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Psychology Chapter 17

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Unlike Skinner’s behavioral analysis, Bandura’s social cognitive theory
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recognizes the influence of chance encounters
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Skinner believed that there is no learning without reinforcement. Bandura
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agrees with Skinner but also stresses vicarious learning
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Compared to Skinner’s approach, Bandura’s theory is more
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cognitive
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Albert Bandura is a native of _______, but has lived most of his life in _______
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Canada; the United States
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Bandura calls the capacity to exercise control over our lives
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human agency.
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According to Bandura, the four core features of human agency are intentionality, _____, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness.
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forethought
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Bandura’s triadic reciprocal causation assumes that personal conduct is a function of
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All of these are correct
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Bandura believes that cognition
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is determined by behavior and environment.
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The notion that behavior is a consequence of a mutual interaction of three forces is what Bandura calls
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triadic reciprocal causation
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Bandura’s P, or person, factor includes
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all of these are correct
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In Bandura’s theory, chance encounters enter at which point in the triadic reciprocal cauastion paradigm?
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environment
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Bandura calls situations in life beyond one’s deliberate control
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both of these
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Bandura reasons that if behavior were completely a function of the environment
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behavior would be more varied and less consistent
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Bandura views human agency as
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the capacity to exercise control over our own lives.
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According to Bandura, ______ is a person’s expectations that he or she can or cannot execute the behavior necessary to effect a successful change in a particular situation.
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self-efficacy
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Self-efficacy enters Bandura’s reciprocal determinism paradigm at the point of
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person.
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To Bandura, self-efficacy is synonymous with
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None of these is correct.
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Bandura claims that self-efficacy can be increased or decreased through
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All of these are correct.
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Erick is confident that he has the skills and abilities to be an excellent professional baseball player. However, he is uncertain whether he will be offered a job as a player. Thus, according to Bandura, he has ______ efficacy expectations and _______ outcome expectations.
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high; low
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Ordinarily, the strongest source of self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is
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performance
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In Bandura’s view, vicarious experiences are likely to have their strongest effect on self-efficacy when the observer
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sees a person of equal ability succeed
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In Bandura’s view, self-efficacy is most likely to be increased when
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one successfully performs a difficult task.
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According to Bandura, in general, intense physiological arousal
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lowers efficacy expectations.
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Bandura believes that
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people have different levels of self-efficacy in different situations.
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The confidence people have that their combined efforts will produce social change is what Bandura calls
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collective efficacy
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Like most people, Madison relies on other people such as the police, the fire department, and mechanics to exercise indirect control over her life. Bandura calls this situation
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proxy agency.
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According to Bandura, collective efficacy
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stems from the personal efficacy of many people working together
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According to Bandura, collective efficacy is lowered when
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All of these are correct.
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The first requirement for internal self-regulation, according to Bandura, is
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self-observation
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Megan compares her test grade with that of other class members to determine her test performance. She is using which of Bandura’s judgmental processes?
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standards of reference
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According to Bandura, in self-regulation, we may judge the worth of our actions on the basis of
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All of these are correct
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Harrison, a professional photographer, is dissatisfied with his latest work, judging several pictures as substandard by his own criteria. Bandura would say that Harrison will probably
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withhold reward for substandard performance
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The concept that individuals respond positively or negatively to their behavior, depending upon how it measures up to their personal standards, is a process Bandura calls
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self-reaction.
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Bandura believes that both external and internal factors play a role in self-regulation. An example of an internal factor would be
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performance attribution
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Selective activation refers to Bandura’s belief that self-regulatory influences
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operate only when they are activated
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Which of these is NOT listed by Bandura as a mechanism through which behavior is disengaged from self-evaluative consequences?
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physical flight or running away
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According to Bandura, disengagement of internal control is most likely to occur when
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an otherwise law-abiding citizen attempts to convince himself that his criminal acts are justified.
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In Bandura’s framework, selective activation and disengagement of internal control
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et a person minimize responsibility in an ambiguous situation
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A government official who sanctions spying on and brutal physical harassment of legitimate, nonviolent demonstrators because “they are a threat to national security” is using Bandura’s disengagement technique of
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moral justification.
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A terrorist dismisses the death of one hostage as unimportant in comparison to the hundreds of his comrades killed by government security forces. This illustrates Bandura’s disengagement technique of
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palliative comparison.
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A hired killer refers to murdering another person as a “contract” or a “hit”. This is an example of Bandura’s disengagement technique of
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euphemistic labels.
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In Bandura’s disengagement technique of displacement of responsibility, the consequences of one’s actions are minimized by
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placing responsibility on an outside source
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The bureaucrat who answers criticism by responding “That’s the way things are done around here” is using Bandura’s disengagement technique of
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diffusing responsibility
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A parent injures a child with a severe beating, but explains that one should not spare the rod because that may spoil the child. This illustrates Bandura’s disengagement technique of
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misconstruing consequences.
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A rapist excuses his violent assault on his victim by claiming the she provoked the attack by dressing provocatively. According to Bandura, this technique of disengagement is
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blaming the victim.
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With regard to learning, Bandura believes that
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Learning can occur in the absence of a response
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Bandura sees modeling as
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an important method of learning.
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Bandura discusses which two major types of learning?
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observational and enactive
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For Bandura, learning through modeling involves
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all of these are correct
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Bandura recognizes all of these as processes that govern observational learning EXCEPT
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reinforcement.
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In modeling, Bandura claims people are most likely to attend to
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attractive models.
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In order for observational learning to lead to new response patterns, Bandura claims that those patterns must be
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symbolically represented in memory.
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According to Bandura, observing a model being punished for performance will decrease one’s likelihood of
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performing the modeled behavior.
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Bandura claims that learning through modeling is
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facilitated by self-monitoring during performance.
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Bandura holds that reinforcement is
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cognitively mediated.
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Bandura sees dysfunctional behaviors as
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initiated and maintained based on social learning principles.
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Much of Bandura’s theory and research on dysfunctional behaviors has centered around aggression and
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phobias.
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According to Bandura, depressed individuals are inclined to punish themselves severely for poor performance. This illustrates a distortion of
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self-reaction
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Bandura claims that phobias are difficult to extinguish because they
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are maintained by avoidant behavior
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Bandura contends that aggressive behavior can result from
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All of these are correct.
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The classical study where children were exposed to models acting aggressively was conducted by Bandura, Ross, and Ross. These authors found that, after mild frustration,
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children exposed to a cartoon model displayed as much aggression as those exposed to a live model.
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To Bandura, the ultimate goal of therapy is
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self-regulation.
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In his approach to therapy, Bandura sees three levels of treatment: induction of change, generalization, and
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maintenance of newly acquired functional behaviors.
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Bandura’s approach to therapy emphasizes
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behavioral change and self-regulation.
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Bandura’s treatment mode in which clients are trained to visualize models performing fearful behaviors is
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covert modeling
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Bandura’s treatment technique that involves the extinction of anxiety or fear through self- or therapist-induced relaxation is
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systematic desensitization.
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Bandura believes that ______ is a mechanism common to all successful therapy techniques
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cognitive mediation
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Bandura believes that motivation to change dysfunctional behavior is enhanced by
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both of these
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A notable feature of Bandura’s theory is
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its high internal consistency.
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In his concept of humanity, Bandura assumes that
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people are goal-directed, purposive, and anticipate the future.
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On the issue of determinism versus free will, Bandura favors a position that emphasizes
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partial determinism.
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Basically, Bandura views humans as
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cognitive animals.
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Which two terms best fit Bandura’s concept of personality?
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plastic and flexible