Role Of School Leaders And Teachers Education
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Context and purposes of the research
- 3.3: Population
- 3.4: Sampling
- 3.5: School Profile
- 3.6: Research Design and Approach
- 3.6.1: Assorted METHODS
- 3.6.2: DATA aggregation
- 184.108.40.206: Phase 1: Quantitative Phase: Teachers ‘ Survey
- % ( N= 50 )
- Number of old ages of learning experience
- Rank in school
- 220.127.116.11: Phase II & A ; III- Qualitative stage
- Interviewing Teachers: Focus group interviews
- Examples: How far do you believe school leaders affect instructors ‘ motive
- 18.104.22.168: Phase III: Qualitative Phase: Interviewing the school leaders: Individual interview
- 22.214.171.124.1: Datas entering for interviews during stages II and III
- 3.7: Datas Analysis
- Quantitative informations
- 3. 8: .Ethical issues
The intent of this study survey was to find if there was a relationship between function of school leaders and instructors ‘ motive in a selected private secondary school. This subdivision describes the methods used in the survey, including:
population and sample,
research design and attack,
description of the research
instrumentality and stuffs,
informations analysis, and
3.2 Research Context and purposes of the research
The purpose of the research was to look into the nexus between instructor ‘s motive and school leading in private secondary schools. Thorough observation has shown that instructors from private educational establishments experience a important degree of de-motivation despite the fact that these schools are considered to be on more or less the same terms as province secondary schools. What could be the ground behind this difference? The possibility that this is due to the different type of leading in these schools has been considered. In fact, it could be leading that has been impacting upon instructors ‘ motive. In this line of idea, research has been made to corroborate this hypothesis or to reject it.
Population comprises all the elements about which the research worker wishes to do illations ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 1998 ) . The population for this survey implied all the decision makers ( directors, curates, deputy curates ) and instructors in private secondary schools in Mauritius.
Sampling is a procedure that utilizes a part of the whole population to do decisions sing the whole population. A sample is a part of a population. The intent of trying is to enable the research worker to gauge some unknown features of the population. Through sampling, the research worker is able to garner information rapidly, cut costs, and cut down the labour needed to carry on research ( Zikmund, 2003 ) .
Samples are selected from the population to reflect the features of the mark population they represent. For this research, convenience sampling was chosen as the appropriate sampling method for the research worker, though it may non reflect the full mark population. Therefore, the research worker opted for school X. The research worker used participants who were accessible to her, every bit far as her working topographic point and abode were concerned. Another ground why this peculiar school was chosen because the research worker learnt that the instructors frequently complain about being de-motivated. Further enquiry showed that school X has late witnessed a alteration in Management. The new disposal has replaced an 85 twelvemonth old direction. This provided an penetration that school leading could be a motivative factor for these instructors.
Since the sample consisted of merely one private secondary school, it could be assumed that all instructors could be selected as participants.
The survey concentrating on the function of school leaders, the director, the curate and deputy curate were chosen, to stand for the as school leaders.
3.5: School Profile
The survey took topographic point in a private secondary school located in the suburb of Port Louis. The school will non be identified by name. Alternatively, it will be identified as school X. This system serves about 700 pupils for the twelvemonth 2012 and employs 50 instructors. Approximately 60 % are identified as economically disadvantaged, and about 40 % have been reported to populate in single-parent households. It is to be mentioned that approximately 10 % of the pupils live with neither parents and instead unrecorded with grandparents or close relations. Another point to be noted is that about 15 % of the pupils have got parents who are or who have been in prison.
3.6: Research Design and Approach
Assorted methodological analysiss are implemented in research, each functioning a different intent and supplying a different result. Research workers need to understand what information they wish to obtain prior to the aggregation of informations. Babbie ( 1990 ) indicated that research methods include analysis of bing informations, instance survey, controlled experiment, and participant observation.
