Role of women in the sultanate of oman Essay
- Purpose of the survey
- Factors that encourage adult females to prosecute assorted callings:
- Rights of adult females as stated in Islam
- Function of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos
- Function of Support Services
- Women ‘s Leadership
- Economic growing and variegation
- Labor Laws refering to adult females
- Role and parts of Omani adult females in the Sultanate
- Obstacles impeding adult females ‘s advancement
- Traditional mentality of Arab work forces
- Self-image of Womans
- Human Resource Policies and Schemes
- Lack of Professional Women ‘s Network
- Work Family Conflict
After the accession of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Al Said in 1970 Oman transformed from a fundamental individual economic system that lacked all kinds of public comfortss and modern substructure to a modern and diversified economic system aided by the wise leading of His Majesty. The handiness of oil grosss and the importance given to instruction in the station 1970 period accelerated the development procedure.
For adult females in Oman, the new epoch started when His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said began the procedure of Renaissance. The consequence seen today is because of his house belief in the hereafter of Oman and its work forces and adult females. Womans are encouraged to work shoulder to shoulder with their male opposite numbers.
The advancement of Omani adult females can be gauged by the fact that they are come ining assorted professions and most significantly some adult females are busying high places in the populace sector and defense mechanism. While there are no official figures available, it is said that Oman has the highest figure of working adult females among the AGCC provinces. ( Beginning: Oman Tribune, 30 September 2007 )
Purpose of the survey
This conceptual paper addresses the undermentioned issues:
Factors that encourage adult females to prosecute assorted callings.
Role and parts of Omani adult females in the Sultanate.
Obstacles impeding adult females ‘s advancement.
Factors that encourage adult females to prosecute assorted callings:
Factors which encourage adult females to work and accomplish economic independency and go forth a important grade on the society are chiefly: support of adult females from the Islam faith and the Holy Quran, the wise leading of His Majesty under which push has been given to instruction and Omanisation, puting up of Women ‘s Association and favourable labour Torahs.
Rights of adult females as stated in Islam
Work force and adult females are accorded equal rights in Islam. Prophet Muhammad ‘s ( PBUH ) wives Khadijah and Aisha have inspired female instruction in Islamic universe. Sitna Khadijah was a successful concern adult female.She is looked up as a function theoretical account for adult females. Aisha was a military leader and a celebrated Hadith bookman.
Work force and adult females were encouraged likewise to seek and prosecute cognition by Prophet Mohammed ( PBUH ) . The Holy Quranic poetries and Hadiths can be cited to show this cardinal right to knowledge. Qur’an encourages the chase of cognition by all Muslims regardless of their sex. It repeatedly commands all trusters to read, to declaim, to believe, to contemplate, every bit good as to larn from the marks of God environing us in nature. In fact, the really first disclosure to Prophet Muhammad was “ READ ” Islam does non set any bound on the sort or field of instruction a adult female may take. Islamic history still has the grade of few adult females scholars “ The hunt for cognition is a responsibility of every Muslim, male and female ” ( Hadith ) .
Function of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos
His Majesty Sultan Qaboos has ever felt that since adult females form half of our society instruction of misss should ne’er be absent from our head. Rapid paces in educational development were taken after His Majesty Sultan Qaboos assumed power in 1970. In the twelvemonth 1970 there were merely three schools and no colleges or universities. By the twelvemonth 1985 the figure increased to 588 schools and by 2006-07, there were 1053 schools inscribing a sum of 563,602 pupils and using a teaching staff of 44,514.
The Government under the leading of His Majesty has accorded support and encouragement to the working adult females. It has tackled the hindrances by supplying the necessary societal substructure and therefore cleared the manner for their advancement in the society.
Omanisation Policy was introduced in 1988 as a long-run procedure of committed vision and mission. This is a cardinal development policy act uponing the employment scenario of the state. Omanisation program is seen as a national aim in order to halt the continuance of the state ‘s dependance on the exile work force by replacing Omani subjects for foreign labor.
