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Psy Ch. 1-3

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Jena is experiencing sadness, lack of energy, and low self-worth. . The condition is chronic and severe. If her psychiatrist prescribed medication it would likely be a(n):
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A. stimulant drug. B. antianxiety drug. C. antipsychotic drug. D. antidepressant drug. correct
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Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was:
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A. water. B. lymph gland fluid. C. phlegm. Correct D. cerebrospinal fluid.
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A medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other “mood” disorders. The general term for this type of drug is:
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A. psychogenic. B. somatogenic. C. psychotropic. Correct D. somatotropic.
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The discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis was made by:
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A. Benjamin Rush. B. Emil Kraepelin. C. Fritz Schaudinn. D. Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Correct
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Based on the number of men and women majoring in psychology as undergrads, we would predict that in the future:
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A. most psychologists will be men. B. most psychologists will be women. Correct C. there will be about equal numbers of male and female psychologists. D. there will be an overabundance of psychologists.
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What is the term for studies that have the structure of experiments, except they use groups that already exist, instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups?
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A. quasi-experiments Correct B. natural experiments C. correlational experiments D. developmental experiments
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Immigration trends and differences in birth rates among minority groups in the United States have caused psychological treatment to become more:
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A. hospital focused. B. multicultural. Correct C. positive. D. dependent on the use of medication
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Efforts to help people develop personally meaningful activities and healthy relationships are a part of:
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A. eco-anxiety treatment. B. a somatogenic approach to treatment. C. the clinical practice of positive psychology. Correct D. an eccentric’s level of creativity.
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A psychologist focuses on optimism, wisdom, happiness, and interpersonal skill. The psychologist is MOST likely:
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A. a psychoanalyst. B. a positive psychologist. Correct C. a community mental health worker. D. a rehabilitation specialist.
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Mesmer became famous—or infamous—for his work with patients suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients’ disorders are termed:
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A. somatogenic. B. hysterical. Correct C. phlegmatic. D. bilious.
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Kraepelin’s views are MOST similar to the views of:
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A. Freud. B. Mesmer. C. Pinel. D. Hippocrates. correct
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Which of the following is an example of a case study?
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A. a study involving a control group B. a long-term study of a clinical client Correct C. a study of all the cases of a disorder in a community D. the creation of a disorder in a group of lab rats
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One group of patients is treated with medication in a hospital. Another group is treated with the same medication on an outpatient basis. The diagnoses of the two groups of patients are equally serious. The BEST example of a confound in this study is the:
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A. characteristics of the hospital. Correct B. type of medication given. C. seriousness of the diagnoses. D. level of improvement.
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A person who is so miserable that he or she can see no reason for living BEST fits which of the following definitions of abnormality?
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A. deviance B. distress Correct C. dangerousness D. dysfunction
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A researcher set up two groups: a group of 10 men and a group of 10 women to study gender differences. The two groups were treated exactly the same and each participant was given a test of psychological function. The results were then compared. This study is an example of a(n):
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A. experiment. B. analogue study. C. correlational study. D. quasi-experimental study. Correct
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The MOST accurate summary of the field of abnormal psychology at the present time is that clinical psychologists generally:
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A. accept one definition of abnormality and practice one form of treatment. B. do not accept one definition of abnormality but practice one form of treatment. C. accept one definition of abnormality but practice more than one form of treatment. D. do not accept one definition of abnormality and practice more than one form of treatment. Correct
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Factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable. If these factors vary systematically with the independent variable, they are called ______ variables.
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A. irrelevant B. confounding Correct C. blind D. controlled
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Imagine that you are doing an ABAB reversal design study in which you are measuring level of depression with and without the addition of an exercise program. What is the first “A” in the study?
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A. healthy eating habits B. exercise C. no exercise D. depression Correct
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A researcher’s expectations about a study can affect its outcome. The type of research design used specifically to address this problem is a(n):
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A. experiment. B. random-assignment design. C. matched control group design. D. blind design. Correct
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A study includes 60 people suffering from an ordinary headache. Twenty get aspirin, 20 get a sugar pill that looks like aspirin, and 20 get nothing at all. In 65 percent of the aspirin group, the headache goes away. In the other two groups, the “cure” rates are 35 and 5 percent, respectively. Other than the drug condition, the participants are treated identically. This study:
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A. demonstrates a double-blind design. B. is an experimental study. Correct C. contains an important confound. D. has three dependent variables.
