PSYC2120 – Social Psychology: Chapter 2: The Self In A Social World

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Define Self-concept
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Who am I? How accurately do we know ourselves. Our knowledge about who we are
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Define self-esteem.
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Sense of Self Worth. Self-esteem thus depends on whether or not we believe we have traits that make us attractive to others, and not necessarily on the traits that we say we value most.a person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
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Discuss the self in action.
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Our sense of self helps organize our thoughts and actions. Our ability to effortfully regulate our behaviour, or willpower, works similarly to muscular strength. It can be exhausted by use in the short term, but can also be strengthened by regular exercise. Our ability to effortfully regulate our behaviour, or willpower, works similarly to muscular strength. It can be exhausted by use in the short term, but can also be strengthened by regular exercise. People who believe in their own competence and effectiveness cope better and achieve more than those who have learned a helpless, pessimistic outlook.
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Define the self-serving bias.
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Contrary to the presumption that most people suffer from feelings of inferiority, researchers consistently find that most people exhibit a self-serving bias. In experiments and everyday life, we often take credit for successes while blaming failures on the situation. Questing for self-knowledge, we’re motivated to assess our competence (Dunning, 1995). Questing for self-confirmation, we’re motivated to verify our self-conceptions (Sanitioso et al., 1990; Swann, 1996, 1997). Questing for self-affirmation, we’re especially motivated to enhance our self-image (Sedikides, 1993). Self-esteem motivation helps power self-serving bias.
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Describe self-presentation
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SELF-PRESENTATION: LOOKING GOOD TO OTHERS – he act of expressing yourself and behaving in ways designed to create a favourable impression or an impression that corresponds to your ideals. Humans seem motivated not only to perceive themselves in self-enhancing ways but also to present themselves favourably to others.
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self-handicapping
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– protecting one’s self-image with behaviours that create a handy excuse for later failure. Sometimes people sabotage their chances for success by creating impediments that make success less likely. When self-image is tied up with performance, it can be more self-deflating to try hard and fail than to procrastinate and have a ready excuse. If we fail while working under a handicap, we can cling to a sense of competence; if we succeed under such conditions, it can only boost our self-image. Handicaps protect both self-esteem and public image by allowing us to attribute failures to something temporary or external (\”I was feeling sick\”; \”I was out too late the night before\”) rather than to lack of talent or ability.
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impression management.
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Self-serving bias, false modesty, and self-handicapping reveal the depth of our concern for self-image. To varying degrees, we are continually managing the impressions we create. Whether we wish to impress, to intimidate, or to seem helpless, we are social animals, playing to an audience
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self-schema
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beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
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possible selves
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images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
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social identity
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the \”we\” aspect of our self-concept. The part of our answer to \”Who am I?\” that comes from our group memberships. Examples: \”I am Australian.\” \”I am Catholic.\”
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social comparison
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evaluating your own abilities and opinions by comparing yourself to others.
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independent self
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Defined primarily in terms of internal attributes,which reside inside the person such as abilities, motives, personality traits, competence etc. More autonomous, separate and self contained, one gives priority to personal goals instead of group goals. Personal achievement matters more.
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interdependent self
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Ones own identity is defined in respects to a particular type of social relationships. The role of others is a part of self definition. Manifested in group memberships and interconnectedness and gives priorities to group goals. One has a greater sense of belonging. One strives to harmonize and support one’s community and being responsible is more important that doing one’s own thing. eg. I am African
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individualism
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the concept of giving priority to one’s goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification.
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collectivism
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giving priority to the goals of one’s groups (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
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planning fallacy
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the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task.
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impact bias
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overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
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immune neglect
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the human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the \”psychological immune system,\” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
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dual attitudes
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differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
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learned helplessness
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he hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
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self-serving bias
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the tendency to perceive yourself favourably.
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self-serving attributions
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a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to yourself and negative outcomes to other factors.
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false consensus effect
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the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviours.
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false uniqueness effect
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the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviours.
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temporal comparison
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a comparison between how the self is viewed now and how the self was viewed in the past or how the self is expected to be viewed in the future.
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group-serving bias
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explaining away out-group members’ positive behaviours; also attributing negative behaviours to their dispositions (while excusing such behaviour by one’s own group).
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self-monitoring
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being attuned to the way you present yourself in social situations and adjusting your performance to create the desired impression. With regard to an external audience, those who score high on a scale of self-monitoring adjust their behaviour to each situation, whereas those low in self-monitoring may do so little social adjusting that they seem insensitive.
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self-awareness
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the act of thinking about ourselves
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TEDTALKS: What are the two main studies that she run? http://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are
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Study a) The effect of non-verbals (posture) on testosterone and cortisol levels. (Physiological Changes). b) The effect on non-verbals (posture) on job interview performance.
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TEDTALKS: What are power postures? )
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Power postures are open and wide.
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TEDTALKS: And powerless postures?
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Powerless postures are closed up and withdrawn.
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TEDTALKS: a. In her first study what effect did body posture have on gambling, testosterone (dominance hormone), and cortisol (stress hormone)
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In a span of 2 minutes: Power poses – 86% will gamble (higher risk tolerance). – 20% increase in testosterone levels – 25% decrease in cortisol levels Low Power poses – 60% will gamble (lower risk tolerance) – 10% decrease in testosterone levels – 15% increase in cortisol levels
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TEDTALKS:b. In her second study what effect did body posture have on job interview performance
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In a span of 2 minutes: Power poses – More likely to be hired – More highly rated
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TEDTALKS: 2. Her findings suggest that our bodies can change our minds (we are influenced by our own nonverbals)
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Fake it till you become it.
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Rosenberg Scale
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Measures Explicit Self- Esteem – the conscious and deliberately reasoned evaluations of self
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IAT Scale
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Measures Implicit Self- Esteem – highly efficient evaluations of self that occur unintentionally and outside of awareness
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self-control
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the exertion of control over the self by the self. An attempt to change the way you would otherwise think, feel or behave.
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Introspection
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The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
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Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
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Schachter & Singer (1962) The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate (sometimes erroneous) explanation for it.
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Looking Glass Self
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An image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you
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Social Comparison Theory
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The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
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Downward Social Comparisons
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comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability, can make us feel better.
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Upward Social Comparisons
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comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability, can inspire us (sometimes…)
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Lockwood & Kunda (1997)
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They did a study on first and final year students, concluded that when making social comparisons, upward social comparisons are inspirational if they seem attainable.
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Measured Explicit Self-Esteem
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Rosenberg Rating Scale used for measuring explicit self-esteem which is the conscious and deliberately reasoned evaluations of self
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Measured Implicit Self-Esteem
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Implicit Association Test – This measures implicit self-esteem which highly efficient evaluations of self that occur unintentionally and outside of awareness
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Jordan, Spencer, Zanna, Hoshino-Browne, & Correll (2003)
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Measured explicit and implicit self-esteem as well as examined the relationship with Narcisism. Found participants with defensive self-esteem to be high in narcisism.
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Secure self-esteem
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Have both High implicit and explicit self-esteem
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Defensive high self-esteem
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High Explicit self-esteem and love implicit self-esteem – report feeling good about themselves but on an automatic level they feel bad about themself
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Self-control
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An attempt to change the way you would otherwise think, feel, or behave. According to Baumeister, self-control resembles a muscle

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