PSY101

What does the term evolution refer to?
Change
In Yoking Smoking, which was the least effective way to get a person to quit smoking?
Yoked Control
What are three elements of natural selection?
1) variation
2)inheritance
3)selection
An evolved, functional characteristic that contributes to reproduction.
Adaption
What percentage of organisms that have ever existed on earth, were unsuccessful at reproducing and left no decedents?
99.9%
What is the independent variable manipulated by researchers in Being Sick Of The Hospital?
Being home or in the hospital
What describes how well a person’s physiology deals with environmental insults, such as diseases and sources of deviation from normal development?
Developmental Disability
What is Shaping?
Teaching a rat how to do a task
In the article, Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad, who were the participants?
Non-smokers and smokers; shoppers in a mall
What is positive reinforcement?
Adding something to get a desired behavior
What is a pro-social behavior? Give an example of how children learn pro-social behaviors.
Helpful, constructive behavior.
Example) Helping others by volunteering
What is negative reinforcement?
Removing a stimulus (to take away) to get a desired behavior
In Yoking Smoking, B.F. Skinner thought that the frequency of a behavior was maintained _______.
Consequences
What did Piaget hope to learn with the standard Piagetian conservation task?
Conservation of number- Stays same shape even if manipulated
What are the 9 Learning Styles?
1) Naturalistic
2) Kinesthetic
3) Musical
4) Verbal
5) Logical
6) Intrapersonal
7) Existential
8) Visual
9) Interpersonal
What way can you increase a desired behavior?
1) Positive Reinforcement
2) Rewards
3) Motivation
Give an example of Operant Conditioning in real life.
A competition, if you do bad you aren’t rewarded and if you do good you’ll be rewarded with a metal.
Give an example of Classical Conditioning in real life.
When lightning occurs and then shortly after there is thunder. An individual’s response is startling. Next time this occurs again the individual anticipates it and is not startled.

An alarm clock, and you getting up in the morning. You connect the sound with the motion of getting up in the morning.

What is a stimulus?
Something that evokes a response
What is cognitive learning?
Learning by observation (planned, formal)
The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language.
In the Behaviorism, Chapter 30, of John B. Watson he rejected the ______.
Mind
What is the independent variable in Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
Content of the Ad
In Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad, what is the advertisement which was short lived and in bad taste?
The Nike Shoes Ad
What is Associative Learning?
Behavior learned from events that happened close together
In Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad, what is the dependent variable?
The questions they were asked after viewing the advertisement. The response to the ad, are they going to buy the advertised item?
In Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad, if a piece of research reports a statistical test in which the outcome is p
Is NOT significant
What is the definition of Learning?
A relatively permanent behavior change as a result of experience.
Why is memory lrecinstuctive?
It is not a faithful record, some parts may be accurate but some filled in or changed by later events.
What did Loftus and Palmer do in their classic study which involved people watching a film of a car accident?
Asked about how fast cars were going when they contacted/hit/bumped/collided/smashed speed estimates differed–contacted=32mph, smashed=41 mph
What difference was there a week later when asked “Did you see any broken glass?”
The smashed group remembered the glass (which was to them, really there)
What was the independent variable in the Loftus and Palmer study?
Different description–contacted/hit/bumped/collided/smashed each other
What was the dependent measure in the Loftus and Palmer study?
The speed estimates of cars given by participants
What was found in the Loftus and Palmer study?
Contacted=32mph
Smashed=41mph
What does this mean, what conclusion can we draw from this?
Memory is altered by information given after the event, in this case, in the form of a question
Younger children are particularly likely to have false memories owing to source misattribution–what is that?
Not remember sources of memories if told something repeatedly, may remember seeing it, for example
What is a social factor?
Bribes, threats, feeling pressured to please certain adults
Describe the actual visit of Sam Stone to the classroom, in the study Kids Say the Darndest Things
The visit was the same for each class, he entered during story telling and said “hello” to the adult in charge, he was introduced to kids, he commented “I know the story it is one of my favorites”. he walked around the perimeter of the room and then left after waving to the children–the visit lasted about 2 minutes
Each age group of kids was put into one of four groups–how was it decided which kid in which group?
Whole classrooms randomly assigned to conditions–to keep kids from sharing experiences
What was the manipulation for the stereotype group?
