose's parents not allowing him to date Martha because she is of a different race.
answer
a. Real estate agents directing white clients to look for housing in certain neighborhoods, and non-white clients to others.
question
According to the social construction of race school of thought, race is: a. Based only on geographic regions b. No longer in existence c. A product of the media d. Not biologically identifiable
answer
Not biologically identifiable
question
Adolf Hitler blaming Germany's pre-war problems on the Jewish population is an example of: a. The scapegoat theory b. The social construction of race c. White privilege d. Pluralism
answer
The scapegoat theory
question
5. Max believes that most people's racial beliefs are based on images conveyed in popular media since many people never meet members of certain races for themselves. Max's perspective is: a. Functionalist b. Conflict theorist c. Feminist d. Symbolic interactionist
answer
Symbolic
question
The term discrimination is defined in the text as: a. The theory that prejudice is embedded in our culture. b. Biased thought based on flawed assumptions about a group of people. c. An expression of dissatisfaction with the justice system. d. Prejudiced action against a group of people.
answer
Prejudiced action against s group of people
question
Speedy Gonzalez is a popular cartoon character, but is widely considered an inappropriate stereotype. Many children are raised watching Speedy Gonzalez cartoons, unaware that such stereotypes are negative. This is a product of: a. Genocide b. Intersection theory c. The culture of prejudice d. The scapegoat theory
answer
Culture of prejudice
question
8. When Alexander, who is white, drives his car over the speed limit, a police officer lets him off with a warning. When Christopher, who is Hispanic, drives his car at the same speed as Alexander on the same road, the officer gives him a ticket, even though his record is clean. This is an example of: a. Affirmative action b. White privilege c. Intersection theory d. The social construction of race
answer
White privilege
question
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive order 9066, which authorized the establishment of internment camps for anyone with as little as one-eighth Japanese ancestry following Pearl Harbor, is an example of: a. Racial steering b. Communism c. Expulsion d. Genocide
answer
Expulsion
question
The term segregation is defined in the text as: a. The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture. b. The deliberate annihilation of a targeted, usually subordinate, group. c. The integration of diverse cultural concepts into a public school curriculum. d. The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions.
answer
d. The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions.
question
In 2010, what did controversial Senate Bill 1070 propose, causing a series of protests and legal battles? a. After being charged with a crime, Wisconsin courts can order legal immigrants back to their countries of origin. b. During a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers may establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally. c. If suspected of illegal activity, Nevada police may search the home of any immigrant, or child of an immigrant, without a warrant. d. After being detained by New Mexico police, immigrants are given no rights by the authorities and may be held for weeks without being officially charged.
answer
During a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers may establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally.
question
12. Arizona Senate Bill 1070, often referred to colloquially as the "papers, please" law, was aimed widely at those of: a. Irish descent b. Middle Eastern descent c. Chinese descent d. Mexican descent
answer
Mexican descent
question
13. Angela believes that race relations in America are poor because the white ruling class has enacted various laws and regulations to keep other racial groups from achieving equality. With which sociological perspective does Angela's view best align? a. Functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Feminism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Conflict
question
14. Which group within the United States has been stereotyped as the model minority? a. The Asian American community b. The African American community c. The Arab American community d. The Hispanic American community
answer
The Asian American community
question
1967's Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia, a case which legally allowed interracial marriage, is an example of a. Racism b. Stereotyping c. Amalgamation d. Assimilation
answer
Amalgamation
question
Asad's first grade class is diverse: there are two students from Korea, five students from South America, two students from the United States, three students from Kuwait, a student from Mexico, two students from England, and five students from western Europe. Asad's class is: a. Segregated b. Pluralistic c. Assimilated d. Profiled
answer
Pluralistic
question
The term assimilation is defined by the text as: a. When a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave a certain area or even the country. b. The theory that prejudice is embedded in our culture. c. The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture. d. The act of singling out an individual because of his or her race.
answer
The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture.
question
Cedric's uncle believes that racism and discrimination have made a positive impact on society - but only in the lives of those who are members of the dominant group. Which sociological perspective is Cedric's uncle coming from? a. Functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Feminism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Functionalism
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a stereotype? a. Cynthia believing her best friend to be good at math because she is Asian. b. Maria assuming her son-in-law is a heavy drinker because he is Irish. c. Isaiah cooking his girlfriend a meat-free dinner because she is a vegetarian. d. Pedro assuming his neighbor likes rap music because he is African American.
answer
Isaiah cooking his girlfriend a meat-free dinner because she is a vegetarian.
question
True or false: The majority of American citizens are descendents of immigrants? a. True b. False
answer
True
question
When thinking about gender, Jeff sees men as the dominant social group and women the subordinate group. This exploitation of the subordinate group has created social problems, such as high rates of poverty among single mothers. Which sociological perspective best fit Jeff's views? Select one: a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Conflict
question
What is the difference between sex and gender? a. Sex refers to sexual orientation, and gender refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females. b. Sex is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine, gender is biological characterization of anatomy. c. Sex refers to who a person is sexually attracted to, and gender refers to whom a person chooses to partner with. d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.
answer
d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.
question
True or false: A person's sex, as determined by his or her biology, does not always correspond with his or her gender. a. True b. False
answer
True
question
The term sexual orientation can be defined as: a. A term that refers to individuals who identify with the behaviors and characteristics that are opposite of their biological sex. b. A phase which a person outgrows before entering heterosexuality. c. A person's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex. d. A person's biological gender.
answer
c. A person's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex.
question
Peggy accepts a job offer as an advertising copywriter. Her boss immediately assigns her campaigns for products such as makeup and cleaning products. Peggy asks for different clients, but her boss tells her she should stick to what she and "her kind" know best. Peggy is experiencing : a. Sexual orientation b. Sexism c. Masochism d. Homophobia
answer
Sexism
question
5. Chase grew up wanting to wear his sister's dresses over his brother's pants and button up shirts. When Chase turns 18, he decides to begin living as woman, though he's still only sexually attracted to women. He decides he doesn't want to undergo surgery. Chase is: a. Transgender b. Bisexual c. Transsexual d. Homophobic
answer
Transgender
question
The term sexuality is defined by the text as: a. An individual's sense of being either masculine or feminine. b. The repressed sexual inclinations of society as a whole. c. An individual's biological gender. d. A person's capacity for sexual feelings.
answer
A persons capacity for sexual feelings
question
Jenny is given a doll for 2nd birthday, while her brother, Tyrone, is given a fire truck. This is an example of gender: a. Bending b. Indifference c. Socialization d. Stratification
answer
Socialization
question
What is the first agent of socialization? a. The law b. Family c. Friends d. School
answer
Family
question
When Jeanette's parents find out her twin brother, Rex, has been sexually active, they tell him to use protection. When they found out Jeanette has been sexually active, they ground her for a month. This is an example of: a. A double standard b. A misunderstanding c. Homophobia d. Gender identity
answer
Double standard
question
10. For every dollar a man makes in the United States, how much does a woman make? a. $1.52 b. 55 cents c. 92 cents d. 77 cents
answer
77
question
12. Tasha believes that gender is about the division of labor in the family. In the pre-industrial era, men were the hunter-gatherers and bread-winners, and women were keepers of the home. After World War II, changes in the family structure allowed women to become breadwinners also, altering the roles of the family. From what sociological perspective do Tasha's thoughts come? a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Structural
question
The term doing gender can be defined as: a. The refusal to participate in any tasks with gender-specific requirements. b. When people perform tasks based upon the gender assigned to them by society and, in turn, themselves. c. The prejudiced belief that one sex should be valued over another. d. Dating a member of the same sex to make a political statement.
answer
When people perform tasks based upon the gender assigned to them by society and, in turn, themselves.
question
. When Wendy's sorority sisters discover that Wendy is a lesbian, they hold a secret meeting to decide if Wendy should still be allowed to pledge. A handful of the sisters vote "no." This is an example of: a. Doing gender b. Bisexuality c. Homophobia d. Social imperialism
answer
Homophobia
question
Which of the following is NOT a product of gender stereotyping? a. Keisha's mom encouraging her to take home economics over shop class so she can please her future husband. b. A music store employee encouraging a young woman to study the piano or flute instead of the drums or guitar. c. A teacher discouraging a female student from entering the military, suggesting nursing school instead. d. A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter's eighth birthday.
answer
A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter's eighth birthday.
question
16. What is the purpose of queer theory? a. To question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality. b. To determine whether sexual orientation is a product of nature or nurture. c. To examine the genetic differences between the heterosexual population and homosexual population. d. To purpose a series of federal laws that will put an end to many social inequalities.
answer
a. To question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality.
question
In 1973, the American Psychological Association (APA) declassified homosexuality as an abnormal or deviant disorder. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the statement the (APA) made to society? a. Exchange Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Symbolic
question
In which country is sex education required in public schools? a. The United States b. Sweden c. England d. Nigeria
answer
Sweden
question
What is the Kinsey Scale? a. A six-point rating system that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual orientation. b. An in-depth guide to measure whether a loved one is homosexual or heterosexual. c. An instructional manual explaining acceptable homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual behavior. d. A religious test which classifies a person's ability to live as a heterosexual.
answer
a. A six-point rating system that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual orientation
question
Which of the following contributes to the myths surrounding male and female learning abilities in the classroom? a. Praising males for right answers more often than praising females. b. Giving males more opportunity to expand on their ideas. c. Placing males and females in competition with each other. d. All of the above.