Harmonizing to this it is stated that penchant is given to Omani Nationals by the statute law refering employment contained in the Omani Labour Law. It specifies the ratio of Omanisation to be achieved in the private sector sing the figure of Omani alumnuss graduating yearly from the assorted educational institutes The Omani graduates includes many adult females.
Educational advancement has been phenomenal under the reign of His Majesty. Women have an equal entree to educational chances. For the academic twelvemonth 2008-2009, 275,229 males and 265,103 females were enrolled in Government schools for general instruction. In the same twelvemonth, 7,298 female pupils were enrolled in Sultan Qaboos University and Colleges of Applied Sciences. For the New Year 2009-2010, 4,033 female pupils are enrolled as new admittances in Sultan Qaboos University and Colleges of Applied Sciences which is really near to the figure of registrations of the opposite gender. It is therefore seen that adult females ‘s instruction is focused. It enhances their function in the Sultanate.
Function of Support Services
The Directorate for Women ‘s and Children ‘s Affair plays an of import function in the development of adult females. They offer assorted services runing from literacy programmes to developing adult females in accomplishments which will enable self employment and ego sufficiency.
Omani Women ‘s Association was founded in 1971 and is managed as a not-for-profit organisation. The Omani Women ‘s Association acts in coaction with the Government to transport out a figure of activities such as literacy categories, proviso of handcrafts accomplishments and household attention programmes. It is envisaged that the Women ‘s Association could be instrumental to offer the much needed support for the development of Omani adult females in the workplace. These programmes enhance the function of Omani adult females in Sultanate.
Women ‘s Leadership
41.9 % adult females ( Omanis and Expatriates ) are employed in civil services out of which the major portion is of the Omani adult females. Further to the directives of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said, nine Omani adult females are appointed to senior authorities determination doing places. Omani adult females are besides represented at Diplomatic Circle as His Majesty appointed the first adult female embassador by naming her as Ambassador to the Netherlands in September 1999. Today Omani adult females are in cardinal places get downing at the ministerial stations. Dr Rawiyah bint Saud Al Busaidiyah, Minister of Higher Education, Dr Rajiha Bint, SAbdulamir bint, Ali, Minster of Tourism, Dr Shariffa bint Khalfan Al Yahya, Minister of Social Development, Sheikha Aisha bint Khalfan Al Siyabiya, Chairperson of Public Authority for Craft Industry, all hold important portfolios.
Economic growing and variegation
Oman has developed its economic system, educated its people and has comparatively comfy criterion of life due to its dependance on the handiness of oil grosss. However, now the Government of Oman has been prosecuting economic variegation so as to accomplish sustainable economic growing.
Labor Laws refering to adult females
Labor Laws are favourable to Omani adult females. Oman Labour Law ensures gender equality through equal chance and equal wage act. For illustration, Articles 80 to 82 in the Oman Labor Law clearly safeguard the rights and working conditions of Omani adult females.
Womans can avail particular foliages such as pregnancy leave and leave upon decease of hubby and a particular proviso that allows working adult females to bespeak leave of absence ( up to four old ages ) without wage to attach to a partner who is posted abroad. Working female parents who return to work while go oning to breast provender are allowed to go forth work an hr early each twenty-four hours for six months to feed their babes.
The working hours in the Government ( public ) sector are contributing to working adult females. Government employees work from 7:30 ante meridiem – 2:30 p.m. Saturday through Wednesday, and Thursday and Friday are yearss off from work. Such on the job hours allow parents, peculiarly working female parents, to pass clip with their kids.
With all the above factors, Omani adult females have occupied different professions and have contributed to the advancement of society.
