Psychology 100 – Thinking, Language and Intelligence Essay

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After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s experience best illustrates
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insight
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Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or down the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the short hallway. His problem-strategy best illustrates
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trial and error
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As he attempted to spell the word “receive,” Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim’s self-reminder best illustrates the use of
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a heuristic
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Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily instances come to mind is called
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the availability heuristic
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Some people are unable to arrange six matchsticks to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional solution. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving.
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fixation
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A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people’s estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by
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the availability heuristic
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Memories of United Flight 175 slicing into the World Trade Center led Americans to wildly overestimate the risks of air travel. This best illustrates the importance of
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the availability heuristic
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The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
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search for information that supports our preconceptions.
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Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that don’t fit their hypotheses. This practice most directly serves to reduce
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confirmation bias
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Overconfidence refers to the tendency to
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underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are wrong.
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Students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assignments. This best illustrates the impact of
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overconfidence
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Wording a question or presenting an issue in such a way that it evokes a desired judgment is called
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framing
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A $100 coat marked down from $150 can seem like a better deal than the same coat priced regularly at $100. This best illustrates the importance of
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framing
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People with opposing views of the death penalty reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effect on the crime rate. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates
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belief perseverance
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When Quang couldn’t find his wallet, he began to wonder about his roommate’s honesty. Although Quang later recalled that he had left his wallet in the glove compartment of his own car, he continued to doubt his roommate’s honesty. Quang’s irrational thinking best illustrates
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belief perseverance
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If a stranger looks like someone who previously harmed or threatened us in some way, we may—without consciously recalling the earlier experience—react warily. This illustrates that our reactions to others may be influenced by
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intuition
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To correctly string words together to form sentences, we need to apply rules of
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syntax
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At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
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one-word
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Infants are first able to recognize differences in speech sounds during the ________ stage.
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babbling
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Babies’ receptive language ability is best illustrated by their capacity to
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match a face with a sound
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No matter what language we first use, our first words are mostly
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nouns
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Noam Chomsky attributed children’s ability to pick up language so readily to
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a built-in readiness to learn grammar rules
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Introductory psychology students were more likely to get a good midterm exam grade if before the exam they repeatedly practiced visual imagery that involved
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a process simulation
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Alex was an African Grey parrot who displayed
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numerical ability
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Which of the following may have contributed to the conclusion that ape sign language matches the human use of complex grammar?
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perceptual set

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