answer
All
question
Family is a term that is difficult to define. When studying sociology it is important to remember that: a. Sociologist try to keep the definition open so that people who walk by each other on the street are a family. b. Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other. c. Sociologists only consider people who live in the same household to be a family. d. Sociologists only consider traditional marriage as a requirement to be a family.
answer
Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other.
question
Passing on one's heritage, possessions, and wealth is: a. The right of the first born male in every country in the world. b. The right of the first born female in every country in the world. c. Generally based on lineage, which is defined by one's culture and family.* d. Generally based on one's relationship with one's younger siblings
answer
c. Generally based on lineage, which is defined by one's culture and family.*
question
Why do sociologists find the study of family to be so important when trying to grasp the mores and norms of a culture? a. Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family. b. Families almost never reinforce the values of the society in which they live, and thus can bring about change without much effort. c. Families are so isolated from society at large that they become tiny independent societies. d. Families tend to be apathetic towards culture whereas young unmarried people reinforce social rituals and ideologies.
answer
Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family.
question
When Maria married John, she moved to John's house which was adjacent to his parent's house. Her mother-in-law was always over giving Maria advice on everything from decorating to icing cakes. Maria lives in a: a. Matridistant residence b. Patridistant residence c. Matrilocal residence d. Patrilocal residence
answer
Patrilocal residence
question
Watching television shows can be a good way to understand and study families because: a. They teach us what the ideal family should look like. b. They teach us how to behave when parents get upset. c. They teach us how to think through the consequences of certain actions. d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they aired.
answer
d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they aired.
question
. The U.S. Census Bureau keeps records of different statistics that pertain to families. For example, in 2010, there were three million children who did not live with their parents. 54% of these children were: a. Living with foster parents b. Living with their grandparent(s)*c. Living with their older brother or sister d. Living with an aunt or uncle
answer
Grandparents
question
What is the relationship, if any, between people who cohabitate and then get married, and those people who wait to live together after they marry? a. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly higher divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage. b. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly lower divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage. c. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have the exact same divorce rate as the people who don't cohabitate until marriage. d. It does not matter because divorce occurs when two people are incompatible and does not depend on how long people have lived with each other.
answer
Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly lower divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage.
question
Which is one reason that sociologist cite to explain why men and women are delaying marriage until their mid-to-late twenties? a. Many young people place education and career higher than marriage on their list of priorities. b. Many women fear having children too early and, consequently, having to give up a good career. c. Most men spend at least a year traveling the world to get a better understanding of the world, and consequently, don't want to be tied down by a wife. d. Most people in the Millennial generation are caring for their aging parents and do not have time for long term, serious relationships.
answer
Many young people place education and career higher than marriage on their list of priorities.
question
When a sociologist says that she used a cohort study to gather and analyze her data, what does she mean? a. She took a large number of subjects and collected a large amount of data which she broke down into measurable and consistent groups as a way to make the facts clearer to her audience. b. She grouped data in a way that made sense to her so that she didn't have to spend a lot of time plotting tiny dots on a line graph. c. She only took data for her paper from a cross-section of the population and plotted her charts with this information. d. She only studied people in the military to gauge their overall familial health and exuberance.
answer
She took a large number of subjects and collected a large amount of data which she broke down into measurable and consistent groups as a way to make the facts clearer to her audience.
question
Marcy and her three children have been trying to scrape by ever since Marcy's husband was killed in an automobile accident. Given what you know about George Murdock's theory, what would you expect to happen to this family? a. Marcy would lie in bed weeping hysterically and ignore the needs of her children. b. Marcy would become a stellar stay-at-home mom. c. Marcy would go back to work and rely on her parents for childcare. d. Marcy would never remarry and would never let her children drive.
answer
Marcy would go back to work and rely on her parents for childcare.
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11. To a conflict theorist, marriage and families are fascinating because: a. All married men and women fight every single day of their lives. b. No one ever gets what they want, so everyone compromises. c. All teenagers always fight with their parents. d. Within the family are social standings and power struggles
answer
Within the family are social standings and power struggles
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Peter finds that he always reacts differently to correction from his father than from his mother. What might a symbolic interactionist studying families make of this situation? a. Peter needs professional counseling. b. Peter plays different roles with his father and mother. c. Peter needs a sibling. d. Peter's lack of respect for his mother means he'll probably get divorced when he's older
answer
Peter plays different roles with his father and mother
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Which factors do sociologists suspect were the cause for such a high divorce rate during the 1960's? a. There was an increase in women working outside of the home, and also, greater social acceptance of divorce. b. Men were granted more freedom and often allowed to work from home which put more strain on their marital relationships, and which also coincided with women becoming more educated and more aware of their legal rights. c. The 1960's saw the birth of the zero-tolerance concept, which many men and women applied to their marriages, and which, many in society thought a great idea. d. Most people divorcing in the 1960's grew up during World War II and struggled to make the austerity of their childhood correlate with their more abundant and fruitful lifestyles in the 1960's.
answer
There was an increase in women working outside of the home, and also, greater social acceptance of divorce.
question
14. In which part of the family life cycle, do sociologists point to as the most stressful time for a marriage? a. The engagement period. b. The first year of marriage. c. The birth of the first child. d. The birth of the last child.
answer
Birth of first child
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15. If you consider the University of Virginia's National Marriage Project, what can be concluded from their study? a. Finances are an important foundation for a successful marriage. b. Children are an important foundation for a successful marriage. c. Love is an important foundation for a successful marriage. d. Counseling is an important foundation for a successful marriage.
answer
Finances are an important foundation for a successful marriage.
question
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, three fourths of children of divorced parents, live with their mother. What impact might this have on the U.S. male population over time? a. Men may begin to rely on women more in society, which could lead to a cultural role reversal. b. Men may be burdened with too much at a young age, leading to psychological development issues. c. Men should not develop any differently, and the traditional social and cultural gender roles will continue. d. Men may be more aggressive which may lead to an increase in crime, domestic violence, etc.
answer
Men may be more aggressive which may lead to an increase in crime, domestic violence, etc.
question
What is the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and marriage? a. Men and women who are married feel empowered to report abuse, thus the statistics we have on IPV between married couples are very accurate. b. Men and women who are married experience less abuse, than those who are separated or cohabitating. c. Men and women who are married experience considerably more abuse, than those who are cohabitating, or separated. d. Men and women who are married prefer to seek therapy and counseling for their problems rather than hitting, punching, or screaming.
answer
Men and women who are married experience less abuse, than those who are separated or cohabitating.
question
18. What is one of the biggest challenges facing groups and organizations that try to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV)? a. The victims of IPV do not report the abuse. b. IPV almost never happens, so it is difficult to locate and predict. c. Most people do not know what IPV is. d. IPV is not taken seriously by the court system.
answer
The victims of IPV do not report the abuse.
question
If you work with children, why is it important to be ever vigilant for any signs of child abuse? a. Social Services will sue you if you miss any sign of child abuse. b. Most reports of child abuse come from non-relative adults who interact with the child. c. The child being abused may need extra help with focusing, learning, and concentrating. d. The child being abused may be made fun of by his or her peers, which may cause more emotional distress.
answer
Most reports of child abuse come from non-relative adults who interact with the child.
question
Corporal Punishment is another way of saying: a. White Collar Crime b. Life in prison c. Spanking d. The death penalty
answer
Spanking
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Which of the following is NOT true of the sociological perspective on religion? a. Religion is a cultural universal. b. Religion is a social institution. c. Religion is a system of beliefs. d. Religion is a symbol of high culture.
answer
Religion is a symbol of high culture.
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Which two words did Émile Durkheim use to distinguish between religious objects and non-religious objects? a. Sacred; profane b. Unclean; holy c. Secular; religious d. Ordinary; sanctified
answer
a. Sacred; profane
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What correlation between religion and society did Max Weber see and study? a. Religion was pushed out of society as countries began to industrialize. b. Religion was important to lower class people, but not very important to those in higher classes. c. Religion was very influential over the economy and the habits of workers. d. Religion was just a way for governments to justify and control their people.
answer
Religion was very influential over the economy and the habits of workers.
question
Which position describes Karl Marx's view of religion and society? a. Religion was the key to uniting the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. b. Religion simply kept the Proletariat in their low social class. c. Religion inspired the Proletariat to work harder while under the rule of the Bourgeoisie. d. Religion was something only the Bourgeoisie had time to contemplate.
answer
Religion simply kept the Proletariat in their low social class.
question
Some believe that religion is important because it adds meaning to people's lives and provides answers to difficult questions. A sociologist following which theory would agree with this statement? a. A structural functionalist b. A conflict theorist c. A symbolic interactionist d. A feminist
answer
Functionalist
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You are interested, like Durkheim, in how ordinary objects become sacred. Which theoretical approach will help you most in analyzing the data you collect? a. Structural functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Symbolic interactionism d. Feminism
answer
Symbolic
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A sociologist studying how religious beliefs become so deeply rooted in people that they can hate people of other religions probably is: a. A structural functionalist b. A conflict theorist c. A symbolic interactionist d. A feminist
answer
Conflict
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Roberto has just moved to a new city. He does not know anyone but he wants to find a mosque where he can practice Islam. Which theory will Roberto use, either consciously or subconsciously, to make a decision? a. Rational Choice Theory b. Enlightenment Theory c. Logical Approach to Decision-making Theory d. Pro vs. Con list
answer
Rational choice theory
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Sanchita worships three different and separate gods. Her religion falls into which category?​ a. Monotheism b. Polytheism c. Atheism d. Totemism
answer
Polytheism
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What name do Buddhists give to their four basic rules? a. Communion b. Commandments c. Pathways to Meditation d. Noble Truths
answer
Noble truths
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When Hildegard visited a Church of Christ, she realized just how similar their practices and beliefs are to her regular denomination of choice, the Episcopalian Church. These similarities probably mean that the Church Christ is: a. A faith that is not part of any larger category. b. A cult within the Christian faith. c. A sect within the Christian faith. d. An ecclesia within the Christian faith.
answer
A sect within the Christian faith.