Once a week for a month told three different stories suggesting that Sam was a nice person, but accident-prone: borrowed Barbie and broke it, lost a pen and replaced it, spilled soda but cleaned it up after Sam’s visit–had four weeks of meetings with suggestion-free questions
What was the manipulation for the suggestion group?
No attempt made to create stereotype of Sam following the visit, ask questions with two false presuppositions
What was one of the other two groups in the study?
stereotype + suggestion–got both, control–got neither–asked neutral questions after visit
After all this had happened, children were exposed to a final interview conducted by a person not previously present. What went on in this interview?
Free narrative–asked to describe Sam’s visit, asked if they had ‘heard something’ about a book or bear, if kids indicate some false memory, they were tested for strength of belief–“you didn’t really see him do this, did you?”
Did any kids make false allegations during their free narratives?
Yes, suggestion and stereotype + suggestion
Did many of the control groups, in Kids Say the darndest things, have false memories of the visit?
No
In the Sam Stone Study, in the Kids Say the Darndest Things, what was the independent variable?
Stereotype, Suggestions, both, or neither
In the Sam Stone Study, in the Kids Say the Darndest Things, what was the dependent variable?
False statements under various conditions of prompting
What was found at the end of the Sam Stone Study?
Many kids believed Sam ripped the book, fewer believed dirty bear story
Many believed 3 year old, more details in 3 year olds’ story, least confident in 4 year olds’ story–the truth
What can we conclude about adults from the Kids Say the Darndest things study?
Interested and motivated adults can not detect accurate stories
What is applied psychology?
An attempt to find answers to practical concerns, includes consumer psychology, evaluation research, and other applications
What is behaviorism?
In Watson’s terms, view that proper subject for psychologists was behavior, not mind
What is consumer psychology?
Large field including all aspects of consumer behavior, such as effects of brand names, preferences for times of shopping, convenience of store locations, and responses to advertising
What is an example of a fear appeal in advertising?
Reebok commercial where bungee jumpers fall out of Nike shoes hygiene products, pest control, pills to keep the elderly alive
Was bungee ad in violation of proper ethics?
Article does not take a stand, but it may be, at least, in bad taste
Who were the participants in the study, Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
305 women shopping in a mall in Southeastern U.S.
Mean age= 28
60% single, 34% married
Median income= 30-40K
Mean= 14 years of education
Mostly white
How were thee participants chosen for the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
“randomly”
What kind of research design was this study? Why?
Experiment
What was the independent variable for the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad
Strong or mild version of the ad
Mild–testimony from police about stun gun strong–testimony as above + voice-over of chilling 911 call
What is a stun-gun?
A device with prongs to give high voltage shock to attacker
How were the ads presented in the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
Participants sit in a little booth, watch and listen, see strong or mild version of ad, sign consent forms
What was one of the dependent variables in the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
Questionnaires
Ethicality of ad–Reidenbach and Robin Scale + single question other attitudes aout ad–good, distinctive, appropriate, etc. attitudes toward product
Intention to buy “I plan to purchase”–six point scale
What was the manipulation check in the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
Participants asked if ad featured violent crime participants asked if ad made them tense
Why bother to do manipulation check in the study: Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Ad?
To see if participants are paying attention
Why is it desirable that groups be equivalent in as many ways as possible?
Differences more likely to be result of IV
All participants reported similar confidence in ablility to use stun-gun
Do you think that fear advertising is ethical?
Article implies that it may not be when it preys on elderly and the poor
What is the name for the consequences which increase the frequency of behavior?
Reinforcements
What is the name for the consequences which decrease the frequency of behavior?
Punishments
What is an example of a positive reinforcement, from the book or otherwise from the study: Yoking Smoking?
Money
What is an example of a negative reinforcement, from the book or otherwise from the study: Yoking Smoking?
The mute button to turn off annoying commercial noise
What is partial reinforcement?
Reinforce less than 100% of responses
What is the difference between an interval schedule and a ratio schedule?
Interval= reinforcement after time period
Ratio= reinforcement after certain number of responses
What is the difference between a fixed ratio and a variable ratio?
Fixed= same number of reinforcements each time
Variable= same average number of reinforcements over a long session
What assessment was done to see if they were smoking during the study: Yoking Smoking?
