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Psychology Therapy

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An eclectic psychotherapist is one who:
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Uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem
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Of the following therapists, who would be most likely to interpret a person’s psychological problems in terms of repressed impulses?
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A psychoanalyst
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The technique in which a person is asked to report everything that comes to his or her mind is called ______; it is favored by _______ therapists.
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Free association; psychoanalytic
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During a session with his psychoanalyst, Jamal hesitated while describing a highly embarrassing thought. In the psychoanalytic framework, this is an example of:
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Resistance
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During psychoanalysis, Jane has developed strong feelings of hatred for her therapist. The analyst interprets Jane’s behavior in terms of a _________ of her feelings towards her father.
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Transference
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Which type(s) of psychotherapy would be most likely to use the interpretation of dreams as a technique for bringing unconscious feelings into awareness?
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both a. and b.
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Which of the following is not a common criticism of psychoanalysis?
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It gives therapists too much control over patients
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Unlike traditional psychoanalytic therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy:
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focuses on current relationships
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Of the following categories of psychotherapy, which is known for its nondirective nature?
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Humanistic therapy
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Given that Jim’s therapist attempts to help him by offering genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, she is probably practicing:
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Client-centered therapy
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Carl Rogers was a ________ therapist who was the creator of ________.
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humanistic; client-centered therapy
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Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual’s inherent potential for self-fulfillment?
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Humanistic therapy
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The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called:
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active listening
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Which type of psychotherapy focuses on changing unwanted behaviors rather than on discovering their underlying causes?
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behavior therapy
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Leota is startled when her therapist says that she needs to focus on eliminating her problem behavior rather than gaining insight into its underlying cause. Most likely, Leota has consulted a ________ therapist.
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behavior
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The techniques of counterconditioning are based on principles of:
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Classical conditioning
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The technique of systematic desensitization is based on the premise that maladaptive symptoms are:
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Conditioned responses
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In order to help him overcome his fear of flying, Duane’s therapist has him construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering stimuli and then learn to associate each with a state of deep relaxation. Duane’s therapist is using the technique called:
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systematic desensitization
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In which of the following does the client learn to associate a relaxed state with a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing situations?
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systematic desensitization
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To help Sam quit smoking, his therapist blew a blast of smoke into Sam’s face each time Sam inhaled. Which technique is the therapist using?
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Aversive conditioning
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Using techniques of classical conditioning to develop an association between unwanted behavior and an unpleasant experience is known as:
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Aversive conditioning
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One reason that aversive conditioning may only be temporarily effective is that:
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patients know that outside the therapist’s office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences
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A patient in a hospital receives poker chips for making her bed, being punctual at meal times, and maintaining her physical appearance. The poker chips can be exchanged for privileges, such as television viewing, snacks, and magazines. This is an example of the:
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Behavior therapy technique called token economy
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Principles of operant conditioning underlie which of the following techniques?
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The token economy
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The operant conditioning technique in which desired behaviors are rewarded with points or poker chips that can later be exchanged for various rewards is called:
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a token economy
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Which of the following is not a common criticism of behavior therapy?
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All of the above are criticisms of behavior therapy
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After Darnel dropped a pass in an important football game, he became depressed and vowed to quit the team because of his athletic incompetence. The campus psychologist challenged his illogical reasoning and pointed out that Darnel’s “incompetence” had earned him an athletic scholarship. The psychologist’s response was most typical of a ________ therapist.
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Cognitive
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Which type of therapy focuses on eliminating irrational thinking?
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cognitive therapy
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Which form of therapy is most likely to be successful in treating depression?
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cognitive therapy
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One variety of ________ therapy is based on the finding that depressed people often attribute their failures to ________.
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cognitive; themselves
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Ben is a cognitive-behavior therapist. Compared to Rachel, who is a behavior therapist, Ben is more likely to:
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address clients’ attitudes as well as behaviors
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Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to:
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alter the way people think and act
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Which of the following types of therapy does not belong with the others?