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A friend says to you, “I just think the Red Sox win more games on Tuesdays than on any other day.” Although your friend’s statement is not very scientific, it is a(n):
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A. research finding. B. hypothesis. Correct C. example of a case study. D. research conclusion.
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Correlation coefficients indicate the:
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A. magnitude and direction of the relationship between variables. Correct B. cause-and-effect relationship between variables. C. internal and external validity between variables. D. significance and variability between variables.
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The number of patients hospitalized in mental hospitals in the United States today is MOST similar to the number hospitalized in:
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A. 1990. Correct B. 1970. C. 1960. D. 1950.
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Hippocrates’ model of mental illness would be described as:
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A. psychiatric. B. somatogenic. Correct C. psychogenic. D. supernatural.
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During the Middle Ages in Europe, demonology dominated views of abnormality for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
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A. the power of the clergy increased greatly. B. the church rejected scientific forms of investigation. C. the church controlled education. D. the culture rejected religious beliefs.
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Parity laws for insurance coverage of mental health treatment mandate that:
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A. physicians and psychologists must have the same level of education. B. coverage for mental and physical problems must be reimbursed equally. Correct C. the number of sessions allowed for treatment of mental and physical treatment must be equal. D. patients must be allowed to choose the therapist they want for treatment.
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of eccentrics noted by researchers in the field?
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A. being a poor speller B. having a diagnosable mental illness Correct C. being creative D. enjoying one’s life
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Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:
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A. psychedelics. B. antineurotics. C. psychotropics. Correct D. psychophysiologicals.
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Case studies are useful for all of the following EXCEPT
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A. studying unusual problems. B. learning a great deal about a particular patient. C. suggesting new areas for further study. D. determining general laws of behavior. Correct
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If a person experienced anxiety or depression following a significant natural disaster, we would say that the person was:
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A. suffering from a mental illness. B. deviant but not dangerous. C. exhibiting a typical reaction. Correct D. statistically deviant.
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A researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the researcher may be confident that:
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A. life stress causes symptoms of depression. B. symptoms of depression cause life stress. C. something other than life stress causes stress and depression. D. life stress and depression are related. Correct
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Which of the following “new diagnoses” would someone experiencing overwhelming concern about the security of travel on planes and subways MOST likely receive?
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A. eco-anxiety B. terrorism terror Correct C. crime phobia D. cyber fear
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Which of the following statements BEST reflects the current care for people with less severe disturbances?
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A. Many are treated by generalists who specialize in a number of different types of disorders. B. Private insurance companies are likely to cover outpatient treatment. Correct C. It is difficult to find treatment for someone experiencing a “problem in living.” D. Private psychotherapy is available only to the wealthy.
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Correlational research on the relationship between religious beliefs and psychological health shows that people:
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A. without any religious belief are the psychologically healthiest. B. who are devout and see God as caring and helpful are the psychologically healthiest. Correct C. who are devout and see God as cold and unresponsive are the psychologically healthiest. D. who are not religious cope better with life stressors like war and illness.
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Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the:
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A. instincts, the ego, and the self. B. biological forces, culture, and learning. C. consciousness, unconsciousness, and instincts. D. instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards. Correct
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Culturally sensitive therapists would be expected to do all of the following EXCEPT:
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A. recognize that children of immigrants have special challenges. B. help clients express anger and pain related to their life situation. C. encourage clients to become fully acculturated into the dominant culture. correct D. focus on raising the client’s self-esteem.
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In mindfulness-based therapy techniques, you would be MOST likely to find clients:
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A. focusing on setting goals for the future. B. letting their thoughts flow, without judgment. correct C. rejecting thoughts that are not rational. D. trying to figure out the source of their troublesome thoughts.
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The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the:
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A. psychodynamic model. B. cognitive model. C. humanistic-existential model. Correct D. behavioral model.
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The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses is the:
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A. id. B. ego. Correct C. superego. D. libido.
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Freud believed that the source(s) of energy that fuels the id:
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A. are defense mechanisms. B. is the libido. Correct C. is conscious. D. is learned.
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An assumption of determinism is that abnormal behaviors:
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A. are learned. B. are not accidental. Correct C. have physiological bases. D. are due to unconscious conflicts.
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If a patient relives past repressed feelings, that patient is said to have experienced ______, according to psychoanalysts.