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If someone who follows the teaching of Confucius mentions the word jen, they are referring to: a. Their sacred texts. b. A teaching that everyone should be treated kindly. c. A mystical type of meditation. d. The argument over whether Confucianism is a religion or a social system.
answer
A teaching that everyone should be treated kindly.
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How many pillars are essential to the Islamic faith? a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 6
answer
6
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14. Megachurches have become popular in certain parts of the United States. Where else in the world are megachurches widely popular? a. South Korea b. the United Kingdom c. Samoa d. Mongolia
answer
South Korea
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15. The ___________ records Jewish interpretations of the _____________ which is their sacred text. a. Torah; Talmud b. Hasidic texts; Aggadic Midrashim c. Talmud; Torah d. Tanakh; Tawrat
answer
Talmud; Torah
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16. When Rosa and Sergei realized that the poor were being neglected in their city, they mobilized the members of their synagogue to send letters to the government asking them to fix the growing rate of poverty, or at least, fund the citizens so they might help their neighbors. This is an example of: a. Zero-Tolerance Theology b. Liberation Theology c. Social Theology d. Protest Theology
answer
Liberation theology
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What did Marx and Freud see as the downfall of religion that would lead to the secularization of society? a. Class stratification of society b. Social strains of society c. Apathy of society d. Modernization of society
answer
Modernization of society
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On any given day, there is often a story about prayer in schools in the news. For decades people have disagreeing over the constitutionality of prayer in schools. This controversy is a great example of the tension between: a. Church and State b. State law and Federal law c. Social classes d. Different religions
answer
Church and state
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Many people are familiar with the yin-yang symbol. From which religion does this come? a. Confucianism b. Baha'i c. Taoism d. Jainism
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Taoism
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Which text is considered sacred to Christians of all sects? a. The Book of Mormon b. The Apocrypha c. The Hymnal d. The Bible
answer
The bible
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How did Max Weber define power? a. The authority to imprison citizens without cause. b. The legal resources to prosecute and punish. c. Politically elected influence used to control the masses. d. The ability to exercise one's will over others
answer
The ability to exercise ones will over others
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2. Juan believes that battles such as the French Revolution are necessary for a country to preserve liberty, to maintain or gain land, and will ultimately lead to a more even distribution of wealth among a population. From which sociological perspective do Juan's thoughts come from? a. Feminist b. Conflict theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionist
answer
Conflict
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Power legitimized on the basis of long-standing customs
answer
Traditional
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Power that is legitimized by rules, regulations, and laws
answer
Rational legal
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Power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities
answer
Charistmatic
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Which sociological perspective would consider activism such as Occupy Wall Street and Teacher's Union rallies undesirable, because they force political change? a. Feminist b. Conflict theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Functionalism
question
What is the difference between an oligarchy and a monarchy? a. Members of an oligarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of a monarchy do. b. There is no difference - both members achieve status based on ties to noble ancestry. c. Both are elected by a democratic process, but monarchies have the right to override the popular vote. d. Members of a monarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of an oligarchy do.
answer
Members of an oligarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of a monarchy do.
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Which sociologist studied the power elite, and wrote the book entitled Who Rules America? a. G. William Domhoff b. C. Wright Mills c. Karl Marx d. Émile Durkheim
answer
Domhoff
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Communist regimes, which attempt to control all aspects of citizens' lives, are examples of which form of government: a. Oligarchy b. Dictatorship c. Constitutional monarchy d. Totalitarian dictatorship
answer
Totalitarian dictatorship
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In recent decades, lobbying has become a powerful force in the political world. Lobbyists frequently meet behind closed doors with senators, lawmakers, and congressmen and women to push influential legislation through the congressional process. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in examining the lobbying movement? a. Feminist b. Exchange theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Interactionism
question
Which of the following best defines the term patrimonialism? a. Power that people accept because it comes from a source that is perceived as legitimate. b. A military technique which includes the spread of the conquering country's religion. c. A ruling class that is dependent upon the blood line from the father's side of the family. d. A type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the masters
answer
A type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the masters
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12. What was the significance of the famous case Reynolds v. Sims? a. It gave African Americans the right to vote. b. It reaffirmed the concept that each person's vote should be counted equally. c. It gave women the right to vote. d. It established the precedent that felons are not allowed to vote.
answer
It reaffirmed the concept that each person's vote should be counted equally.
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Queen Noor of Jordan is a leader of which form of government? a. Oligarchy b. Dictatorship c. Constitutional monarchy d. Monarchy
answer
Constitutional monarchy
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Over the past decades, the turnout of minority voters has: a. Steadily increased b. Remained unchanged c. Steadily decreased d. Slowly decreased
answer
Steadily increased
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15. From the functionalist perspective, which of the following is NOT a purpose of government? a. Planning and directing society b. Meeting social needs c. Managing international relations d. Lobbying for domestic corporate interests
answer
Lobbying for domestic corporate interests
question
Kendra believes the U.S. government to be corrupt, and thinks that there should be no governing force to control people's lives. Kendra believes in: a. Democracy b. Constitutional monarchy c. Anarchy d. Oligarchies
answer
Anarchy
question
Please define representative democracy: a. A form of government in which a small percentage of the population is represented by popular election, and the rest of the population is represented by those whose office is dependent upon noble birth. b. A government of a nation that recognizes monarchs but requires these figures to abide by the laws of a greater constitution. c. A form of government in which power is held by a small, elite group. d. A government wherein citizens elect officials to represent their interests.
answer
A government wherein citizens elect officials to represent their interests.
question
Hitler was an example of what kind of authority? a. Charismatic b. Rational-legal c. Traditional d. None of the above.
answer
Charismatic
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Which of the following contributes lower percentage of voter turnout from those who come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds? a. Voting sites frequently discourage participation from those of lower socioeconomic backgrounds. b. Members of lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to overestimate the voting practices of their peers. c. Lower-paying jobs frequently have less flexible hours, making time to vote difficult. d. Many citizens from lower socioeconomic backgrounds cannot afford to vote.
answer
c. Lower-paying jobs frequently have less flexible hours, making time to vote difficult.
question
Which sociologist saw political conflict as the only means of promoting positive change for the underprivileged? a. G. William Domhoff b. C. Wright Mills c. Karl Marx d. Émile Durkheim
answer
Marx
question
1. Which of the following best defines the term commodity? a. A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others. b. An activity that benefits people, such as health care, education, and entertainment. c. An economic system which adheres to the principles of socialism. d. A benefit given to those who participate in the capitalist market
answer
a. A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others.
question
2. Which of the following is an example of structural unemployment? a. A large fire burns down an automotive plant in Detroit, forcing the employees temporarily out of work. b. Three sales associates from Target are fired after stealing merchandise from the electronics department. c. John quits his job after getting accepted into law school. d. Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
answer
Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
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3. During what time period did economies begin to develop globally? a. The Industrial Revolution b. The Post-Industrial Revolution c. The Agricultural Revolution d. The Information Age
answer
Ag revolution
question
Terrence and his family own a farm in a remote region of Chile. They farm only enough to produce enough food to feed the family, and pay their taxes. What are Terrence and his family engaging in? a. Capitalism b. Mercantilism c. Capitalistic Farming d. Subsistence Farming
answer
Subsistence farming
question
Which of the following is an example of polarization? a. The job market is increasing in the lowest economic levels, and is increasing in the highest economic levels. b. A professional career is guaranteed after earning a college degree. c. Unemployment is down for those with PhDs and those without a high school education. d. The recession has encouraged many workers to earn their associate degrees.
answer
The job market is increasing in the lowest economic levels, and is increasing in the highest economic levels.
question
6. Jin is a conflict theorist sociologist. Which of the following statements about Occupy Wall Street would most align with Jin's sociological perspective? a. Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger. b. Occupy Wall Street is a waste of time; our capitalistic economy is keeping our nation healthy, and is designed for maximum efficiency. c. Occupy Wall Street is a threat; with so many angry people gathered in one place, horrible violence will surely break out. d. Occupy Wall Street is dangerous; large crowds in these environments heighten the risk for sexual abuse and gender discrimination.​
answer
Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger.
question
The term xenophobia can best be defined as: a. An illogical fear and even hatred of foreigners and foreign goods. b. A marketing campaign aimed at foreign countries selling American goods. c. A pronounced fear of globalization destroying one's job. d. A hatred of corporate America and the lobbying push.
answer
An illogical fear and even hatred of foreigners and foreign goods.