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cognitive therapy
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Family therapy differs from other forms of psychotherapy because it focuses on:
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how family tensions may cause individual problems
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Before 1950, the main mental health providers were:
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psychiatrists
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The effectiveness of psychotherapy has been assessed both through clients’ perspectives and through controlled research studies. What have such assessments found?
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Whereas clients’ perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy , studies point to more modest results
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Which of the following best describes the results of the 30-year follow-up study of 500 Massachusetts boys who had been considered predelinquents?
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Predelinquent boys who did not receive counseling had slightly fewer problems as adults than boys who received counseling
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The following are some of the conclusions drawn in the text regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy. For which of these conclusions did the Massachusetts study of predelinquent boys provide evidence?
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Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of therapy differ somewhat from the objective findings
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(Thinking Critically) A person can derive benefits from psychotherapy simply by believing in it. This illustrates the importance of:
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the placebo effect
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Nick survived a car accident in which another passenger died. Feeling anxious and guilty, he sought treatment from an alternative therapist, who used eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to help Nick return to his normally upbeat, optimistic frame of mind. After several months of treatment Nick began feeling better. Although Nick is convinced that the alternative therapy was responsible for his improvement, it is also possible that it was the result of:
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all of the above
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Which of the following is not necessarily an advantage of group therapies over individual therapies?
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They are more effective
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A relative wants to know which type of therapy works best. You should tell your relative that:
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no one type of therapy is consistently the most successful
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The results of meta-analysis of the effectiveness of different psychotherapies reveals that:
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all of the above are true
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Light-exposure therapy has proven useful as a form of treatment for people suffering from:
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seasonal affective disorder
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A close friend who for years has suffered from wintertime depression is seeking your advice regarding the effectiveness of light-exposure therapy. What should you tell your friend?
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“It might be worth a try. There is some evidence that morning light exposure produces relief.”
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Among the common ingredients of the psychotherapies is:
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all of the above
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A meta-analysis of research studies comparing the effectiveness of professional therapists with paraprofessionals found that:
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the paraprofessionals were about as effective as the professionals
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Seth enters therapy to talk about some issues that have been upsetting him. The therapist prescribes some medication to help him. The therapist is most likely a:
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Psychiatrist
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Which biomedical therapy is most likely to be practiced today?
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drug therapy
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In an experiment testing the effects of a new antipsychotic drug, neither Dr. Cunningham nor her patients know whether the patients are in the experimental or the control group. This is an example of the ________ technique.
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double-blind
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Linda’s doctor prescribes medication that blocks the activity of dopamine in her nervous system. Evidently, Linda is being treated with an ________ drug.
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antipsychotic
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The antipsychotic drugs appear to produce their effects by blocking the receptor sites for:
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dopamine
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The types of drugs criticized for reducing symptoms without resolving underlying problems are the:
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antianxiety drugs
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Abraham’s doctor prescribes medication that increases the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin in his nervous system. Evidently, Abraham is being treated with an ________ drug.
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antidepressant
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Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting serotonin or:
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norepinephrine
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Electroconvulsive therapy is most useful in the treatment of:
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depression
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A psychiatrist has diagnosed a patient as having bipolar disorder. It is likely that she will prescribe:
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lithium
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Which of the following is the drug most commonly used to treat bipolar disorder?
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Lithium
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Although Moniz won the Nobel prize for developing the lobotomy procedure, the technique is not widely used today because:
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of all of the above reasons
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In concluding her talk entitled “Psychosurgery Today,” Ashley states that:
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“with advances in psychopharmacology, psychosurgery has largely been abandoned.”
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Psychologists who advocate a ________ approach to mental health contend that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing the disturbed individual’s ________.
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preventive; environment
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A psychotherapist who believes that the best way to treat psychological disorders is to prevent them from developing would be most likely to view disordered behavior as:
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an understandable response to stressful social conditions