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A. repression B. transference C. resistance D. catharsis Correct
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Animals and humans learn without reinforcement. They learn just by watching. This form of learning is called:
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A. shaping. B. modeling. Correct C. operant conditioning. D. classical conditioning.
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An athlete who is actually well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, “I can’t do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I’m going to fail!” The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance MOST likely would support which model of abnormality?
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A. psychodynamic B. behavioral C. existential D. cognitive Correct
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Infants tend to do things that feel good. This is in accord with what Freud called:
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A. reflex. B. the pleasure principle. Correct C. primary process thought. D. secondary process thought.
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“The force that operates on the ‘reality principle’ is an independent, powerful force in human functioning.” The kind of theorist who would agree MOST strongly with this statement would be a(n) ______ therapist.
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A. classical Freudian B. self C. object relations D. ego correct
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If you are being encouraged to see the link between the way you interpret your experiences and the way you feel, and to question the accuracy of your interpretations, you are probably receiving:
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A. humanistic therapy. B. existential therapy. C. cognitive therapy. Correct D. psychoanalytic therapy.
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The form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and try out new interpretations of events, is:
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A. psychodynamic. correct B. Gestalt. C. cognitive. D. humanistic.
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“When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living.” A psychologist from which background would agree MOST strongly with this statement?
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A. cognitive-behavioral B. humanistic-existential Correct C. psychodynamic D. cognitive
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The role of the unified personality is a central theme of:
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A. ego theory. B. self theory. correct C. psychoanalytic theory. D. object relations theory.
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Multicultural theorists would explain the higher levels of mental illness among poor people as MOST likely due to:
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A. genetic make-up. B. social factors leading to stress. Correct C. irrational patterns of thinking. D. fixation at a lower level of ego functioning.
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Evidence of the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy:
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A. is biologically based. B. comes from pharmaceutical companies. C. comes from double-blind studies. D. comes mostly from case studies. Correct
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If you were receiving medications to control hallucinations and delusions, you would MOST likely be receiving:
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A. antidepressants. B. antipsychotics. Correct C. antibipolar drugs. D. minor tranquilizers
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The first step in using the treatment called “systematic desensitization” is to:
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A. construct a fear hierarchy. B. construct a list of useful reinforcers. C. confront the client with the feared stimulus or thought. D. teach the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions. Correct
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The only time that Timmy gets attention is when he misbehaves in a bizarre way. This is an example of:
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A. shaping. B. modeling. C. operant conditioning. Correct D. classical conditioning.
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If a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would MOST likely be practicing:
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A. structural family therapy. B. conjoint family therapy. Correct C. feminist therapy. D. self-help therapy.
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Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?
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A. There is one legitimate approach to understanding mental disorders. B. Abnormality is best explained by sociocultural stresses a person experiences. C. Eclectic approaches fail to take interactions of various models into account. D. Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences. **correct
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If a mother seems excessively involved in her child’s life such that the two of them do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be:
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A. externalized. B. cultural. C. enmeshed. Correct D. disengaged.
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According to psychoanalytic theory, which of the following is true regarding dreams?
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A. They are without real importance. B. They reflect our unconscious desires and needs. Correct C. They are a means of reprocessing information necessary for survival. D. They are the brain’s attempts to understand abnormal electrical activity.
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Current research suggests that schizophrenia may be related to:
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A. bacterial infections at the time of puberty. B. a resistance to antibiotics. C. viral infection in utero. Correct D. hormonal imbalances.
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A patient’s initial reaction to being told she has an STI is to insist that the nurse made a mistake with the test. The defense mechanism that BEST explains this behavior is:
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A. regression. B. sublimation. C. denial. Correct D. rationalization.
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When a young child yells and throws toys (“temper tantrum”), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from:
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A. unresolved intrapsychic conflict. B. operant conditioning. Correct C. unconditional positive regard. D. neurotransmitter imbalances.
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Huntington’s disease, which has psychological as well as physical aspects, results from loss of cells in the:
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A. corpus callosum. B. basal ganglia. Correct C. hippocampus. D. amygdala.
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Skillful frustration is designed to help clients:
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A. realize the extent to which they are expressing their id impulses. B. recognize that past experiences control current behavior. C. face their own manipulative behavior. D. express frightening emotions. ****correct
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So-called “new-wave cognitive therapy,” differs from traditional cognitive therapy in that it emphasizes:
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A. challenging irrational cognitions. B. accepting problematic thoughts. Correct C. working to change unacceptable thoughts. D. researching the effectiveness of the therapy.
