Psychology 111 Exam 3

question

Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become “King of the Universe”. Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from a. hallucinations b. obsessions c. delusions d. dissociative identity
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delusions
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Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time bust doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from a(n) a. dysthymic disorder b. obsessive-compulsive disorder c. generalized anxiety disorder d. phobia
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generalized anxiety disorder
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Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is a. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional b. biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change c. selfish, habitual, and avoidable d. aggressive, persistent, and intentional
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deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
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Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of a. agoraphobia b. mania c. an obsession d. panic disorder
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an obsession
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Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke’s therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a sliding board. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a __________ perspective. a. psychoanalytic b. learning c. biological d. humanistic
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learning
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In which type of disorder is a person’s speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and phrases that it could be characterized as a “word salad”? a. obsessive-compulsive disorder b. panic disorder c. schizophrenia d. dissociative disorder
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schizophrenia
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According to the medical model, psychological disorders are a. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured b. purely imaginary symptoms of distress c. learned habits that need to be extinguished d. maladaptive responses to a troubling environment
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sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
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During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to experience a. visual or auditory hallucinations b. uncontrollable grief and despair c. delusions of persecution d. high self-esteem
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high self-esteem
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Obsessions are a. periodic episodes of intense dread accompanied by frightening physical sensations b. false beliefs of persecution or grandeur c. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person d. persistent, irrational fears of specific objects or situations
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offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person
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Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with a. obsessive-compulsive disorder b. schizophrenia c. antisocial personality disorder d. dysthymic disorder
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schizophrenia
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A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of a. agoraphobia b. generalized anxiety disorder c. obsessive-compulsive disorder d. dissociation
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dissociation
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An incapacitating and highly distressful fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of a. obsessive-compulsive disorder b. social phobia c. antisocial personality disorder d. panic disorder
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social phobia
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Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Due to her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of a. generalized anxiety disorder b. agoraphobia c. an obsessive-compulsive disorder d. an antisocial personality disorder
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agoraphobia
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Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of __________ disorders. a. dissociative b. obsessive-compulsive c. bipolar d. generalized anxiety
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dissociative
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Repeatedly washing your hands is to ____________ as repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ______________. a. compulsion; obsession b. dissociation; schizophrenia c. mania; depression d. phobia; delusion
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compulsion; obsession
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Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of a. an obsessive-compulsive disorder b. a dysthymic disorder c. bipolar disorder d. agoraphobia
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agoraphobia
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As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed cord to the toaster. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters. This best illustrates that fear can be learned through a. observational learning b. linkage analysis c. reinforcement d. stimulus generalization
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observational learning
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Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. In order to reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing a(n) a. panic disorder b. generalized anxiety disorder c. obsessive-compulsive disorder d. bipolar disorder
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obsessive-compulsive disorder
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The DSM-IV is most likely to be criticized for a. classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered b. inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological disorders c. failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors d. attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it
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classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered
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Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n) a. increased externalization of blame b. increased obsession with experiencing physical pleasure c. decrease in self-focused thinking d. increased expectation of negative outcomes
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increased expectation of negative outcomes
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In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are a. less intense and less prolonged b. more intense and more prolonged c. less intense and more prolonged d. more intense and less prolonged
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more intense and less prolonged
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George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered from a mild form of a. agoraphobia b. dissociative disorder c. bipolar disorder d. schizophrenia
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bipolar disorder
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A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as a. mania b. a panic attack c. a dysthymic disorder d. catatonia
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mania
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The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of a. irritability b. paranoia c. flat affect d. emotional extremes
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emotional extremes
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During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to experience a. uncontrollable grief and despair b. visual or auditory hallucinations c. delusions of persecution d. high self-esteem
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high self-esteem
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The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations a. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior b. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments c. were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia d. encouraged many to believe that there was no such thing as insanity
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led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments
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Anthony is 32 years old, well above-average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has swindled several elderly people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is evidence of a. a personality disorder b. a dissociative disorder c. obsessive-compulsive disorder d. schizophrenia
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a personality disorder
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An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by a. a lack of guilt feelings b. disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity c. a persistent, irrational fear of people d. episodes of intense autonomic nervous system arousal
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a lack of guilt feelings
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A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by a. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal b. hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion c. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person d. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism
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a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal
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An incapacitating and highly distressful fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of a. social phobia b. panic disorder c. antisocial personality disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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social phobia
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A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered bhaviors is that the labels often a. interfere with effective treatment of these disorders b. bias our perceptions of the labeled person c. represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it d. interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders
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bias our perceptions of the labeled person
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Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain a. hallucinations b. obsessions c. phobias d. delusions
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phobias
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Rats who received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from a. stimulus generalization b. observational learning c. classical conditioning d. reinforcement
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classical conditioning
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is a. preventing her from functioning effectively b. not caused by a biological disorder c. difficult for her to change d. a long-standing pattern of behavior
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preventing her from functioning effectively
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The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by a. a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness b. delusions of persecution and grandiosity c. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person d. a lack of guilt feelings
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a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness
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Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from a(n) a. bipolar disorder b. obsessive-compulsive disorder c. phobia d. histrionic personality disorder
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phobia
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A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by a. feelings of personal worthlessness b. delusions of persecution c. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism d. a persistent irrational fear of other people
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feelings of personal worthlessness
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The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of a. psychoanalytic theory b. the medical model c. DSM-IV d. the social-cognitive perspective
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the medical model
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Obsessive thoughts typically ____________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically _________ anxiety. a. decrease; increase b. increase; decrease c. decrease; decrease d. increase; increase
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increase; decrease
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Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from a. a panic disorder b. schizophrenia c. an obsessive-compulsive disorder d. a dissociative identity disorder
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schizophrenia
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One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a. an expressionless face b. loud and meaningless talking c. inappropriate laughter d. uncontrollable outbursts of rage
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an expressionless face
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Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of a. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder b. catatonia c. bipolar disorder d. an anxiety disorder
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an anxiety disorder
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is a. preventing her from functioning effectively b. a long-standing pattern of behavior c. difficult for her to change d. not caused by a biological disorder
answer

preventing her from functioning effectively
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While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from a(n) a. dysthymic disorder b. panic attack c. bipolar disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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panic attack
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A mood disorder involving a chronic state of low energy and low self-esteem that is a bit less disabling than major depression is called a a. generalized anxiety disorder b. dysthmic disorder c. bipolar disorder d. catatonia
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dysthmic disorder
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DSM-IV focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to a. avoid invading clients’ psychological privacy b. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses c. reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments d. shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis
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facilitate the reliability of diagnoses
question

The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations a. were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia b. encouraged many to believe that there was no such thing as insanity c. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior d. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments
answer

led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments

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