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Davis is low on cash, but really wants an electric guitar. He offers to trade his acoustic guitar, for his friend Bill's electric guitar. Davis is engaging in: a. Supply and demand b. Mercantilism c. Capitalism d. Bartering
answer
Bartering
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By 2009, America had suffered several consecutive quarters of economic decline. America was in the midst of a: a. Capital rebuttal b. Recession c. Depression d. Economic sling-shot recovery
answer
Recession
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10. Which of the following best defines the term globalization? a. The process of removing manufacturing and industrial sites from foreign countries and returning them to the United States. ​​​ b. When products are assembled over the course of several international transactions. c. Long periods of recession followed by sharp economic upturn worldwide. d. The process of integrating governments, cultures, and financial markets through international trade into a single world market.
answer
The process of integrating governments, cultures, and financial markets through international trade into a single world market.
question
What was the significance of NAFTA? a. It encouraged trade with North Korea, which had previously been embargoed. b. It allowed freer trade opportunities for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. c. It forbade trade with any country that didn't use a capitalist government. d. It restricted trade within North American countries by imposing a heavy tax and tariffs.
answer
It allowed freer trade opportunities for the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
question
12. Apple computers ship their computer parts to India to be made, and station their tech support in India. This is an example of a: a. Decisive export b. Global assembly line c. Global commodity chain d. Xenophobia
answer
Global assembly line
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13. Keshawn used to work for an IT company in Baltimore, but lost his job when his company decided to use workers in New Delhi instead. This is an example of: a. Outsourcing b. Polarization c. Automation d. The technology gap
answer
Outsourcing
question
The term mercantilism can best be defined as: a. An economic system in which there is private ownership (as opposed to state ownership) and where there is an impetus to produce profit, and thereby wealth. b. When children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents. c. An economic policy based on national policies of accumulating silver and gold by controlling markets with colonies and other countries through taxes and customs charges. d. An economic system in which there is government ownership (often referred to as "state run") of goods and their production, with an impetus to share work and wealth equally among the members of a society.
answer
When children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents.
question
Which of the following is not an example of underemployment? a. After college graduation, Marcus could only find work part-time as a bartender. b. After his wife gave birth to twins, Jerry quit his job to help raise them. c. Following the recession, Ellen lost her fulltime job as a PR assistant and found part-time work as a cosmetic sales associate. d. When John's sales job is outsourced he's forced to take work as a janitor to pay off his student loans.
answer
After his wife gave birth to twins, Jerry quit his job to help raise them.
question
Alex's country was once communist, but now allows limited private ownership of companies, and lets market forces determine production and pricing decisions. What kinds of economy is Alex living in? a. Market Communist b. Market Socialist c. Capitalist d. Democratic
answer
Market socialist
question
What is one reason unemployment statistics are unreliable? a. Those surveyed frequently lie about their employment status. b. The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work. c. The government only surveys those who have been out of work for a year or more. d. Different states define unemployment in different ways.
answer
The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work.
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18. Which of the following industries is not projected to experience growth within the United States within the next 10 years? a. Financial b. Healthcare c. Community and Social Service d. Farming, Fishing, and Forestry
answer
Darling,mfishing, and forestry
question
Many of the world's most powerful corporations have headquarters in New York City, which hosts endless influential events, and offers an advanced transportation infrastructure. New York City is a ______ city. a. Declining b. Global c. Recession-Proof d. Corrupt
answer
Global
question
Which of the following is an example of convergence theory in action?​ a. Germany rebuilt its economy after World War II, creating more job opportunities and prosperity for its citizens. b. Following the decline of the automotive industry, Detroit became a bankrupt city with large unemployment. c. The suburbs of Paris became crime-infested after wealthier citizens moved into the city, pushing the lower classes out of their homes. d. Washington DC has become a city to which many young people flock because of its low unemployment rate and job opportunities.
answer
Germany rebuilt its economy after World War II, creating more job opportunities and prosperity for its citizens.
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question
Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa's hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of: a. A meritocracy b. A democracy c. A caste system d. A closed stratification system
answer
Meritocracy
question
Mohit spent his days combing through garbage in Mumbai, India with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Mohit is an example of someone living under: a. A meritocracy b. A dictatorship c. A caste system d. An oligarchy
answer
Caste system
question
3. It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. His parents chose a bride for him whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as they did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________ marriage. a. Exogamus b. Endogamus c. Traditional d. Unconventional
answer
Endogamus
question
Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage. a. Exogamous b. Traditional c. Endogamus d. Unconventional
answer
Exogamous
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Which factor is considered when evaluating someone's standard of living? a. Income b. Employment c. Class d. All of the above
answer
All
question
With the recent Occupy Wall Street Movement, the people of the United States keep hearing about the top 1%. How much of the United State's wealth rests in the hands of the wealthiest top 1% of people? a. 1/3 b. 1/4 c. 1/8 d. 1/16
answer
1/3
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7. Charlotte was born to a lower class family in rural Pennsylvania. After taking a job in the mail room of a large corporate office, Charlotte is slowly promoted through the ranks and becomes CEO of the company by the age of 50. What type of stratification is shown in this story? a. Structural mobility b. Intergenerational mobility c. Intragenerational mobility d. Downward mobility
answer
Intergenerational mobility
question
What is particularly unique about the United States middle class? a. It is the smallest class in the United States. b. It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class. c. The people who are middle class often have little to no education. d. The upper class are as likely to become members of the lower class as members of the lower class are likely to become members of the upper class.
answer
It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class.*
question
Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today? a. World War I b. The Fall of the British Empire c. The French Revolution d. The Industrial Revolution
answer
Industrial revolution
question
Which classification method best shows how competitive a nation's economy is in global terms? a. Using phrases like "first world," "second world," and "third world." b. Calculating the GDP per capita of each country and using those numbers to create a global average that can be used as an economic yard stick. c. Classifying countries based on their level of development and using phrases like "more developed" or "less developed." d. Visiting each country and polling a select handful of the population about their income, etc.
answer
b. Calculating the GDP per capita of each country and using those numbers to create a global average that can be used as an economic yard stick
question
GNI PPP, or gross national income divided by purchasing power parity, helps measure: a. The standard of living in a country. b. The average level of education per person in a country. c. The amount of inflation affecting a country's currency. d. The average global interest rates for loans.
answer
The standard of living in a country
question
2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________. a. Social stratification b. Social inconsistency c. Horizontal mobility d. Downward mobility
answer
Downward mobility
question
Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class? a. Upper class is often defined as having control over one's life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one's own life. b. The upper class is split into "old money" and "new money" people, while the upper-middle class simply struggles to maintain its wealth. c. All upper class people enjoy opera and have been bred for their stations while the upper-middle class consists mostly of newly wealthy people who may not have had the same kind of upbringing. d. In the upper class, everyone knows everyone, but in the upper-middle class, the people do not comingle.
answer
Upper class is often defined as having control over one's life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one's own life.*
question
What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility? a. How well off your parents are. b. How much education you have. c. How many jobs you work. d. How much you spend on your personal appearance.
answer
How much education you have
question
A person's position in a country's social stratification is determined by: a. Wealth, power, income, race, education b. GNI PPP, GDP, GNI, the PRB, and standards of living c. Clothes, accessories, hobbies, shoes, and number of credit cards d. Prestige, family, legal records, occupation, and favorite food
answer
Wealth, power, income, race, education*
question
The Davis-Moore Thesis states: a. That economic hardship and skyrocketing inflation is the cause for all social stratification in the United States. b. That Karl Marx was correct and that stratification can only be solved by converting to a socialist government. c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make. d. That people constantly move up and down the social ladder, and this creates an unstable economy which will eventually collapse on itself.
answer
c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make.
question
Whose work do conflict theorists rely on to help form their arguments surrounding social stratification? a. Auguste Comte b. Émile Durkheim c. René Decartes d. Karl Marx
answer
Karl Marx
question
Hope is desperate for the new designer purse that she saw while window shopping at her local mall. She knew every girl in school would covet her bag and wish to be like her. When she walked in, she whipped out her credit card, and purchased the $5,000 bag. This kind of purchasing is called: a. Conspicuous consumption b. Popular consumerism c. Designer consumerism d. Credit card consumerism
answer
Conspicuous consumption
question
Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that: a. Most people do not care about social rank and standing. b. Only lower class people drink beer. c. Only upper class people can enjoy a good game of polo. d. Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.
answer
Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.*
question
One main issue in studying global social inequality is: a. Most countries keep their economic situations secret. b. Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures. c. The presence of tourism can make a country look richer than it really is. d. Most people live beyond their means which gives a false sense of wealth to a society.
answer
Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures.*
question
Which social class is quickly disappearing from modern economies? a. Upper Class b. Middle Class c. Lower Class d. The amount of people in each class has been about the same for the past 10 years.
answer
Middle class
question
How is global stratification different from social stratification? a. Global stratification only examines environmental inequalities among nations while social stratification examines inequalities among people. b. Global stratification can only measure the inequalities among purely democratic states, while social stratification can be expanded to apply to people in any country in the world. c. Global stratification examines a myriad of different types of prejudice and inequality, while social stratification covers the social class and standing of individuals. d. Countries cannot move up and down the global stratification ladder, unlike people who can use social mobility to climb or fall down the social stratification ladder.
answer
c. Global stratification examines a myriad of different types of prejudice and inequality, while social stratification covers the social class and standing of individuals.