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“Humans are born with freedom, yet do not ‘naturally’ strive to reach their full growth potential.” The psychologist who would MOST closely agree with this statement would be:
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A. behavioral. B. humanistic. C. existential. Correct D. psychodynamic.
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A prisoner eligible for parole is required to take a polygraph test. Although the prisoner tells the truth in response to a question, the polygraph operator records the response as a lie. According to recent research, this kind of error is
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A. extremely common; over one third of true statements are interpreted as lies. B. unusual; less than 10 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies. Correct C. rare; less than 3 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies. D. very rare; less than 1 percent of true statements are interpreted as lies.
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The only test among the following that is NOT a projective test is the:
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A. Rorschach Test. B. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Correct C. Draw-a-Person Test. D. Thematic Apperception Test.
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One limitation of the clinical interview as an assessment tool is that:
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A. each client is different. B. the approach is too rigid. C. the client may give an overly positive picture. Correct D. the clinician sees the client too infrequently.
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Which of the following is designed to disclose a patient’s patterns of thinking?
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A. the MMPI-2 B. the Rorschach C. an affective inventory D. a cognitive inventory Correct
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Concerns about the reliability and validity of the DSM-5 diagnoses are MOST likely to center on which factors?
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A. categories based on weak research, and reflecting bias (for example, gender or racial bias) ****correct B. categories based on field research, and reflecting bias (for example, gender or racial bias). C. categories that reflect overly restrictive descriptions D. categories too few in number to represent the breadth of human psychological disorders
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If your friend had her brain waves recorded to measure her brain’s electrical activity, she MOST likely had a(n):
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A. PET scan. B. MRI. C. CAT scan. D. EEG. Correct
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The clinical interviewer MOST interested in discovering assumptions and interpretations that influence the person would have what orientation?
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A. cognitive Correct B. psychodynamic C. humanistic D. behavioral
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Of the people who would qualify for a DSM diagnosis in their lifetime, surveys show what percent would show comorbidity?
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A. over 50 percent ** correct B. about 2 percent C. about 10 percent D. less than 2 percent
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Those who are MOST likely to visit “suicide sites” on the Internet—sites that celebrate suicide and describe ways to commit suicide are:
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A. the elderly, who are at low risk for imitative suicidal behavior. B. the elderly, who are at high risk for imitative suicidal behavior. C. teenagers and young adults, who are at low risk for imitative suicidal behavior. D. teenagers and young adults, who are at high risk for imitative suicidal behavior. Correct
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DSM-5 is the classification system for abnormal behaviors that is:
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A. used by the World Health Organization. B. most widely used in the United States. Correct C. used for medical disorders. D. used exclusively for children.
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Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is:
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A. reliability. B. face validity. C. predictive validity. D. standardization. Correct
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Which of the following tests is a personality inventory?
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A. Draw-a-Person B. MMPI-2 Correct C. Rorschach test D. Thematic Apperception Test
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Are people ever harmed by therapy for DSM-diagnosed disorders?
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A. frequently; about 35 percent of those treated seem to get worse, although most of the rest seem to improve. B. occasionally, about 20 percent of those treated seem to get worse. C. sometimes; at most, about 5-10 percent of those treated seem to get worse. Correct D. almost never; although only about 55 percent seem to improve, only 1-2 percent of those treated seem to get worse.
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In order to study the general effectiveness of treatment, Smith and Glass (1980, 1977) and their colleagues performed a(n):
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A. meta-analysis of many studies. correct B. analysis of their clinical cases. C. survey of many clients who had received therapy. D. controlled study that involved random assignment of subjects to treatment conditions.
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Which of the following is the BEST conclusion you could draw about the effectiveness of the various assessment techniques?
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A. There is one standard assessment battery used by all clinicians. B. When all is said and done, no technique stands out as superior. Correct C. Clinicians have abandoned the use of assessment. D. Assessment is used at the beginning of therapy but not thereafter.
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“Let’s just do away with diagnosis,” says a clinician, “all we do is make things worse.” That clinician’s viewpoint is:
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A. shared by a solid majority of those working in the area of abnormality. B. shared by almost nobody working in the area of abnormality. C. shared by some of those working in the area of abnormality. Correct D. represented in the DSM-5, which does not require a specific diagnosis.
