[PSYCH] Unit 13 – Treatment of Psychological Disorders

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Mental health therapies are classified as either ______ therapies or ______ therapies
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psychological; biomedical
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Psychological therapy is more commonly called ______. This type of therapy is appropriate for disorders that are ______
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psychotherapy; learned
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Biomedical therapies include the use of ______ and medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s ______
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prescribed medications; nervous system
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Some therapists blend several psychotherapy techniques and so are said to take an ______ approach. Closely related to this approach is ______, which attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system
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eclectic; psychotherapy integration
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The goal of Freud’s psychoanalysis, which is based on his personality theory, is to help the patient gain ______
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insight
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Freud assumed that many psychological problems originate in childhood impulses and conflicts that have been ______
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repressed
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Psychoanalysts attempt to bring ______ feelings into ______ awareness where they can be dealt with
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repressed; conscious
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Freud’s technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called ______
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free association
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When, in the course of therapy, a person omits shameful or embarrassing material, ______ is occurring.
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resistance
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Insight is facilitated by the analysts’s ______ of meaning of such omissions, of dreams, and of other information revealed during therapy sessions
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interpretation
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Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its ______
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latent content
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When strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist, ______ has occurred
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transference
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Critics point out that psychoanalysts’ interpretations are hard to ______ and that therapy takes a long time and is very ______
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prove or disprove; extensive
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Therapists who are influenced by Freud’s psychoanalysis but who talk to the patient face to face are ______ therapists. In addition, they work with patients only ______ (how long?) and for only a few weeks or months. These therapists focus on ______ across important relationships
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psychodynamic; once a week; themes
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A brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy that has proven effective with ______ patients is ______
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depressed; interpersonal psychotherapy
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While this approach aims to help people gain ______ into the roots of their difficulties, it focuses on ______ rather than on past hurts
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insight; current relationships
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Humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for ______
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self-fulfillment
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List several ways that humanistic therapy differs from psychoanalysis
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Unlike psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy is focused on the present and future instead of the past, on conscious rather than unconscious processes, on promoting growth and fulfillment instead of curing illness, and on helping clients take immediate responsibility for their feelings and actions rather than on uncovering the obstacles to doing so
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The humanistic therapy is based on Rogers’ theory called ______ therapy, which is described as ______ therapy because the therapist ______ (interprets/does not interpret) the person’s problems
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client-centered; nondirective; does not interpret
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To promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit ______, ______, and ______
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genuineness; acceptance; empathy
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Rogers’ technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying is called ______
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active listening
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Given a non judgmental environment that provides ______, patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole
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unconditional positive regard
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Three tips for listening more actively in your own relationships are to ______, ______, and ______
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paraphrase; invite clarification; reflect feelings
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Behavior therapy applies to principles of ______ to eliminate troubling behaviors
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learning
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Contrast the assumptions of the behavior therapies with those of psychoanalysis and humanistic therapy
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Whereas psychoanalysis and humanistic therapies assume that problems diminish as self-awareness grows, behavior therapists doubt that self-awareness is the key. Instead of looking for the inner cause of unwanted behavior, behavior therapy applies to learning principles to directly attack the unwanted behavior itself
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One cluster of behavior therapies is based on the principles of ______, as developed in Pavlov’s experiments. This technique, in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one, is called ______.
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classical conditioning; counterconditioning
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Two examples of counterconditioning are ______ and ______
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exposure therapy; aversive conditioning
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One widely used technique of behavior therapy is the ______. The technique of systematic desensitization has been most fully developed by the therapist Joseph Wolpe. The assumption behind this technique is that one cannot simultaneously be ______ and relaxed
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exposure therapies; anxious
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The step in systematic desensitization is the construction of a ______ of anxiety-arousing stimuli. The second step involves training in ______. In the final step, the person is trained to associate the ______ state with the ______-arousing stimuli
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hierarchy; progressive relaxation; relaxed; anxiety
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For those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation, or too afraid of embarrassed to do so, ______ therapy offers a promising alternative
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virtual reality exposure
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In aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a ______ (positive/negative) response for one that is currently ______ (positive/negative) to a harmful stimulus
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negative; positive
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In aversive conditioning, a person’s unwanted behaviors become associated with ______ feelings. In the long run, aversive conditioning ______ (does/does not) work
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unpleasant; does not
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Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors are key aspects of ______
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behavior modification
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Therapies that influence behavior by controlling its consequences are based on principles of ______ conditioning. One application of this form of therapy to institutional settings is the ______, in which desired behaviors are rewarded
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operant; token economy
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State two criticisms of behavior modification
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Behavior modification is criticized because the desired behavior may stop when the rewards are stopped. Also, critics contend that one person should not be allowed to control another