Qualitative research provides information in the signifier of certification of existent events, records of what people say, observation of behaviours, or survey of written paperss ( Neuman, 2000 ) . On the other manus, quantitative research workers communicate significance and interpret information by agencies of numerical analysis. This is accomplished by statistical methods that help to generalise findings. Quantitative research workers take an nonsubjective stance sing participants and their scenes, and use sample research to use their findings to a larger population.
3.6.1: Assorted METHODS
In an attempt to garner sufficient informations to most accurately answer the research inquiries, a mixed-methods attack supports this survey, using both quantitative and qualitative manners of research. Ivankova, Creswell and Stick ( 2006, p.3 ) stated, “ When used in combination, quantitative and qualitative methods complement each other and let for a more robust analysis, taking advantage of the strengths of each. ”
Using a assorted methods approach provides the research worker with the chance to capture both
the tendencies and the inside informations of a state of affairs ( Creswell & A ; Plano Clark, 2007 ) , and to add deepness and context
to quantitative consequences.
A mixed-methods survey generated informations from different dimensions supplying chance for more accurate and feasible replies to the research inquiries posed in this new paradigm. In this survey the quantitative informations provided a wide position of this peculiar urban school instructors ‘ attitudes and beliefs refering instructor motive and the instance surveies provided a finer more precise representation of instructor motive ascriptions.
3.6.2: DATA aggregation
This survey was constructed on the embedded mixed-methods design. An embedded mixed-methods design featured the aggregation of both qualitative and quantitative informations with one information set playing a auxiliary function to the other ( Creswell & A ; Plano-Clark, 2007 ) . In this survey the quantitative informations collected in stage one informed the informations collected in the major part of the survey, phases two and 3.
These quantitative informations included an initial capable choice study ( N= 50 ) , a chiefly quantitative instrument, that guided the choice of topics and stimulated further interview inquiries. For the 2nd stage of the survey, based on a limited figure of capable interviews ( n=6 ) ; merely six campaigners were identified utilizing the set standards.
Phase 3 was besides a qualitative one, affecting questioning the school leader, viz. the curate, deputy curate and the director.
126.96.36.199: Phase 1: Quantitative Phase: Teachers ‘ Survey
This undertaking began with a solicitation missive to the director of the school. The solicitation missive requested permission to administrate the “ Teacher Survey ” ( Appendix B & A ; C ) to the teaching staff at the beginning of the 2nd term during the academic twelvemonth 2012. A meeting was held with the learning staff to explicate the intent of the research. Then a petition missive was submitted to the instructors.
Questionnaires were carefully designed for this intent. Questionnaires are a quantitative method of obtaining information from participants. Information gathered through this method would be hard to garner through observation ( Thyer, 2001 ) . Information can be obtained by interviews, whether in individual ( within a group puting or separately ) , over the telephone, or self- administered. Surveys gather informations on attitudes, cognition, beliefs, and values. The research worker selected quantitative enquiry for this survey as it provided a numeral description of some part of the population, sampled through the informations aggregation method of inquiring people inquiries. This was the best pick of design for the undermentioned grounds:
Questionnaires are preferred for a quantitative survey of organisational results because they are indifferent ( Wysong, 2000 ) .
Questionnaires allow for generalisation of findings to a larger population than the one from which the sample was drawn ( Hartford, 2000 ) .
Questionnaires are able to place properties of a larger population from a smaller group of persons ( Fowler, 2001 ) .
Questionnaires provide numeral informations that allow for correlativity of two databases.
Questionnaires provide a rapid turnover in completion so that the research worker is able to garner the informations in a timely mode.
Scientific research efforts to be logical ( Babbie, 1990 ) . As such, it attempts to steer the apprehension of human behaviour by seeking a general apprehension.
