psych ch 14

Philippe Pinel
In the late 1700’s, _____ began reforming the conditions in asylums to make them more humane.
person-centered therapy.
Malika sees her therapist every other week. When she is at her therapist’s office, she feels accepted and can share anything. While her therapist listens to what Malika has to say without judgment, he also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification. Malika’s therapist is practicing:
exposure
A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca BEST illustrates:
a token economy
In an eating disorders clinic, the patients receive merits for appropriate behaviors on the unit and for good eating behaviors such as finishing their meals. This BEST illustrates an application of:
overgeneralization
Marcel receives an 87 on the second midterm in his calculus course—the first time he has ever received anything less than an A in any course. Marcel now believes he will never succeed in math courses.
Marcel is demonstrating:
Activating condition – a midterm test is scheduled for next week
Which term in Ellis’ A-B-C model is correctly illustrated with an example?
couples therapy
Improving conflict management and communication skills is one of the main objectives of:
anticompulsives
Which is NOT a type of medication used to treat psychological disorders?
the working alliance with the therapist
What makes psychotherapy effective?
Trephination
Boring, chipping, or bashing holes into a patient’s head
Presumed purpose was to relieve pressure or rid the person of evil spirits
Demonology
Study of demons and people beset by spirits
People were possessed, and they needed an exorcism to be cured
Asylums
16th Century: Special places created by religious groups to house and treat people with psychological disorders.
Late 1700s: Pinel began reformation of system; advocated for moral treatment, kindness, and respect.
Deinstitutionalized
Mass movement of patients with psychological disorders out of mental institutions, and the attempt to reintegrate them into the community
Psychiatric hospitals and institutions
In spite of the deinstitutionalization movement, psychiatric hospitals and institutions continue to play an important role in the treatment of psychological disorders.
Psychotherapy
Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in personality, behavior, or adjustment
Insight
Goal is for clients to gain deeper understanding of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
Action
Goal to bring about direct changes in troublesome thoughts, habits, feelings, or behavior without seeking insight into their origins or meanings
Spontaneous remission
Improvement of a psychological condition due to time passing without therapy
Empirically supported therapies
Therapies that have strong research support
Freud and dreams
Dreams are the pathways to unconscious awareness.
Latent content
Manifest content
Free association
Saying whatever comes to mind, regardless of what it sounds like
Resistance
Topics the client resists thinking about or discussing
Reveals particularly important unconscious conflicts
Transference
Tendency to transfer feelings to a therapist that match those the patient has for important people in his or her past
The patient might act like the therapist is a rejecting father, loving mother, etc.
Rogers
Emphasized positive nature of humankind and concentrates on present and current problems
Recognized humans have basic biological needs for food and sex and a desire to form close relationships, treat others with warmth, and mature as individuals
Person-centered therapy
Natural tendency toward self-actualization but family and social may hinder growth and can incongruence between ideal self and real self
Main treatment goal is reduction of incongruence between these selves.
Aversion therapy
Links problem behaviors to unpleasant physical reactions
Goal to make people have involuntary unpleasant physical reaction to undesired behavior
behavior modification
Draws on principles of operant conditioning, shaping behavior through reinforcement
Uses positive and negative reinforcement and punishment or observational learning to increase adaptive behaviors and reduce those that are maladaptive
Positive reinforcement
Responses that are followed by reinforcement tend to occur more frequently
non reinforcement and extinction
A response that is not followed by reinforcement will occur less frequently.
If a response is not followed by reward after it has been repeated many times, it will extinguish entirely
shaping
Rewarding actions that are closer and closer approximations to a desired response
stimulus control
Controlling responses in the situation in which they occur
time out
Removing individual from a situation in which reinforcement occurs
token economy
Positive reinforcement used to encourage good behavior.
Tokens exchanged for candy, outings, privileges, and other perks.
Typically used in institutions such as schools or mental health facilities
becks cognitive therapy
The father of cognitive therapy, Aaron Beck, believes that distorted thought processes lie at the heart of psychological problems.
selective perception
Perceiving only certain stimuli in a larger array of possibilities
overgeneralization
Blowing a single event out of proportion by extending it to a large number of unrelated situations
all or nothing thinking
Seeing objects and events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, etc.
REBT
Attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problems
A
Activating Experience, which person presumes to be the cause of “C”
B
Person’s irrational and unrealistic beliefs
C
Emotional consequences
Appraisal with cognitive therapy
Overlap in Ellis and Beck approaches
Both are:
Short-term
Action-oriented
Homework intensive
Biomedical therapy
Three basic biological approaches underlying psychological disorders
Use of drugs or psychotropic medications
Use of electroconvulsive therapy
Use of surgery
Psychopharmology
Scientific study of how these medications alter perceptions, moods, behaviors, and other aspects of psychological functioning
humanistic therapy – emphasizes positive growth
Which approach to psychological therapy is correctly defined?
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