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State some responses of proponents of behavior modification
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Proponents of behavior modification contend that some clients request this therapy and that the behaviors will persist if patients are properly weaned from the tokens. Also, control already exists
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Therapists who teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking are using ______ therapy
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cognitive
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One variety of cognitive therapy attempts to reverse the ______ beliefs often associated with ______ by helping clients see their irrationalities. This therapy was developed by Aaron Beck
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catastrophizing; depression
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Training people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations is the goal of ______ training. Students trained to ______ their negative thoughts are less likely to experience future depression
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stress inoculation; dispute
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Treatment that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior is known as ______ therapy
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cognitive-behavioral
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List several advantages of group therapy
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Group therapy saves therapists time and clients money. The social context of group therapy allows people to discover that others have similar problems and to try out new ways of behaving
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The type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to others is ______
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family therapy
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In this type of group, therapists focus on improving ______ within the family
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communication
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In contrast to earlier times, most therapy today ______ (is/is not) provided by psychiatrists
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is not
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A majority of psychotherapy clients express ______ (satisfaction/dissatisfaction) with their therapy
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satisfaction
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Give three reasons that client testimonials are not persuasive evidence for psychotherapy effectiveness
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People often enter therapy in crisis. When the crisis passes, they may attribute their improvement to the therapy. Clients, who may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort, may overestimate its effectiveness. Clients generally find positive things to say about their therapists, even if their problems remain
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Clinicians tend to ______ (overestimate/underestimate) the effectiveness of psychotherapy
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overestimate
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One reason clinicians’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are inaccurate is that clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their ______ and justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their ______
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unhappiness; well-being
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(Thinking Critically) Clients and therapists’ perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness may be inflated by their ______ that a treatment works. This phenomenon is called the ______. Another phenomenon that may inflate their perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness is the phenomenon called ______, which is the tendency for ______ events or emotions to return to their ______ state
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belief; placebo effect; regression toward the mean; unusual; average
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In hopes of assessing psychotherapy’s effectiveness, psychologists have turned to ______ research studies
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controlled
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The debate over the effectiveness of psychotherapy began with a study by ______; it showed that the rate of improvement for those who received therapy ______ (was/was not) higher than the rate for those who did not
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Hans Eysenck; was not
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In the best studies of the effectiveness of therapy, researchers randomly assign people on a waiting list to therapy or no therapy and later evaluate everyone. These are ______ trials
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randomized clinical
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A statistical technique that makes it possible to combine the results of many different psychotherapy outcome studies is called ______. Overall, the results of such analyses indicate that psychotherapy is ______ (somewhat effective/ineffective)
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meta-analysis; somewhat effective
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Comparisons of the effectiveness of different forms of therapy reveal ______ (clear/ no clear) differences, that the type of therapy provider ______ (matters greatly/does not matter), and that whether therapy is provided by an individual therapist or within a group ______ (makes a difference/does not make a difference)
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no clear; does not matter; does not make a difference
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With phobias, compulsions and other specific behavior problems, ______ therapies have been the most effective
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behavioral conditioning
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Other studies have demonstrated that depression may be effectively treated with ______ therapy
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cognitive
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As a rule, psychotherapy is most effective with problems that are ______ (specific/nonspecific)
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specific
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Therapies that are not supported by scientific evidence should be avoided. These include ______, ______, and ______ therapies, as well as ______ and ______
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energy; recovered-memory; rebirthing; facilitated communication; crisis debriefing
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Clinical decision making that integrates research with clinical expertise and patient preferences is called ______
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evidence-based practice
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Today, many forms of ______ are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints
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alternative therapy
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Aside from testimonials, there is very little evidence based on ______ research for such therapies
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controlled
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In one popular alternative therapy, a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine ______. This therapy, called ______, has proven ______ (completely ineffective/somewhat effective) as a treatment for nonmilitary ______. However, skeptics point to evidence that ______ is just as effective in producing beneficial results. The key seems to be in the person’s ______ traumatic memories and in a ______ effect
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traumatic events; eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR); somewhat effective; post-traumatic stress disorder; finger tapping; reliving; placebo
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For people who suffer from the wintertime form of depression called ______, timed ______ therapy may be beneficial
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seasonal affective disorder (SAD); light-exposure
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All forms of psychotherapy offer three benefits: ______ for demoralized people; a new ______ on oneself; and a relationship that is ______, ______, and ______
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hope; perspective; caring; trusting; empathic
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The emotional bond between therapist and client – the ______ – is a key aspect of effective therapy. In one study of depression treatment, the most effective therapists were those who were perceived as most ______ and ______
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therapeutic alliance; empathic; caring
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Generally speaking, psychotherapists’ personal values ______ (do/do not) influence their therapy. This is particularly significant when the therapist and client are from different ______. Another area of potential value conflict is ______
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do; cultures; religion
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In North America, Europe, and Australia, most therapists reflect their culture’s ______
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individualism