question
In recent times, scholars have been trying to sort out why the countries on the continent of Africa, as a whole, have trouble competing to today's global, capitalist economy. While an answer to this question is complex and carries with it many ambiguities, most scholars point to European colonialism as a key to understanding the current state of Africa. A sociologist studying this topic, would ascribe to which theoretical paradigm? a. Structural functionalism b. Symbolic interactionism c. Conflict theory d. Feminist theory
answer
Conflict theory
question
4. The Kurds are a people group with no homeland. They often are the victims of intimidation and violence which has resulted in their impoverished status as a group. A sociologist studying the Kurds would likely approach his conclusions from the ____________ theoretical perspective. a. Structural functionalist b. Symbolic interactionist c. Conflict d. Feminist
answer
Conflict
question
Immanuel Wallerstein's classification of nations uses which set of terms? a. super powers, allies of super powers, enemies of super powers b. primary nation, secondary nation, tertiary nation c. first world, second world, third world d. core nation, peripheral nation, semi-peripheral nation
answer
d. core nation, peripheral nation, semi-peripheral nation*
question
Which statement explains why Immanuel Wallerstein's classification is preferred by sociologist? a. Wallerstein's classification uses neutral terms that allow his classification of nations to be less biased and appear less ethnocentric. b. Wallerstein's classification uses the United States as a point of comparison so that people can understand what he is saying. c. The former Cold War era classifications are outdated and no longer accurately show the economic state of individual nations. d. Wallerstein's classification is based more on sociological data than economic data, and because of that, applies to the field of sociology better than the Cold War era classification.
answer
a. Wallerstein's classification uses neutral terms that allow his classification of nations to be less biased and appear less ethnocentric.
question
In the United States, where outsourcing is almost always addressed negatively, companies still get away with outsourcing. How do they do this? a. Capital flight, caused by outsourcing, helps local economies thrive, so Americans are willing to make the trade off. b. Deindusrialization, also caused by outsourcing, is better for the environment, so Americans are in favor of it. c. Americans want lower prices for their consumable products, and the only way for companies to deliver those low prices is to outsource the work to cheaper laborers. d. Companies find that the many U.S. restrictions on manufacturing can seriously disrupt production, which leads to profit loss, which in turn results in outsourcing.
answer
c. Americans want lower prices for their consumable products, and the only way for companies to deliver those low prices is to outsource the work to cheaper laborers.
question
Which number does the World Bank use to determine the status and classification of each nation? a. Gross National Income b. Gross Domestic Product c. Purchasing Power Parity d. Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development data
answer
Gross national income
question
Which trend has the World Bank seen in its study of poverty in low-income nations? a. Equal numbers of men and women live in poverty. b. More men live in poverty than women. c. More women live in poverty than men. d. Children can avoid living in poverty if they live with their fathers.
answer
More women live in poverty than men
question
10. 88 million people live on less than $1.00 a day. These people are said to be living in _____________. a. Subjective poverty b. Marginal poverty c. Absolute poverty d. Relative poverty
answer
Absolute poverty
question
11. Maria babysits as a form of income while she is in college. Because the amounts she gets per job are not huge, Maria never bothers to report her earnings to the IRS. Maria is a part of the _____________. a. Underground economy b. Under-reported economy c. Under-earning economy d. Under-paid economy
answer
Underground economy
question
12. Which continent has the greatest number of impoverished nations in the world? a. Africa b. Asia c. South America d. North America
answer
Africa
question
Which continent has the largest number of people living in poverty in the world? a. Africa b. Asia c. South America d. North America
answer
Asia
question
What has been the main factor that has aided the financial situations of many countries in Latin America? a. Taking legal steps to prevent drug trafficking and guerilla warfare b. Borrowing money from countries like China and the United States c. A greater emphasis on educating young people d. Allowing residents to engage in the underground economy
answer
A greater emphasis on educating young people
question
Child labor and sweatshops have existed since the Industrial Revolution and even before that. Many products sold today are created in these sweatshops, even though, living in the 21st century, we like to think we are above such practices. What is one practical way we can try and stop multinational companies from using such labor? a. We can ignore the problem because it will eventually go away. b. We can trust that the CEOs and the members of the board of the companies will do the right thing. c. We can justify such practices because they are legal in other countries. d. We can be responsible consumers and research products before buying them.
answer
d. We can be responsible consumers and research products before buying them.
question
Which is an effect of absolute poverty that also contributes to its cyclical nature? a. Lack of education b. Home foreclosures c. Massive credit card debt d. Excellent healthcare
answer
Lack of education
question
17. Which statement would you find in the analysis of poverty by Neckerman and Torche? a. People will take advantage of social welfare programs if you do not watch them carefully. b. People live in poverty because they are lazy and lack meaningful work. c. Once poverty has entered an geographic location, it is very difficult to get rid of. d. People living in poverty enjoy living in poverty.
answer
Once poverty has entered an geographic location, it is very difficult to get rid of.
question
An example of slavery, according to Anti-Slavery International, is: a. Factories employing adults at salary level b. Factories using child labor c. Children attending school d. Children playing with friends
answer
Factories using child labor
question
Areas that once had vast economic growth and large amounts of industry, but are now suffering from the effects of outsourcing are going through a period of: a. Industrialization b. Deindustrialization c. Industrialization transition d. Post-industrialization
answer
Deindustrialization
question
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was created by: a. Core nation countries b. Third world countries c. Middle-income countries d. Asian and American countries
answer
Core nation countries
question
In the United States, which race would be considered the dominant group? a. Hispanic b. White c. Black d. Asian
answer
White
question
Which of the following is an example of racial steering? a. Real estate agents directing white clients to look for housing in certain neighborhoods, and non-white clients to others. b. The Trail of Tears, when the United States government forced Native Americans to permanently leave their homes and territory. c. Kiki being told she'll be bad at math because she is a girl. d. Jose's parents not allowing him to date Martha because she is of a different race.
answer
a. Real estate agents directing white clients to look for housing in certain neighborhoods, and non-white clients to others.
question
According to the social construction of race school of thought, race is: a. Based only on geographic regions b. No longer in existence c. A product of the media d. Not biologically identifiable
answer
Not biologically identifiable
question
Adolf Hitler blaming Germany's pre-war problems on the Jewish population is an example of: a. The scapegoat theory b. The social construction of race c. White privilege d. Pluralism
answer
The scapegoat theory
question
5. Max believes that most people's racial beliefs are based on images conveyed in popular media since many people never meet members of certain races for themselves. Max's perspective is: a. Functionalist b. Conflict theorist c. Feminist d. Symbolic interactionist
answer
Symbolic
question
The term discrimination is defined in the text as: a. The theory that prejudice is embedded in our culture. b. Biased thought based on flawed assumptions about a group of people. c. An expression of dissatisfaction with the justice system. d. Prejudiced action against a group of people.
answer
Prejudiced action against s group of people
question
Speedy Gonzalez is a popular cartoon character, but is widely considered an inappropriate stereotype. Many children are raised watching Speedy Gonzalez cartoons, unaware that such stereotypes are negative. This is a product of: a. Genocide b. Intersection theory c. The culture of prejudice d. The scapegoat theory
answer
Culture of prejudice
question
8. When Alexander, who is white, drives his car over the speed limit, a police officer lets him off with a warning. When Christopher, who is Hispanic, drives his car at the same speed as Alexander on the same road, the officer gives him a ticket, even though his record is clean. This is an example of: a. Affirmative action b. White privilege c. Intersection theory d. The social construction of race
answer
White privilege
question
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive order 9066, which authorized the establishment of internment camps for anyone with as little as one-eighth Japanese ancestry following Pearl Harbor, is an example of: a. Racial steering b. Communism c. Expulsion d. Genocide
answer
Expulsion
question
The term segregation is defined in the text as: a. The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture. b. The deliberate annihilation of a targeted, usually subordinate, group. c. The integration of diverse cultural concepts into a public school curriculum. d. The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions.
answer
d. The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions.
question
In 2010, what did controversial Senate Bill 1070 propose, causing a series of protests and legal battles? a. After being charged with a crime, Wisconsin courts can order legal immigrants back to their countries of origin. b. During a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers may establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally. c. If suspected of illegal activity, Nevada police may search the home of any immigrant, or child of an immigrant, without a warrant. d. After being detained by New Mexico police, immigrants are given no rights by the authorities and may be held for weeks without being officially charged.
answer
During a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers may establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally.
question
12. Arizona Senate Bill 1070, often referred to colloquially as the "papers, please" law, was aimed widely at those of: a. Irish descent b. Middle Eastern descent c. Chinese descent d. Mexican descent
answer
Mexican descent
question
13. Angela believes that race relations in America are poor because the white ruling class has enacted various laws and regulations to keep other racial groups from achieving equality. With which sociological perspective does Angela's view best align? a. Functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Feminism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Conflict
question
14. Which group within the United States has been stereotyped as the model minority? a. The Asian American community b. The African American community c. The Arab American community d. The Hispanic American community
answer
The Asian American community
question
1967's Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia, a case which legally allowed interracial marriage, is an example of a. Racism b. Stereotyping c. Amalgamation d. Assimilation
answer
Amalgamation
question
Asad's first grade class is diverse: there are two students from Korea, five students from South America, two students from the United States, three students from Kuwait, a student from Mexico, two students from England, and five students from western Europe. Asad's class is: a. Segregated b. Pluralistic c. Assimilated d. Profiled
answer
Pluralistic
question
The term assimilation is defined by the text as: a. When a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave a certain area or even the country. b. The theory that prejudice is embedded in our culture. c. The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture. d. The act of singling out an individual because of his or her race.
answer
The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture.