Role and parts of Omani adult females in the Sultanate
Today Omani adult females are in cardinal places get downing at the ministerial stations. Dr Rawiyah bint Saud Al Busaidiyah, Minister of Higher Education, Dr Rajiha Bint, Abdulamir bint Ali, Minster of Tourism, Dr Shariffa bint Khalfan Al Yahya, Minister of Social Development, Sheikha Aisha bint Khalfan Al Siyabiya, Chairperson of Public Authority for Craft Industry, all hold important portfolios.
At all degrees adult females are found to keep responsible places today. Health, Education, Bankss are the prima sectors. Omani adult females are active electors every bit good as campaigners who have served footings in the Majlis A’shura. The Majlis A’shuras members represent the Sultanates wilayats. Omani adult females exerting their vote rights prove their equal position. Omani adult females rank of the Majlis A’Shura dates from 1994.
Omani adult females are besides represented at Diplomatic Circle as His Majesty appointed the first adult female embassador by naming her as Ambassador to the Netherlands in September 1999.
In the Legal sphere besides a turning presence of adult females is seen. In April 2009 first Omani adult females was appointed as Director of Public Prosecution, Directorate in the Wilayat of Barkha.
Womans have served in the ROP for over 35 old ages and their part is turning with new development and experience. Women Police Traffic Patrols are introduced which is in its first stage now that is limited to the Governorate of Muscat.
In the field of Fine Arts, Omani adult females have been making out to international audience. Works of Omani female creative persons, craftsmans, sculptress, and lensmans have been around to other states for exhibitions. Omani actresses have won awards for their public presentation on phase and screen.
The Royal Oman Symphony Orchestra has harnessed the endowment of some fantastic female instrumentalists. During 2007-08 the Royal Oman Symphony Orchestra and Syria ‘s Mari Orchestra with Maestro Raad Khalaf performed a joint concert having 50 female instrumentalists – the first clip an event of this sort has been staged in the Gulf.
Dr Mariam Al Waili is a Senior Specialist in Nutritional Medicine. She feels that Health sector is a suited topographic point for adult females to play their indispensable function in society. There are more chances available than even before and a high demand for qualified and skilled practicians. Due to the dramatic rise of several diets related chronic diseases, she dreams to see specialised Nutritional Medicine and Education Centers in the state that can supply equal intervention and cost effectual addendums.
Her Highness Sayyida Zeyana Ali Al said is an Air Traffic Controller ( ATC ) for the last 14 old ages. She was selected to analyze in UK and underwent all the 4 phases of preparation in Air Traffic Control. Harmonizing to her, the two qualities in an ATC would necessitate is multi tasking and speedy thought. She needed to work in displacement, needed a batch of focal point to speak to pilots at the same clip, maintain abreast of information of all aircrafts and work harder to do Air traffic less congested. She thanks His Majesty Sultan Qaboos to hold given adult females a opportunity to turn out their capablenesss in all of these callings.
Barka Al Barky studied Social Science and after her station graduation moved to Oman in 1976. She took up employment with UN Development Programme and worked boulder clay 1993. She helped in development and organizing UN Agencies ‘ part to Omani development attempts in all Fieldss of economic system from piscaries, agribusiness, industrial planning, touristry, civil air power and weather forecasting systems. She was the Director of Administration and Personnel at Al Shatti Hospital. In the last 3 old ages she is chiefly back uping the blind community across Oman.
Ahlam Al Jahdhami is an Engineer who is today Gross saless and Client Support Manager at Falcon Oilfield Services ( National Wireline Logging Company ) . She provides high-tech geographic expedition and production services to oil companies in the part. After a grade in Biomedical Engineering she wanted a calling as a existent applied scientist. Opportunities in the part were limited.There were really few female applied scientists and she was one of the first Omani adult females to last in this environment. The crisp terminal of the oil industry is ne’er described as adult female friendly or even merely friendly. It is still a really male dominated and conservative concern. She was working and sometimes populating in distant cantonments or on seaward rigs kilometres off from the amenitiess of place. The work was really physical and set in some of the harshest environments on Earth. However, she wants to go on to portion her passion for scientific discipline and technology and promote more immature adult females to acquire involved and contribute in a existent and practical manner.