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Compared to projective tests, personality inventories:
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A. have higher validity. Correct B. are less standardized. C. have lower reliability. D. are more difficult to administer and evaluate.
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Dr. Martin has just asked a potential client to talk about herself. As she responds, the doctor’s next question is based on some interesting point she brought up. There are few constraints on the conversation. Dr. Martin has just:
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A. used free association. B. conducted an unstructured interview. Correct C. used a behavioral assessment technique. D. employed (Rogers’) nondirective therapy.
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A response inventory that asks individuals to provide detailed information about their typical thoughts and assumptions is a(n):
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A. social skill inventory. B. cognitive inventory. Correct C. affective inventory. D. behavioral inventory.
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Patients receiving therapy for a psychological problem, on average, experience improvement greater than ______ of people with similar problems who do not receive treatment.
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A. 25 percent B. 75 percent correct C. 100 percent D. 0 percent
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Imagine that you are asked to give a scientific opinion on the use of polygraphic evidence. Your BEST response would be:
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A. Although they are used widely, they are not particularly reliable. Correct B. The APA endorses their use. C. On average, 50 out of 100 truths are categorized as lies. D. Most courts admit evidence from polygraphs in criminal trials.
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How does an MRI make a picture of the brain?
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A. It measures the degree of activity in the various areas scanned. B. It uses X rays, and pictures are taken at several different angles. C. It relies on the magnetic properties of the atoms in the cells scanned. Correct D. It uses a recording of the electrical impulses produced by the neurons in the brain.
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Of the following statements, which is MOST accurate?
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A. The DSM in some form has been in use for over 100 years. B. The DSM was originally developed by the American Psychoanalytic Association. C. The DSM served as the model for the classification system Kraepelin later developed. D. The classification system Emil Kraepelin developed served as the model for the DSM. Correct
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A clinical psychologist you know says, “How do I decide on the best treatment? Simple—I make sure to read the most recent research studies in therapy, and follow their advice.” The clinical psychologist you know is:
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A. typical; almost all therapists read about and use the most current forms of therapy. B. common; most therapists read about and use the most current forms of therapy. C. unusual; most therapists base therapy decisions on something besides what they can read in research journals. correct D. rare; almost all therapists make treatment decisions based upon what’s available on Web sites.
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A test is constructed to identify people who will develop schizophrenia. Of the 100 people the test identifies, 93 show signs of schizophrenia within five years. The test may be said to have high:
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A. internal reliability. B. predictive validity. Correct C. concurrent validity. D. test-retest reliability.
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Compared to the original DSM, which appeared in the 1950s, the DSM-5 has:
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A. over five times as many diagnostic categories. correct B. about twice as many diagnostic categories. C. slightly more diagnostic categories. D. slightly fewer diagnostic categories.
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Symptoms such as sadness, loss of appetite, and low energy cluster together to form a:
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A. treatment. B. classification system. C. syndrome. Correct D. medical condition.
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The movement that has tried to find the common strategies that “good” therapists use is called:
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A. uniformity. B. particularity. C. rapprochement. Correct D. idiosyncatics.
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Under the instructions of a psychologist, Tina’s mother records the number of times Tina hits her brother at home, and what happens immediately prior to the hitting. In this situation, Tina’s mother is:
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A. a participant observer. Correct B. demonstrating observer bias. C. conducting structured observations. D. engaging in self-monitoring behavior.
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Surveys of very successful therapists show that they generally do all of the following EXCEPT:
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A. disregard ethical principles when they think their clients might benefit. correct B. help clients focus more on the clients’ behaviors and thoughts. C. pay attention to their interactions with their clients. D. give feedback to clients.
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Studies show that most therapists these days are MOST likely to learn about the latest information on treatment of psychological disorders from:
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A. reading research articles. B. talking with professional colleagues. Correct C. conducting their own research. D. writing grants.
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The MAIN focus of a clinical practitioner when faced with a new client is to gather what type of information?
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A. diagnostic B. nomothetic C. idiographic Correct D. dispassionate
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When Rorschach testers ask questions like, “Did the person respond to the whole picture or to specific details?” or “Did he or she focus on the blots or on the white spaces?,” they are interested in the ______ of the response.
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A. theme B. content C. style correct D. images
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Imagine that you know you are being observed and change your behavior in order to make a good impression. This is known as:
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A. observer drift. B. observer bias. C. reactivity. Correct D. naturalistic change.