Reproductive System (Questions)

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What is the purpose of the male reproductive system?
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To make and transport the sperm to the female for reproduction
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What are the two parts of the penis?
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Shaft and glans (head)
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What is the purpose of the scrotum?
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To hold and protect the testicles by regulating the temperature so that healthy viable sperm can be created at 96° to 97° degrees fahrenheit
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What are the two functions of the testes?
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Production of testosterone and the production of sperm
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What hormone causes the development of male secondary sex characteristics?
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Testosterone
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What are the male secondary sex characteristics?
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Increase in height, deeper voices, longer and heavier bones, broader shoulders, thicker and tougher skin, enlargement of penis, scrotum, and testes, the growth of facial and body hair, and formation of sperm
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Where are sperm stored and matured?
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The epididymis
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How should you care for the male reproductive system?
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Remember to practice cleanliness, protection, and perform self-examinations
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What are you checking for during a male self-examination?
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lumps, tenderness, thickenings and changes in texture or size
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What are some problems that can happen to the male reproductive system?
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Enlarged prostate, cancer of the prostate, cancer of the testes, and sterility
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What are males 50 years of age or older recommended to get once a year?
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A digital rectal exam, where the doctor is looking for irregularities in the prostate and rectum
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What is leading cancer in males?
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Prostate cancer
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What is the leading cancer in males ages 15-34?
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Testicular cancer
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What is sterility in males?
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The inability to produce sperm to fertilize the egg
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What are the two main causes of sterility in men?
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Mumps after puberty and STI’s
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What is the purpose of the female reproductive system?
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The purpose of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs that are fertilized with sperm for reproduction, to nourish, carry, and protect the embryo, and to nurse the newborn after birth
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What is another name for the vagina?
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The birth canal
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What is the vagina made of?
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It is made of muscle that can expand and contract
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What is the purpose of the vagina?
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The three functions of the vagina are for sexual intercourse, the birth canal, and the passageway for menstruation to flow
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What does the vulva consist of?
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The vulva is made up of the mons pubis, which is the mons veneris, the labia, the clitoris, and the urinary and vaginal openings
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How wide is the cervix?
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It is no wider than a straw and it provides the entry way to the uterus
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What is the purpose of the cervix?
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To keep unwanted materials from reaching the baby
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What is the strongest muscle in a woman’s body?
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The uterus
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Where does menstruation begin?
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The uterus
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What is another name for the uterus?
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The womb
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What builds up on the inside of the uterus during menstruation?
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The endometrium
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How big are the fallopian tubes?
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They are about 4 inches long and about as wide as a piece of spaghetti
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How does the egg reach the fallopian tubes?
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The “fingers” pull the egg from the released ovary into them
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When can an egg be fertilized in the fallopian tubes?
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When sperm is present
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What are the two functions of the ovaries?
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The two functions of the ovaries are to produce female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and to produce mature egg cells
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What are the female secondary sex characteristics?
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Increase in height, widening of hips, softer and smoother skin, growth of pubic and underarm hair, increase in breast size, enlargement of external genitalia, formation of mature ova, and the beginning of menstruation
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How many immature eggs is a woman born with?
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400,000, or 200,000 per ovary
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What are immature eggs called?
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Ova
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What are mature eggs called?
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Ovum
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How long does menstruation usually last?
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About 28 days (or so)
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What regulates the menstruation cycle?
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The endocrine hormones regulate the cycle
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what is the average length of a cycle?
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About 24-35 days
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Days 6-12 of menstruation
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FSH stimulates the egg to mature inside one of the ovaries, and as the egg develops it releases estrogen which causes the endometrium to thicken
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Days 13-14 of menstruation
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The level of LH begins to rise and ovulation occurs (The egg is released from the follicle into the fallopian tubes). This is the time when a women is most fertile
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Days 15-20 of menstruation
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It takes about 5 days for an egg to travel through the fallopian tubes into the uterus, which triggers the corpus luteum to produce progesterone to maintain the endometrium
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Days 21-28 of menstruation
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The corpus luteum disintegrates and the levels of progesterone and estrogen drop dramatically
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Days 1-5 of menstruation
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The endometrium breaks down and along with the unfertilized eggs passes out of the body through the vagina
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What do doctors think menstruation cramps are caused by?
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Prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause the muscles of the uterus to contract
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Why do premenstrual syndrome symptoms occur?
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These symptoms occur because of the rise and fall of hormones each month
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How does a girl get toxic shock syndrome?
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This happens when girls don’t change their tampons regularly
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When should you change a tampon?
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Every 4-6 hours
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What percentage of women are infertile?
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8%
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What is the leading cause of infertility?
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Blocked fallopian tubes
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What is the leading cause of cancer in women?
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Breast cancer
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What is the procedure that you can receive to remove breast cancer?
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A mastectomy
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How should you care for the female reproductive system?
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Practice cleanliness, change tampons and pads every 4-6 hours, remember that the vagina is a self-cleaning organ, and once you turn 21 or become sexually active you should receive a yearly pelvic exam
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What is a pap smear used for?
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To help detect cervical cancer
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Who determines the sex of the baby?
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The sex chromosome of the father
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What is puberty?
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The stage of growth and development when both the male and the female body become capable of producing offspring
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During what age range do most females reach puberty?
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Between the ages of 8 and 15
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What is body image?
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The perception a person has of his or her body’s appearance
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What are the internal female reproductive organs?
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The internal female reproductive organs are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
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Where does fertilization usually occur?
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The fallopian tubes
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Which reproductive organs produce ova and estrogen?
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The ovaries
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What is ovulation?
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The release of a mature ovum from one of the two ovaries
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What structure connects the uterus to the vagina?
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The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina
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What path does the ovum take once releasd from the ovary?
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The ovum enters the fallopian tubes to move to the uterus then if it isn’t fertilized it is passed out of the body through the vagina
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What is PMS?
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Premenstrual syndrome is a combination of physical and emotional symptoms that affect a female 7-10 days prior to menstruation
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What is the difference between infertility and sterility?
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Infertility impairs a female’s ability to become pregnant, while sterility makes it impossible for a women to become pregnant
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What is circumcision?
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The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
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What is an inguinal hernia?
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An inguinal hernia is a hernia in which some of the intestines pushes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
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Why is it dangerous for a male to have mumps after puberty?
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Mumps after puberty can cause the swelling of the testes which could crush the seminiferous tubules
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What are the two test that can be done to detect prostate cancer in males?
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The two tests are a digital rectum examination and a prostate specific Antigen (PSA) test
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True or False? Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers among males aged 15-34?
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True
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Testosterone can cause __________ as well as physical changes in males
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Emotional changes
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Fertilization of an ovum occurs in the __________.
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Fallopian tubes
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Practicing __________ is the best way to prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
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Abstinence
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Menstruating females should wear a __________ at night to prevent toxic shock syndrome.
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Pad
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Ovulation typically occurs during days __________ of the menstruation cycle.
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13-14

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