CO in exhaled air assessed
Needed 11 ppm or less to be considered abstinent
How often were participants assessed in the study: Yoking Smoking?
Three times a day for five days
Who were the participants in the study reported in this article?
Smokers who did not want to quit 30 years old
Smoked for the 13 years on average
Why would anyone who did not want to quit smoking want to be in this study?
For the money
Progressive Reinforcement Schedule
$3, then 50 cents more each abstinent visit, $10 bonus for every 4 abstinent visits, if not abstinent, rest to $3, 3 abstinent visits, back to pre-reset level
Fixed reinforcement schedule
$9.80 each abstinent visit
Equaled same amount of money, max, in progressive
Controlled Reinforcement Schedule
Yoked to first 10 participants in progressive paid whether abstinent or not
Reinforcement Schedules
Told to try to achieve less than 11 ppm, but paid anyway all got additional $50 bonus if finished the study
What has been Pigaget’s lasting contribution to psychology in the Now You See It, Now You Don’t?
Children think differently than adults
Who were Pigaget’s participants in the Now You See It, Now You Dont?
His Kids
What is the standard Piagentian conservation task?
Two balls of clay,appear to be the same–ask child, roll one into pizza–ask same question, child under about 5 years, thinks one has more clay
What are the problems in the study of Now you See it, Now You Dont?
Asking question twice cues to kids to change answer, fewer mistakes if only ask question once, after child has watched shape being changed sometimes college students respond non-conservatively
Stage theory suggests one-way progress–this is not what has been found
What is object permanence?
Objects continue to exist though out of sight
How did Piaget test object permanence in Now You See It, Now You Don’t?
Take attractive toy away from a kid and hide it while being watched, watch to see if the child tries to find it
What was the matter with Piaget’s methods in the study Now You See it, Now You Don’t?
Own kids, anecdotal, confounds cognitive process and motor acts of searching
Why would you believe an infant had object permanence if it watched a car roll down a ramp, behind a screen and then continues to turn it’s eyes, even though the car has not reappeared?
Showing that it expected the car to reappear–so must know that it continues to exist
Is the situation, in Now You See It Now You Don’t, called the impossible event or the positive event? Why?
Impossible–seems impossible if one has object permanence
What is habituation?
Exposure to same stimulus over and over change stimulus see change in behavior
What is representation?
To represent an object in one’s mind
What aspect of representation in young children is Renee Baillargeon interested in?
The earliest age infants can represent objects and events
How was the behavior of the babies recorded?
Babies sat on parent’s lap, Parent kept eyes closed, watched by two observers from behind apparatus, blind to the manipulation–did not see the stage of the apparatus kept track of how long infants gazed at apparatus, agreement 93% or more
What were the familiarization trials designed to do?
Habituate the infants to the apparatus and objects on the apparatus
What is an example of variability in a characteristic?
Differences in eye color, hair color, height, protein metabolism, ect.
What is the mechanism of inheritance?
Genes (DNA)
What is adaption?
An evolved, functional characteristic that contributes to reproduction
An evolutionary explanation of the origins of what is observed
What do evolutionary psychologists study?
Psychological adaptations, how natural selection contributed to the form and function of how the mind works
What is bilateral symmetry in humans?
How similar the right side of a person is to their left side
What is another name for the degree of bilateral symmetry?
Fluctuating asymmetry
Would a person high in lilateral symmetry be high or low in FA?
Low
What is developmental stability?
How well a person’s physiology deals with environment insults, such as diseases and sources of deviation from normal development
Would a person high in bilateral symmetry be high or low in FA?
Low
Would a person high in developmental stability be high or low in FA?
Low
Are people high in FA more or less likely to be healthy?
Less, because people with low symmetry are more likely to be susceptible to diseases
Why did Thornhill, Gangestand, and Yeo in the study The Nose Knows, hypothesize that men low in FA would report having more sex partners?
Because women find men low in FA to be more attractive than men high in FA
For women, is sex relatively cheap or expensive?
Expensive
For men, is sex relatively cheap or expensive?
Cheap
In the study, The Nose Knows, what did Thornhill and Gangestad hypothesize about patterns in how symmetry should smell?
Women should prefer the scent of more symmetrical men (lower FA)
This preference should occur only when women are ovulating and the days preceding ovulation
What kind of research study did Thronhill and Gangestad conduct?
