psych ch. 14

social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 723)

attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone’s behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 724)

fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 724)

attitude
feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 726)

foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 727)

cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 728)

conformity
adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 732)

informational social influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)

normative social influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)

social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 738)

social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)

deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)

group polarization
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 740)

groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 740)

discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)

prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)

stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)

ingroup
“us”—people with whom one shares a common identity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)

ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one’s own group. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)

outgroup
“them”—those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)

scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 747)

just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 748)

aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 749)

frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 751)

conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)

social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)

mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 759)

companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 763)

passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 763)

equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 764)

self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 764)

altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 765)

bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)

reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)

social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)

social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 767)

superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 767)

GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 769)

Objectives: Contrast dispositional and situational attributions, and explain how the fundamental attribution error can affect our analysis of behavior
Situational attributions: external events explain behavior and is used for people who are well known
Dispositional attributions: strangers get attributed with personal problems
Fundamental attribution error: (overestimation of personal factors and underestimating context) creates judgmental inaccuracies

Objectives: Define attitude
positive, negative, or mixed feelings based on one’s beliefs. attitudes effect one’s responses to different stimuli

Objectives: Describe the conditions under which attitudes can affect actions
attitude affect people more when there are social influences high and when the attitude is specific to behavior

Objectives: Explain how the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, role-playing, and cognitive dissonance illustrate the influence of actions on attitudes
Foot-in-the-door: One Small Favor can lead to some Big Favors
Role-Playing: behavior can be changed in certain situations where certain attitudes have to be readjusted
Cognitive dissonance theory: a person acts in a manner that they do not condone but end up adapting their attitudes to the behavior. Behavior > attitude

Objectives: Describe the three main focuses of social psychology
3 topics: How people think about, influence, and relate to one another

Objectives: Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it
Chameleon Effect: tendency to unconsciously mimic other’s actions EX a person yawns when others yawn

Objectives: Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence
Asch state that people conform easily to bad decisions when others are doing it. Especially when the individual is feeling incompetent or insecure
Normative social influence: conform for social acception
Informational social influence: conform because of intellectual agreement or understanding
Conforming is generally easier when people are unsure about their stances

Objectives: Describe Milgrams’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest
Stanley Milgram’s experiments: People feel the pressure of choosing between someone in need and someone giving stern orders. It is more common for someone to chose the one giving orders if they respect them as suitable authority figure. If a person has authority issues then they will most likely defy the commands.

Objectives: Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence
Conformity studies revealed people conform contrary to their own beliefs easily
Obedience studies reveal two types of people: those who disobey early on or obey early on

Objectives: Describe the conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation
A person experiences arousal when others are present
Social Facilitation increases performance on well learned tasks but decreases it on hard tasks
Social loafing occurs when others are doing all the work.
Deindividuation is the feeling of freedom of self awareness and restraint because of the anonymity of the crowd

Objectives: Discuss how a group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink
Group Polarization: like-minds allows different perspectives in the group and can allow for more opportunities of group action (yeah what he said!)
Groupthink: individuality is suppressed as the group pressures members into conforming (Join OR DIE)

Objectives: Identify the characteristic common to minority positions that sway consistently
Persistence is the usually the key for convincing others to join the minority Ex Third parties in political situations usually rally support but only gain momentum when members of other parties are fed up with both sides

Objectives: Identify the three components of prejudice
Beliefs, emotions, and predispositions to actions

Beliefs are stereotypes and Emotions are negative and Action is discrimination

Objectives: Contrast overt and subtle forms of prejudice, and give examples of each
Overt Prejudice: one’s true feelings of prejudice are well known and are completely conscious. (explicit) Nazis wielded overt prejudice toward the Jews
Subtle Prejudice: feelings of fear toward a stranger of a different background and are unconscious (implicit)

Objectives: Discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice
Social Factors: inequality and social identity
Inequality can be power, wealth, and other things that are distributed unequally
Social Identity: definition between parties (US vs THEM)

Objectives: Explain how scapegoating illustrates the emotional component of prejudice
Bad time = feelings of vulnerability
People who are part of the group are usually collectively vulnerable during bad times and consensually want to blame someone else (besides them) as a scapegoat or source of their problems (SHE’S A WITCH!)