Dr. Wafaa Al Harasy is a adviser and manager of the ROP Forensic Laboratory. She did her B.Sc in Egypt and completed her M.Sc and P.hd in United Kingdom. Practically Forensic work is largely a adult male ‘s universe. There are times when the Forensic squad is required to go to offense scenes at unsocial hours of the twenty-four hours and at stray locations.
But she enjoys her occupation because of these day-to-day challenges and considers herself lucky non merely to be portion of this specialized skilled squad but besides one of the laminitiss of this profession in Oman. She wants to be able to lend to Oman and have a province of art Forensic research lab and accomplish an international acknowledgment for its services.
Maliha Al Kharoussi is an Tocopherol concern enterpriser and CEO of Arabian booking.net a new resource for concern, leisure and household travelers.She wishes to add value to the nucleus industries that all usage i.e. cordial reception, travel and touristry. By conveying these 3 major sectors in one easy to entree and usage web site she will assist those who want value for money in quickest possible manner. She wishes to assist and beef up Oman as taking touristry finish in countries of regular touristry, medical touristry, cultural touristry and adventure touristry.
Ghada Al Harthy is the owner of cafe G Patisserie & A ; Cafe G Catering. From air power to providing she wanted a calling, non merely a occupation. She strongly feels that concern has no gender. Equally long as the concern is legal and ethical there is nil to halt us from accomplishing the ends. She believes that under the wise leading of His Majesty who has a strong advocator for adult females in concern, we are amongst the most fortunate in the Gulf every bit far as equal chances are concerned.
The chances are eternal. But there is more to be achieved and that is why His Stateliness is originating different steps towards the promotion of adult females in Oman. However there are assorted factors that are still impeding the advancement of Omani adult females.
Obstacles impeding adult females ‘s advancement
Traditional mentality of Arab work forces
A major barrier to Oman ‘s advancement is the conservative head set of the Arab work forces. They believe that adult females are inferior and it is their duty to supply physical and economic security. This attitude prevails at the work topographic point whereby the male co-workers feel that their opposite numbers are non every bit capable and do non depute responsible and of import undertakings to them. This dampens their morale and spirit and demotivates them.
This negative attitude and traditional stereotype towards adult females in Arab/Islamic societies has been, and still is, a major defying force to come on for professional on the job adult females.
Self-image of Womans
The inferior self-image of adult females becomes hard to get the better of sing that it is ingrained and conditioned in their upbringing and societal development ( Hunsaker & A ; Hunsaker, 1991 ; Hennig & A ; Jardim, 1977 ) . In traditional Arab-Islamic patriarchal societies, the feminine gender is low-level, while the masculine is superior and dominant ( Magharabi et. al. , 1994 ; Bech, 1994 ; Hammoud, 1993 ; Allaghi & A ; Almana, 1984 ; Gerner, 1984 ; Al-Hatimy1983 ) . By and large, work forces are held responsible for supplying the necessities of life, therefore to work outside the place. On the other manus, adult females are expected to function their hubbies and kids at place, particularly since adult females are non required by the Islamic jurisprudence ( Shari’a ) to financially back up the household. In this low-level place, adult females become victims of their ain gender ( Mernissi, 1985, Rassam, 1984 ) . Thus the adult females themselves think they are incapable of being socially and financially independent and therefore this hinders the advancement for professional on the job adult females.
Human Resource Policies and Schemes
The inaccessibility of structured human resource policies and schemes turn toing adult females workers has proven to be a major obstruction to adult females ‘s advancement and development. The bulk of these workers are concentrated in the lower places in the organisational hierarchy with a little per centum in determination devising places. 12,072 out of 51,229 Omani employees in the pay group of Omani Rials120 were Omani adult females, followed by the Omani Rials 200-300 bracket in which 3349 Omani adult females are employed out of a sum of 15,665 local workers in that bracket. Merely 25 Omani Women autumn in the pay group of Omani Rials 2000 plus + in the private sector out of a sum of 589.