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Differences in values may help explain the reluctance of some ______ populations to use mental health services
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minority
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(Close-Up) The American Psychological Association suggests that a person should seek help when he or she has feelings of ______, a deep and lasting ______, disruptive ______, sudden ______ shifts, and ______ rituals, for example
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hopelessness; depression; fears; mood; compulsive
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As noted earlier, therapy involving changing the brain’s functioning is referred to as ______ therapy
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biomedical
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The most widely used biomedical treatments are the ______ therapies. Thanks to those therapies, the number of residents in mental hospitals has ______ (increased/decreased sharply)
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drug; decreased
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The field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior is ______
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psychopharmacology
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To guard against the ______ effect and normal ______, neither the patients nor the staff involved in a study may be aware of which condition a given individual is in; this is called a ______ study
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placebo; recovery; double-blind
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One effect of ______ drugs such as ______ is to help those experiencing ______ (positive/negative) symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing their responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli
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antipsychotic; chlorpromazine (Thorazine); positive
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Schizophrenia patients who are apathetic and withdrawn may be more effectively treated with atypical antipsychotics such as ______
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clozapine (Clozaril)
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The antipsychotic drugs work by blocking the receptor sites for the neurotransmitter ______. They atypical antipsychotics also target ______ receptors
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dopamine; serotonin
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Long-term use of antipsychotic drugs can produce ______, which involves involuntary movements of the muscles of the ______, ______, and ______
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tardive dyskinesia; face; tongue; limbs
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Xanax and Ativan are classified as ______ drugs
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antianxiety
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Antianxiety drugs repress activity in the ______
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central nervous system (CNS)
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When used in combination with ______, these antianxiety drugs can help people cope with frightening situations
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psychological therapy
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Antianxiety drugs have been criticized for merely reducing ______, rather than resolving underlying ______. These drugs can also cause ______
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symptoms; problems; physiological dependence
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Drugs that are prescribed to alleviate depression are called ______ drugs. They are increasingly being used to treat ______ disorders. These drugs work by increasing levels of the neurotransmitters ______ or ______
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antidepressant; anxiety; norepinephrine; serotonin
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One example of this type of an antidepressant is ______, which works by blocking the reabsorption and removal of ______ from synapses and is therefore called a ______ drug. Increased serotonin promotes ______, the development of new brain cells
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fluoxetine (Prozac); serotonin; selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor; neurogenesis
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Equally effective in calming anxious people and energizing depressed people is ______, which has positive side effects. Even better is to use drugs, which work ______ (bottom-up/top-down), in conjunction with ______ therapy, which works ______ (bottom-up/top-down)
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aerobic exercise; bottom-up; cognitive-behavioral; top-down
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Although people with depression often improve after one month on antidepressants, studies demonstrate that a large percentage of the effectiveness is due to ______ or a ______
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spontaneous recovery; placebo effect
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To stabilize the mood swings of a bipolar disorder, the simple salt ______ is often prescribed
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lithium
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Another effective drug in control of mania was originally used to treat epilepsy; it is ______
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Depakote
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The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as ______ therapy, abbreviated as ______
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electroconvulsive; ECT
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ECT is most often used with patients suffering from severe ______. Research evidence ______ (confirms/does not confirm) ECT’s effectiveness with such paitents
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depression; confirms
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The mechanism by which ECT works is ______
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unknown
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A gentler alternative is a chest ______ that intermittently stimulates the ______ nerve
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implant; vagus
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Another gentler procedure called ______ aims to treat depression by presenting pulses through a magnetic coil held close to a person’s skull above the right eyebrow. Unlike ECT, this procedure produces no ______, ______ loss, or other side effects. This procedure may work by energizing the brain’s left ______, which is relatively inactive in depressed patients
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); seizures; memory; frontal lobe
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The biomedical therapy in which a portion of brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called ______
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psychosurgery
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In the 1930s, Moniz developed an operation called the ______. In this procedure, the ______ lobe of the brain is disconnected from the rest of the brain
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lobotomy; frontal
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Today, most psychosurgery has been replaced by the use of ______ or some other form of treatment
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drugs
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A recent approach to therapy promotes ______ change, which includes aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, anti-rumination, and nutritional supplementation
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therapeutic life-style
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The relative success of this ______ approach seems to confirm that everything psychological is also biological and that we are all social creatures
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biopsychosocial
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Faced with unforeseen trauma, most adults exhibit ______
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resilience
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Psychotherapies and biomedical therapies locate the cause of psychological disorders within the ______. An alternative viewpoint is that many psychological disorders are responses to ______
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person; a disturbing and stressful society
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According to this viewpoint, it is not just the ______ who needs treatment but also the person’s ______
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person; social context
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One advocate of ______ mental health, George Albee, believes that many social stresses undermine people’s sense of ______, ______, ______, and ______. These stresses include ______, work that is ______, constant ______, ______, ______, and ______
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preventive; competence; personal control; self-esteem; poverty; meaningless; criticism; unemployment; racism; sexism
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Albee’s views remind us that disorders are not just biological and not just environmental or psychological because we are all an ______ system
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integrated biopsychosocial

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