Objectives: Cite four ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice
1: Creation of Categories: people are often stereotyped and put into categories based on predetermined generalizations
2: Vivid Cases: atrocities or other compelling events are hard to forget and are often used to snowball lesser events in order to justify prejudice
3: Just-World Phenomenon:
4: Hindsight bias:

Objectives: Explain how psychology’s definition of aggression differs from everyday usage
Psychological Aggression: any physical or verbal behavior to harm or destroy
Everyday Aggression: aggressive behaviors

Objectives: Describe the 3 levels of biological influences on aggression
Aggression does not equal instinctive
1: Genes: aggression is inherited and or resulting of interaction
2: Neural Influences: experiments in the amygdala show that there are neural systems that either cause or suppress aggression
3: Biochemical influences: chemicals such as hormones or alcohol or other chemical can also facilitate or suppress aggression

Objectives: Outline 4 psychological triggers of aggression
1: Aversive events: environmental events or social rejection can trigger aggression
2: Reinforcement for aggressive behavior: encouragement can cause aggression
3: Observing others aggression: witnessing someone act aggressively can cause imitation and impression of aggression
4: Social Scripts: Media can display aggressive situations or cause aggressive reactions

Objectives: Discuss the effects of violent videogames on social attitudes and behaviors
Violent games can provide social scripts and observe uses of aggression through role play. Violence in videogames can arouse individuals and cause irritation (RAGE QUIT!)

Objectives: Explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict
Social conflicts are conflicts in which people realize their incompatibility with others based on actions, goals, or ideas.
Social traps are situations when both sides disagree and seek the completion of their goals by any means necessary (to rival governments waging war against each other regardless of death toll)
Mirror-image perceptions cause disagreeing parties to see the worst in each other (Islamic extremists vs The Western World [All Americans are godless villains and All Muslims are evil terrorists])

Objectives: Describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal attraction
Interpersonal Attraction:
Proximity: being close to others allows more opportunities for interaction and thus can cause attraction. Conversely, proximity can lead to hatred between groups or people who are too close
Physical Attractiveness: Attractive physical features convey a sense of health, success, warmth, and happiness to other individuals
Similarity of attitudes and interests: engaging with people past first impressions can lead to more occurrences of similarities. Also people are attracted to others who provide rewards

Objectives: Describe the effect of physical arousal on passionate love, and identify two predictors of enduring companionate love
Arousal caused by desire for a person is a major ingredient for passionate love. The continued desires lead to “love” Companionate love spawns from passionate love and is usually between people who find equality with each other through passionate love and self-disclosure

Objectives: Define altruism, and give an example
Altruism is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others
EX giving a jacket to a homeless man who cannot offer any reward beyond his gratitude

Objectives: Describe the steps in the decision-making process involved in bystander intervention
As identified by John Darley and Bibb Latane, a person is less likely to help someone if they are not alone. In order for a person to help another, they must first recognize the problem, interpret it as worthy of assistance, and finally the person must assume responsibility of helping. Similarity is often a good motivation for people to help due to empathy. Differences can lead to lack of motivation to help.

Objectives: Explain altruistic behavior from a perspective of social exchange theory and social norms
Social Exchange Theory: social behaviors or even altruistic acts are based on self interest. Social Norms: social norms mandate how a person should behave. Reciprocity Norm: the expectations that one good deed deserves another. Social-responsibility norm: people help those who are dependent on them like a king should take care of his vassals

Objectives: Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict
Interaction between people who feel prejudice can change attitudes and impressions (let’s bury the hatchet)
Social conflict is usually reduced when there is a common objective between two different groups (GRIT) (an enemy of my enemy is my friend)