Omani adult females face gender favoritism at the clip of enlisting owing to the absence of relevant human resource policies and schemes which promote employment for adult females. This acts as a ‘glass ceiling ” forestalling adult females ‘s handiness to any top direction places. For illustration, there are no plans to ease the promotion of adult females as function theoretical accounts, absence of mentoring programmes, deficiency of direction preparation plans, and avoidance of affirmatory action.
Lack of Professional Women ‘s Network
The deficiency of a professional adult females ‘s web in Oman creates a major nothingness for adult females draw a bead oning to professional managerial places. The absence of female mentor-protege , relationship makes it hard for adult females to develop the needed attitude, accomplishments and abilities for leading and direction places. This consequences in a disparate state of affairs and a province of confusion ; because after all, adult females are come ining a male dominated sphere coupled with a traditional value system and a civilization that tends to eschew adult females from prosecuting direction callings.
Work Family Conflict
There is an mutuality of work and household life which is particularly debatable for adult females as a consequence of their greater household duties. Traditionally, adult females have had the primary duty for housekeeping and child care which do non decrease when they are employed outside the place. Furthermore, the duties they carry are coincident while work forces ‘s are more typically consecutive. i.e. a adult female may be called in at work sing a ill kid whereas typically a male parent may carry through function duties after work hours.
The hinderances should be tackled expeditiously from all angles like authorities, organisation and the person. In Oman the handiness and handiness to all degrees of instruction along with equal chances in the occupation market is more so in the urban country. In the rural insides the importance given to education takes a back place and hence the chances to be gainfully employed in the occupation market is comparatively less. Thus it is of import to guarantee that rural countries should be focused for literacy runs. It is urged that educational chances to Omani adult females should ne’er be compromised, but instead be improved. Meanwhile, particular steps should be undertaken to promote and advance adult females ‘s entree to scientific, managerial, proficient, and vocational subjects in order to develop the necessity accomplishments and extend their chances for employment in non-traditional businesss.
It is necessary to establish awareness programmes of employment chances and benefits to Omani adult females in all the different parts of Oman so that their engagement in work force will further increase. This can be achieved through the use of the local and international media as a agency for advancing the function of working adult females in the workplace and the values of Arab adult females in altering society and their integrating in the development procedure. Other steps include puting up quota systems to guarantee the employment and representation of adult females in the work force.
Since the Omani society is based on strong household ties the centrality of the household accompanied by close relationship makes it the duty for parents and parents in jurisprudence of working adult females to assist with kid attention. However it is recommended that the organisations and authorities besides take the duty of household support and kid attention services and particular attending is directed to the proviso of a societal substructure that will enable adult females to work, such as professional twenty-four hours attention centres on site, kindergartens and equal pregnancy leave. The handiness of such support services is a touchable look of organisational acknowledgment of the demands of professional adult females. Consequently, it doubtless can do a great difference to the capacity of adult females to pull off multiple functions.
It is really of import that Omani adult females should believe positive about them foremost and convince others that they are empowered and merit to be trust worthy. Ghada Al Harthy owner of cafeaˆs G Patisserie and cafeaˆs G Catering says “ I hope to one twenty-four hours fund and back up my ain preparation installations for younger coevals of Omanis so that they may besides hold a brighter future in front of them. I besides want to get down new concern ventures that will let me to make calling chances for the blind and handicapped members of our society. We can all do a positive alteration get downing with our ideas which lead to our actions. ”
His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said has ever emphasized the importance of the adult female ‘s function in the state ‘s growing: “ Many old ages ago, I said that if the energy, capableness and enthusiasm of adult females were excluded from a state ‘s active life, so that state would be striping itself of 50 per cent of its mastermind. I have taken really good attention that this should non go on to Oman, and I look frontward to the farther advancement of adult females in my state with the greatest pleasance and assurance. ”