question
Cedric's uncle believes that racism and discrimination have made a positive impact on society - but only in the lives of those who are members of the dominant group. Which sociological perspective is Cedric's uncle coming from? a. Functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Feminism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Functionalism
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of a stereotype? a. Cynthia believing her best friend to be good at math because she is Asian. b. Maria assuming her son-in-law is a heavy drinker because he is Irish. c. Isaiah cooking his girlfriend a meat-free dinner because she is a vegetarian. d. Pedro assuming his neighbor likes rap music because he is African American.
answer
Isaiah cooking his girlfriend a meat-free dinner because she is a vegetarian.
question
True or false: The majority of American citizens are descendents of immigrants? a. True b. False
answer
True
question
When thinking about gender, Jeff sees men as the dominant social group and women the subordinate group. This exploitation of the subordinate group has created social problems, such as high rates of poverty among single mothers. Which sociological perspective best fit Jeff's views? Select one: a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Conflict
question
What is the difference between sex and gender? a. Sex refers to sexual orientation, and gender refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females. b. Sex is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine, gender is biological characterization of anatomy. c. Sex refers to who a person is sexually attracted to, and gender refers to whom a person chooses to partner with. d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.
answer
d. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.
question
True or false: A person's sex, as determined by his or her biology, does not always correspond with his or her gender. a. True b. False
answer
True
question
The term sexual orientation can be defined as: a. A term that refers to individuals who identify with the behaviors and characteristics that are opposite of their biological sex. b. A phase which a person outgrows before entering heterosexuality. c. A person's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex. d. A person's biological gender.
answer
c. A person's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex.
question
Peggy accepts a job offer as an advertising copywriter. Her boss immediately assigns her campaigns for products such as makeup and cleaning products. Peggy asks for different clients, but her boss tells her she should stick to what she and "her kind" know best. Peggy is experiencing : a. Sexual orientation b. Sexism c. Masochism d. Homophobia
answer
Sexism
question
5. Chase grew up wanting to wear his sister's dresses over his brother's pants and button up shirts. When Chase turns 18, he decides to begin living as woman, though he's still only sexually attracted to women. He decides he doesn't want to undergo surgery. Chase is: a. Transgender b. Bisexual c. Transsexual d. Homophobic
answer
Transgender
question
The term sexuality is defined by the text as: a. An individual's sense of being either masculine or feminine. b. The repressed sexual inclinations of society as a whole. c. An individual's biological gender. d. A person's capacity for sexual feelings.
answer
A persons capacity for sexual feelings
question
Jenny is given a doll for 2nd birthday, while her brother, Tyrone, is given a fire truck. This is an example of gender: a. Bending b. Indifference c. Socialization d. Stratification
answer
Socialization
question
What is the first agent of socialization? a. The law b. Family c. Friends d. School
answer
Family
question
When Jeanette's parents find out her twin brother, Rex, has been sexually active, they tell him to use protection. When they found out Jeanette has been sexually active, they ground her for a month. This is an example of: a. A double standard b. A misunderstanding c. Homophobia d. Gender identity
answer
Double standard
question
10. For every dollar a man makes in the United States, how much does a woman make? a. $1.52 b. 55 cents c. 92 cents d. 77 cents
answer
77
question
12. Tasha believes that gender is about the division of labor in the family. In the pre-industrial era, men were the hunter-gatherers and bread-winners, and women were keepers of the home. After World War II, changes in the family structure allowed women to become breadwinners also, altering the roles of the family. From what sociological perspective do Tasha's thoughts come? a. Conflict Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Structural
question
The term doing gender can be defined as: a. The refusal to participate in any tasks with gender-specific requirements. b. When people perform tasks based upon the gender assigned to them by society and, in turn, themselves. c. The prejudiced belief that one sex should be valued over another. d. Dating a member of the same sex to make a political statement.
answer
When people perform tasks based upon the gender assigned to them by society and, in turn, themselves.
question
. When Wendy's sorority sisters discover that Wendy is a lesbian, they hold a secret meeting to decide if Wendy should still be allowed to pledge. A handful of the sisters vote "no." This is an example of: a. Doing gender b. Bisexuality c. Homophobia d. Social imperialism
answer
Homophobia
question
Which of the following is NOT a product of gender stereotyping? a. Keisha's mom encouraging her to take home economics over shop class so she can please her future husband. b. A music store employee encouraging a young woman to study the piano or flute instead of the drums or guitar. c. A teacher discouraging a female student from entering the military, suggesting nursing school instead. d. A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter's eighth birthday.
answer
A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter's eighth birthday.
question
16. What is the purpose of queer theory? a. To question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality. b. To determine whether sexual orientation is a product of nature or nurture. c. To examine the genetic differences between the heterosexual population and homosexual population. d. To purpose a series of federal laws that will put an end to many social inequalities.
answer
a. To question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality.
question
In 1973, the American Psychological Association (APA) declassified homosexuality as an abnormal or deviant disorder. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the statement the (APA) made to society? a. Exchange Theory b. Structural Functionalism c. Cyberfeminism d. Symbolic Interactionism
answer
Symbolic
question
In which country is sex education required in public schools? a. The United States b. Sweden c. England d. Nigeria
answer
Sweden
question
What is the Kinsey Scale? a. A six-point rating system that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual orientation. b. An in-depth guide to measure whether a loved one is homosexual or heterosexual. c. An instructional manual explaining acceptable homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual behavior. d. A religious test which classifies a person's ability to live as a heterosexual.
answer
a. A six-point rating system that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual orientation
question
Which of the following contributes to the myths surrounding male and female learning abilities in the classroom? a. Praising males for right answers more often than praising females. b. Giving males more opportunity to expand on their ideas. c. Placing males and females in competition with each other. d. All of the above.
answer
All
question
Family is a term that is difficult to define. When studying sociology it is important to remember that: a. Sociologist try to keep the definition open so that people who walk by each other on the street are a family. b. Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other. c. Sociologists only consider people who live in the same household to be a family. d. Sociologists only consider traditional marriage as a requirement to be a family.
answer
Sociologists try to keep the definition open to encompass all types of people who are emotionally close to each other.
question
Passing on one's heritage, possessions, and wealth is: a. The right of the first born male in every country in the world. b. The right of the first born female in every country in the world. c. Generally based on lineage, which is defined by one's culture and family.* d. Generally based on one's relationship with one's younger siblings
answer
c. Generally based on lineage, which is defined by one's culture and family.*
question
Why do sociologists find the study of family to be so important when trying to grasp the mores and norms of a culture? a. Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family. b. Families almost never reinforce the values of the society in which they live, and thus can bring about change without much effort. c. Families are so isolated from society at large that they become tiny independent societies. d. Families tend to be apathetic towards culture whereas young unmarried people reinforce social rituals and ideologies.
answer
Families provide for each other as well as carry out and teach a particular culture to other members of the family.
question
When Maria married John, she moved to John's house which was adjacent to his parent's house. Her mother-in-law was always over giving Maria advice on everything from decorating to icing cakes. Maria lives in a: a. Matridistant residence b. Patridistant residence c. Matrilocal residence d. Patrilocal residence
answer
Patrilocal residence
question
Watching television shows can be a good way to understand and study families because: a. They teach us what the ideal family should look like. b. They teach us how to behave when parents get upset. c. They teach us how to think through the consequences of certain actions. d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they aired.
answer
d. They teach us how a family on screen can represent the values of the era in which they aired.
question
. The U.S. Census Bureau keeps records of different statistics that pertain to families. For example, in 2010, there were three million children who did not live with their parents. 54% of these children were: a. Living with foster parents b. Living with their grandparent(s)*c. Living with their older brother or sister d. Living with an aunt or uncle
answer
Grandparents
question
What is the relationship, if any, between people who cohabitate and then get married, and those people who wait to live together after they marry? a. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly higher divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage. b. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly lower divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage. c. Cohabitating, unmarried partners have the exact same divorce rate as the people who don't cohabitate until marriage. d. It does not matter because divorce occurs when two people are incompatible and does not depend on how long people have lived with each other.
answer
Cohabitating, unmarried partners have a slightly lower divorce rate after they get married than those who don't cohabitate until after marriage.
question
Which is one reason that sociologist cite to explain why men and women are delaying marriage until their mid-to-late twenties? a. Many young people place education and career higher than marriage on their list of priorities. b. Many women fear having children too early and, consequently, having to give up a good career. c. Most men spend at least a year traveling the world to get a better understanding of the world, and consequently, don't want to be tied down by a wife. d. Most people in the Millennial generation are caring for their aging parents and do not have time for long term, serious relationships.
answer
Many young people place education and career higher than marriage on their list of priorities.
question
When a sociologist says that she used a cohort study to gather and analyze her data, what does she mean? a. She took a large number of subjects and collected a large amount of data which she broke down into measurable and consistent groups as a way to make the facts clearer to her audience. b. She grouped data in a way that made sense to her so that she didn't have to spend a lot of time plotting tiny dots on a line graph. c. She only took data for her paper from a cross-section of the population and plotted her charts with this information. d. She only studied people in the military to gauge their overall familial health and exuberance.
answer
She took a large number of subjects and collected a large amount of data which she broke down into measurable and consistent groups as a way to make the facts clearer to her audience.
question
Marcy and her three children have been trying to scrape by ever since Marcy's husband was killed in an automobile accident. Given what you know about George Murdock's theory, what would you expect to happen to this family? a. Marcy would lie in bed weeping hysterically and ignore the needs of her children. b. Marcy would become a stellar stay-at-home mom. c. Marcy would go back to work and rely on her parents for childcare. d. Marcy would never remarry and would never let her children drive.