The questionnaire ab initio developed consisted of three subdivisions, A: personal information, B: inquiries related to factors impacting motive and school leading ; this subdivision involved a Likert Scale with 4 variables ( Strongly Agree, SA ; Agree, A ; Disagree, D and Strongly Disagree, SD ) , while the last portion consisted of open-ended inquiries. However, a pilot proving with 5 participants showed that the latter did non react good to the open-ended inquiries. Therefore, the concluding questionnaire consisted of a Likert Scaling ( Appendix A ) .
In the quantitative stage of the survey, the staff sample size ( n=50 ) consisted of 28 males ( 56 % ) and 22 females ( 44 % ) , all of whom were full clip instructors. A smaller figure ( n=19 ) came from publicity places ( Heads of Departments or subdivision leaders ) held within the school ( 38 % ) . The bulk of respondents ( n=31, 62 % ) had more than 5 old ages learning experience, and had been in their current school for more than 6 old ages. 36 staff ( 72 % ) reported learning within their current director for more than 2 old ages.
% ( N= 50 )
Male ( n= 28 )
Female ( n= 22 )
22-30 ( n= 19 )
31-45 ( n= 17 )
46 -55 ( n=6 )
56 and above ( n=9 )
Number of old ages of learning experience
1-5 old ages ( n=19 )
6-15 old ages ( n=17 )
16-25 old ages ( n=4 )
26 old ages or more ( n=10 )
Rank in school
Merely pedagogues ( n= 31 ) 62 %
Head of sections ( n= 12 ) 24 %
Section leaders ( n= 7 ) 14 %
Table 3.0: Summary of General Information about instructors
SHOULD I INCLUDE A PIE CHART OR ANY OTHER METHOD TO REPRESENT THE ABOVE INFORMATION?
Surveies were completed by the capable pool and collected by the research worker at the in agreement clip. Confidentiality was maintained by supplying unmarked envelopes for each transcript of the study. Upon reception of the completed study, topics became portion of a organic structure known as “ the initial capable pool. ”
188.8.131.52: Phase II & A ; III- Qualitative stage
McMillan and Schumacher ( 2001, p. 443 ) claim that interviews may be the primary informations aggregation scheme to supply information on how persons conceive their universe. The research worker, hence, considered questioning to outdo tantrum the intent of roll uping in-depth information, for a better apprehension of Teachers ‘ motive and the function of school leaders.
Interviews consist of two-persons ‘ conversation, initiated by the interviewer for the specific intent of obtaining relevant information. The latter therefore focal points on the content specified by the research aims ( Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2001 ) . Interviews aid to research the province of head of the respondent ( Chen et al. , 2001 ) .
In this survey, the research worker used questioning to roll up informations for the 2nd and 3rd stages, because the informations required should be based on feelings, emotions and experiences for a deeper apprehension. Interviews besides allow farther examining ( Bell, 2004 ) . So, questioning enabled the research worker to obtain information other that verbal communicating, such as, voice tones and facial looks.
However, interviews could besides affect some grade of subjectiveness and prejudice, on portion of the interviewer ( Cohen et al. , 2001 ) . Bell ( 2004 ) further added that informations aggregation could besides be affected by the gender and age of the research worker. Excessively much avidity from respondents to delight the research worker, could besides impact the aggregation of honest and dependable informations ( Bell, 2004 ) .
So, to counter these possible effects, the research worker used purposive sampling for the last two phases. Two types of interviews have been used: Focus group interview with instructors, while single interviews have been used with the school leaders.
Interviewing Teachers: Focus group interviews
A focal point group interview involves the choice of a group that is convened for the intent of researching with a specific research job ( Barbour, 1999 ) . The respondents interact with each other, instead with the interviewer. This consequences in informations emerging from group interaction ( Cohen et al. , 2001 ) . Such interview can elicit spontaneousness from the participants, therefore supplying informations that is non readily obtained by conventional questioning techniques ( Winslow, Honein and Ezubeir, 2002 ) .
Staffs were purposefully selected based on pre-determined standards, including the exclusion of staff, who had been in their school for less than 12 months.