Part Quasi experiment, Part Correlation study
How was symmetry measured?
Measuring a number of characteristics on both the right and left sides of the participants’ bodies with a digital camera
Each characteristic was measured twice
In the study the Nose Knows, what characteristics were measured?
Ear length and width; elbow, wrist, and ankle width; foot breath, and the lengths of all fingers with the exception of the thumb
Who were the participants that smelled the shirts?
The same participants who wore the shirts
Participants rated shirts on three different dimensions. What was one of them?
1) Pleasantness
2) Sexiness
3) Intensity
How was the facial attractiveness of the participants determined?
The pictures taken of the participants at the beginning of the study
When does women’s sexual desire peak?
The fertile phase of their menstrual cycle
Taken together, what do Thornhill and Gangestad think these findings suggest?
Women may have adaptations to seek good genes when they are most likely to conceive
What is a paradigm? Give an example
A model, example, way of thinking
Pavlovian paradigm ( learned helplessness paradigm, evolutionary paradigm, ect.)
What is a reflex?
Automatic response to stimulus–no conscious planning
Give an example of a reflex?
Salivate to food in mouth, pull finger away after touching something red hot knee jerk, eye blink in response to air puff, gag in response to finger down throat
Pavlou noticed that dogs salivated reflexively when food was put in their mouths. Over time he noticed something else about the timing of salivation–what?
Dogs salivated at the sound of keeper coming, sight of food dish, etc.
What does the word conditioned mean in the Pavlovian paradigm?
Learned
What does the word unconditioned mean in the Pavlovian paradigm?
Unlearned
In the example of Pavlov’s salivating dogs, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
Food
What is the unconditioned response in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Salvation
What is the conditioned stimulus in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Footsteps, metronome, bell
What is the conditioned response in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Salvation
The UCR and the CR, salvation, appear to be the same behavior. What is the difference between the two?
One learned (CR), one unlearned (UCR)
UCR is a response to food in the mouth
CR appears the same, but is in response to an environmental stimulus, the footsteps
What is one of the two well-known side effects of chemotherapy?
Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting (ANV) and Anticipatory Immune Suppression (AIS)
Do a Pavlovian analysis of ANV: What is the unconditioned stimulus?
Chemotherapy
What is the unconditioned response in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Nausea and/or vomiting
What is the conditioned stimulus in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Nurses voices, sight of hospital, etc.
What is the conditioned response in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
Nausea and/or vomiting
Who were the participants in Bovbjerg’s study in the study of Being Sick of the hospital?
20 women receiving treatment for ovarian cancer, no previous chemotherapy for other illness, already received at least three chemotherapy treatments live within two hours of the hospital
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, a home visit was made three days before chemotherapy treatments–what took place in this visit?
Nausea rated on visual analog scale, anxiety rated on VAS, anxiety rated on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory blood was drawn–article only implies this–mea culpa
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, what happened when participants arrived at the hospital before chemotherapy was given?
Anxiety measures re-taken, recollections of nausea, previous evening, that morning, and before chemotherapy blood samples drawn
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, why were blood samples drawn?
Test for immune system functioning
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, what was the evidence to suggest that these women had classically conditioned ANV?
Nausea and both measures of anxiety were higher when the conditioned stimuli–the hospital and its procedures were present
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, did all the women have conditioned AIS?
Most did, five did not
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, these five who showed no immune suppression, were not significantly different from the others in anxiety. What does this tell us?
Immune suppression mechanism is not the cause of lowering anxiety might not have an effect on immune suppression these two seem to be independent symptoms
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, was nausea linked to immune suppression?
Yes, women with AIS also reported higher levels of nausea
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, why might AIS be so dangerous?
Immuno-compromised people might be subject to other diseases because of poor immune function
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, what effect do stronger chemotherapy treatments have on the risk of experiencing ANV?
It increases
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, can re-exposure to the CS that was paired with chemotherapy lead to anticipatory nausea even outside a medical setting?
Yes
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, on a day when chemotherapy was not scheduled?
Yes
In the study of Being Sick of the hospital, does classical conditioning impact the severity of the side effects that occur after chemotherapy?
Yes, classical conditioning may contribute to post chemotherapy nausea and vomiting, and post chemotherapy fatigue