answer
Marcy would go back to work and rely on her parents for childcare.
question
11. To a conflict theorist, marriage and families are fascinating because: a. All married men and women fight every single day of their lives. b. No one ever gets what they want, so everyone compromises. c. All teenagers always fight with their parents. d. Within the family are social standings and power struggles
answer
Within the family are social standings and power struggles
question
Peter finds that he always reacts differently to correction from his father than from his mother. What might a symbolic interactionist studying families make of this situation? a. Peter needs professional counseling. b. Peter plays different roles with his father and mother. c. Peter needs a sibling. d. Peter's lack of respect for his mother means he'll probably get divorced when he's older
answer
Peter plays different roles with his father and mother
question
Which factors do sociologists suspect were the cause for such a high divorce rate during the 1960's? a. There was an increase in women working outside of the home, and also, greater social acceptance of divorce. b. Men were granted more freedom and often allowed to work from home which put more strain on their marital relationships, and which also coincided with women becoming more educated and more aware of their legal rights. c. The 1960's saw the birth of the zero-tolerance concept, which many men and women applied to their marriages, and which, many in society thought a great idea. d. Most people divorcing in the 1960's grew up during World War II and struggled to make the austerity of their childhood correlate with their more abundant and fruitful lifestyles in the 1960's.
answer
There was an increase in women working outside of the home, and also, greater social acceptance of divorce.
question
14. In which part of the family life cycle, do sociologists point to as the most stressful time for a marriage? a. The engagement period. b. The first year of marriage. c. The birth of the first child. d. The birth of the last child.
answer
Birth of first child
question
15. If you consider the University of Virginia's National Marriage Project, what can be concluded from their study? a. Finances are an important foundation for a successful marriage. b. Children are an important foundation for a successful marriage. c. Love is an important foundation for a successful marriage. d. Counseling is an important foundation for a successful marriage.
answer
Finances are an important foundation for a successful marriage.
question
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, three fourths of children of divorced parents, live with their mother. What impact might this have on the U.S. male population over time? a. Men may begin to rely on women more in society, which could lead to a cultural role reversal. b. Men may be burdened with too much at a young age, leading to psychological development issues. c. Men should not develop any differently, and the traditional social and cultural gender roles will continue. d. Men may be more aggressive which may lead to an increase in crime, domestic violence, etc.
answer
Men may be more aggressive which may lead to an increase in crime, domestic violence, etc.
question
What is the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and marriage? a. Men and women who are married feel empowered to report abuse, thus the statistics we have on IPV between married couples are very accurate. b. Men and women who are married experience less abuse, than those who are separated or cohabitating. c. Men and women who are married experience considerably more abuse, than those who are cohabitating, or separated. d. Men and women who are married prefer to seek therapy and counseling for their problems rather than hitting, punching, or screaming.
answer
Men and women who are married experience less abuse, than those who are separated or cohabitating.
question
18. What is one of the biggest challenges facing groups and organizations that try to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV)? a. The victims of IPV do not report the abuse. b. IPV almost never happens, so it is difficult to locate and predict. c. Most people do not know what IPV is. d. IPV is not taken seriously by the court system.
answer
The victims of IPV do not report the abuse.
question
If you work with children, why is it important to be ever vigilant for any signs of child abuse? a. Social Services will sue you if you miss any sign of child abuse. b. Most reports of child abuse come from non-relative adults who interact with the child. c. The child being abused may need extra help with focusing, learning, and concentrating. d. The child being abused may be made fun of by his or her peers, which may cause more emotional distress.
answer
Most reports of child abuse come from non-relative adults who interact with the child.
question
Corporal Punishment is another way of saying: a. White Collar Crime b. Life in prison c. Spanking d. The death penalty
answer
Spanking
question
Which of the following is NOT true of the sociological perspective on religion? a. Religion is a cultural universal. b. Religion is a social institution. c. Religion is a system of beliefs. d. Religion is a symbol of high culture.
answer
Religion is a symbol of high culture.
question
Which two words did Émile Durkheim use to distinguish between religious objects and non-religious objects? a. Sacred; profane b. Unclean; holy c. Secular; religious d. Ordinary; sanctified
answer
a. Sacred; profane
question
What correlation between religion and society did Max Weber see and study? a. Religion was pushed out of society as countries began to industrialize. b. Religion was important to lower class people, but not very important to those in higher classes. c. Religion was very influential over the economy and the habits of workers. d. Religion was just a way for governments to justify and control their people.
answer
Religion was very influential over the economy and the habits of workers.
question
Which position describes Karl Marx's view of religion and society? a. Religion was the key to uniting the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. b. Religion simply kept the Proletariat in their low social class. c. Religion inspired the Proletariat to work harder while under the rule of the Bourgeoisie. d. Religion was something only the Bourgeoisie had time to contemplate.
answer
Religion simply kept the Proletariat in their low social class.
question
Some believe that religion is important because it adds meaning to people's lives and provides answers to difficult questions. A sociologist following which theory would agree with this statement? a. A structural functionalist b. A conflict theorist c. A symbolic interactionist d. A feminist
answer
Functionalist
question
You are interested, like Durkheim, in how ordinary objects become sacred. Which theoretical approach will help you most in analyzing the data you collect? a. Structural functionalism b. Conflict theory c. Symbolic interactionism d. Feminism
answer
Symbolic
question
A sociologist studying how religious beliefs become so deeply rooted in people that they can hate people of other religions probably is: a. A structural functionalist b. A conflict theorist c. A symbolic interactionist d. A feminist
answer
Conflict
question
Roberto has just moved to a new city. He does not know anyone but he wants to find a mosque where he can practice Islam. Which theory will Roberto use, either consciously or subconsciously, to make a decision? a. Rational Choice Theory b. Enlightenment Theory c. Logical Approach to Decision-making Theory d. Pro vs. Con list
answer
Rational choice theory
question
Sanchita worships three different and separate gods. Her religion falls into which category?​ a. Monotheism b. Polytheism c. Atheism d. Totemism
answer
Polytheism
question
What name do Buddhists give to their four basic rules? a. Communion b. Commandments c. Pathways to Meditation d. Noble Truths
answer
Noble truths
question
When Hildegard visited a Church of Christ, she realized just how similar their practices and beliefs are to her regular denomination of choice, the Episcopalian Church. These similarities probably mean that the Church Christ is: a. A faith that is not part of any larger category. b. A cult within the Christian faith. c. A sect within the Christian faith. d. An ecclesia within the Christian faith.
answer
A sect within the Christian faith.
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If someone who follows the teaching of Confucius mentions the word jen, they are referring to: a. Their sacred texts. b. A teaching that everyone should be treated kindly. c. A mystical type of meditation. d. The argument over whether Confucianism is a religion or a social system.
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A teaching that everyone should be treated kindly.
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How many pillars are essential to the Islamic faith? a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 6
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6
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14. Megachurches have become popular in certain parts of the United States. Where else in the world are megachurches widely popular? a. South Korea b. the United Kingdom c. Samoa d. Mongolia
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South Korea
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15. The ___________ records Jewish interpretations of the _____________ which is their sacred text. a. Torah; Talmud b. Hasidic texts; Aggadic Midrashim c. Talmud; Torah d. Tanakh; Tawrat
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Talmud; Torah
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16. When Rosa and Sergei realized that the poor were being neglected in their city, they mobilized the members of their synagogue to send letters to the government asking them to fix the growing rate of poverty, or at least, fund the citizens so they might help their neighbors. This is an example of: a. Zero-Tolerance Theology b. Liberation Theology c. Social Theology d. Protest Theology
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Liberation theology
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What did Marx and Freud see as the downfall of religion that would lead to the secularization of society? a. Class stratification of society b. Social strains of society c. Apathy of society d. Modernization of society
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Modernization of society
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On any given day, there is often a story about prayer in schools in the news. For decades people have disagreeing over the constitutionality of prayer in schools. This controversy is a great example of the tension between: a. Church and State b. State law and Federal law c. Social classes d. Different religions
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Church and state
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Many people are familiar with the yin-yang symbol. From which religion does this come? a. Confucianism b. Baha'i c. Taoism d. Jainism
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Taoism
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Which text is considered sacred to Christians of all sects? a. The Book of Mormon b. The Apocrypha c. The Hymnal d. The Bible
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The bible
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How did Max Weber define power? a. The authority to imprison citizens without cause. b. The legal resources to prosecute and punish. c. Politically elected influence used to control the masses. d. The ability to exercise one's will over others
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The ability to exercise ones will over others
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2. Juan believes that battles such as the French Revolution are necessary for a country to preserve liberty, to maintain or gain land, and will ultimately lead to a more even distribution of wealth among a population. From which sociological perspective do Juan's thoughts come from? a. Feminist b. Conflict theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionist
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Conflict
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Power legitimized on the basis of long-standing customs
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Traditional
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Power that is legitimized by rules, regulations, and laws
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Rational legal
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Power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities
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Charistmatic
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Which sociological perspective would consider activism such as Occupy Wall Street and Teacher's Union rallies undesirable, because they force political change? a. Feminist b. Conflict theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionism
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Functionalism
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What is the difference between an oligarchy and a monarchy? a. Members of an oligarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of a monarchy do. b. There is no difference - both members achieve status based on ties to noble ancestry. c. Both are elected by a democratic process, but monarchies have the right to override the popular vote. d. Members of a monarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of an oligarchy do.
answer
Members of an oligarchy do not necessarily achieve their status based on ties to noble ancestry, while members of a monarchy do.