Standards used for choosing respondents
Interviews were conducted with six topics drawn from the study pool based on the four standards. First was the length of service. This survey examined school leading and teacher motive. As such, it was felt that participants in the 2nd stage of this survey had to hold demonstrated that they were likely to go on in instruction. It was reasoned that if a instructor had remained in the profession for five old ages, he/she was more likely to hold experienced a sufficient set of fortunes to develop meaningful ascriptions refering instructor motive. Subjects were considered for the 2nd stage of the survey if they were come ining a lower limit of the 5th twelvemonth of instruction. There was no upper bound for clip of service.
The 2nd standard was the degree taught. It was a end of this survey that one source from each sub-set of secondary instruction would be utilized.
Criterion three was the ability to lend utile and dependable informations to the research. The replies to the preliminary open-ended inquiries on the study were used as an indicant of how good a possible topic could pass on his/her ideas, temperaments and feelings refering keeping. Datas were considered utile if they were clearly understood, were pertinent to the inquiries and demonstrated an ability in the person to hold on and joint responses to study prompts. It was believed that a peculiar person may hold ne’er reflected on motive issues but would be able to show constructs related to instructors ‘ motive when prompted during an interview. Similarly, a peculiar instructor may hold thought about motive issues but may non hold possessed the ability to accurately show those thoughts.
Open ended inquiries guided the choice of topics based on the lucidity of their responses.
Choice of campaigners for stage II with regard to standard 3
Responses were scored on a numerical graduated table of from 1 to 20 based on lucidity, deepness and focal point.
Examples: How far do you believe school leaders affect instructors ‘ motive
One word response
2 or more words: as a list
Support, aid, liberty, participates
Rector walks around
I find curate ‘s engagement encouraging.
Complete sentences-more focal point
I find that collegiality helps instructors, they have the chance to demo their abilities and are in bend valued.
Multiple responses, extra item
Harmonizing to me, curates should be able to place their instructors ‘ demands and should bear in head that each one needs specific incentives.
Focused, detailed, narrative, complete thoughts
I feel that curates have a major function in actuating instructors. They should be the 1s to further a positive and a healthy school civilization. At the same clip, they should work in close partnership with instructors
Table 3.1: Choice standards for instructors ‘ interview
Merely six campaigners have been selected based on the above three criterions and contacted via nomadic phone.
The research worker chose the focal point group interview as it allowed her to interview all the selected respondents at the same clip. Fontana and Frey ( 2000 ) postulate that focal point group interview is more flexible and leaves room for fluctuation in responses. It is to be mentioned that such interview technique was convenient to both the research worker and the participants due to clip restraints. It allowed the aggregation of big sum of informations in a short period of clip ( Cohen et al. , 2001 ) .
The focal point group interview in this survey is semi-structured. The research worker developed an interview agenda ( Appendix B ) , dwelling of pertinent inquiries related to instructors ‘ motive and school leading. These were determined from the subjects dealt with in the literature reappraisal. These subjects are references by inquiring examining inquiries and concentrating in follow-up inquiries.
The research worker planned for the focal point group interview with the participants through an informal invitation via nomadic phones. The selected respondents were asked to put a clip and day of the month convenient to them. It was conducted at the school itself since all of them were from the same establishment. Therefore, the research worker sought permission from the curate to utilize the Art Room to carry on the focal point group interview. Participants ‘ permission were besides sought to audio tape the interview.
184.108.40.206: Phase III: Qualitative Phase: Interviewing the school leaders: Individual interview
The research worker requested for a meeting with the school director. During this peculiar meeting, the research worker elaborated on the research and its aims and meekly requested the engagement of the school leaders in the survey. So, the curate, his deputy and the director took portion in stage III of the study. They were contacted through nomadic phones for the single interview.
An single interview is a verbal exchange of information between 2 individuals, whereby one individual garnering informations from the other ( Pole and Lampard, 2002 ) . The research worker used such interview to roll up informations from the school leaders. Denscombe ( 2000, p. 113 ) affirms that such interview allows the interviewees to “ talk their heads ” and to impart themselves to in-depth probes, with respects to personal histories, experiences and feelings. On history of their several leading places as caputs of their school, the director, the school curate and the deputy curate could supply information-rich informations with regard to instructors ‘ motive. The purpose of single interview was to garner informations on the professional experiences, patterns and functions of the school leaders in actuating their instructors.
The research worker was peculiarly interested in specific motivational schemes employed by the different school leaders. These interviews have been conducted harmonizing to the same processs as those applied for the focal point group interview. An interview agenda ( Appendix C ) was developed in order to find the motive schemes employed by the school leaders. In this manner, the research worker was able to motivate the participants to supply indispensable and relevant information. Each interview lasted about half an hr.
220.127.116.11.1: Datas entering for interviews during stages II and III
Interview Sessionss were taped and analytic notes were taken as a agency to track informations and discern forms ( Maxwell, 1996 ) . Tapes were subsequently transcribed. All transcripts and paperss were coded with any identifying forms removed. Consequences are reported in such a mode that instructors, school leaders ( Rector, deputy curate or the director ) , the secondary school, and school ‘s features can non be identified.
3.7: Datas Analysis
3.7.1: Qualitative informations for stage II and Phase III
The undermentioned stairss, typical of qualitative informations ( De Vos et al. , 1998 ) , were used for the analysis of the collected information. The research worker read through all the transcripts, wrote down the thoughts and made a list of the subjects involved. These were clustered together, based on similarities. Then, the thought, judgment and reading were done by the research worker. In so making, the research worker identified some forms and differences. Finally, the study was done in a narrative signifier and relevant quotation marks were used.
18.104.22.168: Trustworthiness of informations collected
Harmonizing to Bell ( 2004, p. 139 ) , there is ever a hazard of prejudice in interviews. This is because these involve human existences, and, the latter are non machines. So, their mode may hold an impact on the respondents.
The research worker hence adopted the undermentioned processs in order to guarantee trustiness of the informations obtained. The interviews were taped recorded and transcribed verbatim. The canned information was exhaustively verified with the respondents. Direct citations were besides used to show their positions and sentiments. It is to be mentioned that the interviews were carried out in a natural scene, agreed by both the research worker and the respondent. Besides, the instructors chose to be interviewed in English linguistic communication. The above schemes helped the research worker to avoid prejudices.
Researchers ( Schumacher and McMillan, 1993 ) mentioned that research workers, utilizing qualitative informations, do non take at generalising consequences, as in the quantitative portion of the research. Alternatively, they want in-depth information and thorough apprehension of the job. Therefore, the consequences obtained can be utile to other school leaders and instructors, both in the populace sector every bit good as in the private educational establishments.
3. 8: .Ethical issues
Research moralss refer to a sort of understanding between the research worker and the respondents. First, the research worker has to seek the consent of the respondents in the survey. Bell ( 2004, p. 413 ) postulates that the conditions for ethical research in pattern are that all respondents are offered the chance to stay anon. and that all information is treated with rigorous confidentiality. He besides mentions that the respondents should be able to verify their statements.
For this research, ethical codifications, in footings of informations aggregation, informations analysis are conformed. To guarantee this, the research worker personally contacted the director of the sampled school, in order T O seek his anterior permission to administrate the two research instruments. In add-on, equal information on the purposes of the survey and the processs to be followed were given to each participant. The information obtained was kept confidential and namelessness assured. Furthermore, they were given full confidence that the findings would be purely used for academic intents and that the questionnaires and taped interviews, including the canned papers would be finally destroyed.
Chapter three presented a elaborate description of both the quantitative and qualitative research designs to look into the research job. It emphasized on the theoretical intent, warranting the methodological analysis used, the informations aggregation schemes, the trustiness and transferability of the survey. It besides included the ethical issues which have been considered for this research.
The following chapter will include treatment on the presentation and reading of the collected information.