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Which sociologist studied the power elite, and wrote the book entitled Who Rules America? a. G. William Domhoff b. C. Wright Mills c. Karl Marx d. Émile Durkheim
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Domhoff
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Communist regimes, which attempt to control all aspects of citizens' lives, are examples of which form of government: a. Oligarchy b. Dictatorship c. Constitutional monarchy d. Totalitarian dictatorship
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Totalitarian dictatorship
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In recent decades, lobbying has become a powerful force in the political world. Lobbyists frequently meet behind closed doors with senators, lawmakers, and congressmen and women to push influential legislation through the congressional process. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in examining the lobbying movement? a. Feminist b. Exchange theory c. Functionalism d. Symbolic interactionism
answer
Interactionism
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Which of the following best defines the term patrimonialism? a. Power that people accept because it comes from a source that is perceived as legitimate. b. A military technique which includes the spread of the conquering country's religion. c. A ruling class that is dependent upon the blood line from the father's side of the family. d. A type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the masters
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A type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the masters
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12. What was the significance of the famous case Reynolds v. Sims? a. It gave African Americans the right to vote. b. It reaffirmed the concept that each person's vote should be counted equally. c. It gave women the right to vote. d. It established the precedent that felons are not allowed to vote.
answer
It reaffirmed the concept that each person's vote should be counted equally.
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Queen Noor of Jordan is a leader of which form of government? a. Oligarchy b. Dictatorship c. Constitutional monarchy d. Monarchy
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Constitutional monarchy
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Over the past decades, the turnout of minority voters has: a. Steadily increased b. Remained unchanged c. Steadily decreased d. Slowly decreased
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Steadily increased
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15. From the functionalist perspective, which of the following is NOT a purpose of government? a. Planning and directing society b. Meeting social needs c. Managing international relations d. Lobbying for domestic corporate interests
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Lobbying for domestic corporate interests
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Kendra believes the U.S. government to be corrupt, and thinks that there should be no governing force to control people's lives. Kendra believes in: a. Democracy b. Constitutional monarchy c. Anarchy d. Oligarchies
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Anarchy
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Please define representative democracy: a. A form of government in which a small percentage of the population is represented by popular election, and the rest of the population is represented by those whose office is dependent upon noble birth. b. A government of a nation that recognizes monarchs but requires these figures to abide by the laws of a greater constitution. c. A form of government in which power is held by a small, elite group. d. A government wherein citizens elect officials to represent their interests.
answer
A government wherein citizens elect officials to represent their interests.
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Hitler was an example of what kind of authority? a. Charismatic b. Rational-legal c. Traditional d. None of the above.
answer
Charismatic
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Which of the following contributes lower percentage of voter turnout from those who come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds? a. Voting sites frequently discourage participation from those of lower socioeconomic backgrounds. b. Members of lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to overestimate the voting practices of their peers. c. Lower-paying jobs frequently have less flexible hours, making time to vote difficult. d. Many citizens from lower socioeconomic backgrounds cannot afford to vote.
answer
c. Lower-paying jobs frequently have less flexible hours, making time to vote difficult.
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Which sociologist saw political conflict as the only means of promoting positive change for the underprivileged? a. G. William Domhoff b. C. Wright Mills c. Karl Marx d. Émile Durkheim
answer
Marx
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1. Which of the following best defines the term commodity? a. A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others. b. An activity that benefits people, such as health care, education, and entertainment. c. An economic system which adheres to the principles of socialism. d. A benefit given to those who participate in the capitalist market
answer
a. A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others.
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2. Which of the following is an example of structural unemployment? a. A large fire burns down an automotive plant in Detroit, forcing the employees temporarily out of work. b. Three sales associates from Target are fired after stealing merchandise from the electronics department. c. John quits his job after getting accepted into law school. d. Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
answer
Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
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3. During what time period did economies begin to develop globally? a. The Industrial Revolution b. The Post-Industrial Revolution c. The Agricultural Revolution d. The Information Age
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Ag revolution
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Terrence and his family own a farm in a remote region of Chile. They farm only enough to produce enough food to feed the family, and pay their taxes. What are Terrence and his family engaging in? a. Capitalism b. Mercantilism c. Capitalistic Farming d. Subsistence Farming
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Subsistence farming
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Which of the following is an example of polarization? a. The job market is increasing in the lowest economic levels, and is increasing in the highest economic levels. b. A professional career is guaranteed after earning a college degree. c. Unemployment is down for those with PhDs and those without a high school education. d. The recession has encouraged many workers to earn their associate degrees.
answer
The job market is increasing in the lowest economic levels, and is increasing in the highest economic levels.
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6. Jin is a conflict theorist sociologist. Which of the following statements about Occupy Wall Street would most align with Jin's sociological perspective? a. Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger. b. Occupy Wall Street is a waste of time; our capitalistic economy is keeping our nation healthy, and is designed for maximum efficiency. c. Occupy Wall Street is a threat; with so many angry people gathered in one place, horrible violence will surely break out. d. Occupy Wall Street is dangerous; large crowds in these environments heighten the risk for sexual abuse and gender discrimination.​
answer
Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger.
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The term xenophobia can best be defined as: a. An illogical fear and even hatred of foreigners and foreign goods. b. A marketing campaign aimed at foreign countries selling American goods. c. A pronounced fear of globalization destroying one's job. d. A hatred of corporate America and the lobbying push.
answer
An illogical fear and even hatred of foreigners and foreign goods.
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Davis is low on cash, but really wants an electric guitar. He offers to trade his acoustic guitar, for his friend Bill's electric guitar. Davis is engaging in: a. Supply and demand b. Mercantilism c. Capitalism d. Bartering
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Bartering
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By 2009, America had suffered several consecutive quarters of economic decline. America was in the midst of a: a. Capital rebuttal b. Recession c. Depression d. Economic sling-shot recovery
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Recession
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10. Which of the following best defines the term globalization? a. The process of removing manufacturing and industrial sites from foreign countries and returning them to the United States. ​​​ b. When products are assembled over the course of several international transactions. c. Long periods of recession followed by sharp economic upturn worldwide. d. The process of integrating governments, cultures, and financial markets through international trade into a single world market.
answer
The process of integrating governments, cultures, and financial markets through international trade into a single world market.
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What was the significance of NAFTA? a. It encouraged trade with North Korea, which had previously been embargoed. b. It allowed freer trade opportunities for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. c. It forbade trade with any country that didn't use a capitalist government. d. It restricted trade within North American countries by imposing a heavy tax and tariffs.
answer
It allowed freer trade opportunities for the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
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12. Apple computers ship their computer parts to India to be made, and station their tech support in India. This is an example of a: a. Decisive export b. Global assembly line c. Global commodity chain d. Xenophobia
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Global assembly line
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13. Keshawn used to work for an IT company in Baltimore, but lost his job when his company decided to use workers in New Delhi instead. This is an example of: a. Outsourcing b. Polarization c. Automation d. The technology gap
answer
Outsourcing
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The term mercantilism can best be defined as: a. An economic system in which there is private ownership (as opposed to state ownership) and where there is an impetus to produce profit, and thereby wealth. b. When children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents. c. An economic policy based on national policies of accumulating silver and gold by controlling markets with colonies and other countries through taxes and customs charges. d. An economic system in which there is government ownership (often referred to as "state run") of goods and their production, with an impetus to share work and wealth equally among the members of a society.
answer
When children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents.
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Which of the following is not an example of underemployment? a. After college graduation, Marcus could only find work part-time as a bartender. b. After his wife gave birth to twins, Jerry quit his job to help raise them. c. Following the recession, Ellen lost her fulltime job as a PR assistant and found part-time work as a cosmetic sales associate. d. When John's sales job is outsourced he's forced to take work as a janitor to pay off his student loans.
answer
After his wife gave birth to twins, Jerry quit his job to help raise them.
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Alex's country was once communist, but now allows limited private ownership of companies, and lets market forces determine production and pricing decisions. What kinds of economy is Alex living in? a. Market Communist b. Market Socialist c. Capitalist d. Democratic
answer
Market socialist
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What is one reason unemployment statistics are unreliable? a. Those surveyed frequently lie about their employment status. b. The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work. c. The government only surveys those who have been out of work for a year or more. d. Different states define unemployment in different ways.
answer
The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work.
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18. Which of the following industries is not projected to experience growth within the United States within the next 10 years? a. Financial b. Healthcare c. Community and Social Service d. Farming, Fishing, and Forestry
answer
Darling,mfishing, and forestry
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Many of the world's most powerful corporations have headquarters in New York City, which hosts endless influential events, and offers an advanced transportation infrastructure. New York City is a ______ city. a. Declining b. Global c. Recession-Proof d. Corrupt
answer
Global
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Which of the following is an example of convergence theory in action?​ a. Germany rebuilt its economy after World War II, creating more job opportunities and prosperity for its citizens. b. Following the decline of the automotive industry, Detroit became a bankrupt city with large unemployment. c. The suburbs of Paris became crime-infested after wealthier citizens moved into the city, pushing the lower classes out of their homes. d. Washington DC has become a city to which many young people flock because of its low unemployment rate and job opportunities.
answer
Germany rebuilt its economy after World War II, creating more job opportunities and prosperity for its citizens.