PSY 240 – Chapter 6: Early Childhood

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Corpus callosum
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band of neural fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain
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Cerebellum
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structure at the base of the brain involved in balance and motor movements
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Reticular Formation
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part of the lower brain, involved in attention
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Hippocampus
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structure involved in transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory
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Infantile amnesia
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inability to remember anything that happened prior to age 2
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Anemia
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dietary deficiency of iron that causes problems such as fatigue, irritability, and attention difficulties
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Handedness
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preference for using either the right or left hand in gross and fine motor activities
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Preoperational stage
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cognitive stage from age 2 to 7 during which the child becomes capable of representing the world symbolically – for example, through the use of language – but is still very limited in ability to use mental operations
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Mental operations
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cognitive procedure that follow certain logical rules
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Conservation
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mental ability to understand that the quantity of a substance or material remains the same even if its appearance changes
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Centration
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Piaget’s term for young children’s thinking as being centered, or focused, on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of other important aspects
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Reversibility
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ability to reverse an action mentally
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Egocentrism
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cognitive inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and another person’s perspective
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Animism
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tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces (e.g., giving the sun a smiley face, making dolls talk to each other)
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Classification
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ability to understand that objects can be part of more than one cognitive group, for example an object can be classified with red objects as well as with round objects
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Theory of Mind
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ability to understand thinking processes in one’s self and others
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False-belief task
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understanding that an individual’s belief or representation about the world may contrast in reality
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Benefits for attending preschool
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Cognitive benefits: – higher verbal skills – stronger performance on measures of memory and listening comprehension – children from low-income families especially benefits cognitively Social benefits: – more independent and socially confident
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Factors to consider when searching for a high-quality preschool
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– Education and training of teachers – Class size and child-teacher ratio: – Age appropriate materials and activities – Teacher-child interactions
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Developmentally appropriate educational practice
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learning should involve exploring and discovering through relatively unstructured, hands-on experiences — learning about the physical world through playing in a water or sand area, for example, or learning new words through songs and nursery rhymes
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Early intervention program
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program directed at young children who are at risk for later problems, intended to prevent problems from developing
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Sensitive period
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in the course of development, a period when the capacity for learning in a specific area is especially pronounced
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Fast mapping
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as young children learn new words they begin to form a mental map of interconnected sets of word categories
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Grammar
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a language’s distinctive system of rules
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Pragmatics
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social and cultural context of language that guides people as to what is appropriate to say and not to say in a given social situation (for example, saying “please” and “thank you”)
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Emotional self-regulation
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ability to exercise control over one’s emotions
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Undercontrol
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trait of having inadequate emotional self-regulation
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Externalizing problems
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problems that involve others, such as aggression
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Overcontrol
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trait of having excessive emotional self-regulation
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Internalization problems
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problems that entail turning distress inward, toward the self, such as depression and anxiety
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Initiative vs. guilt
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in Erikson’s lifespan theory, the early childhood stage in which the alternatives are learning to plan activities in a purposeful way, or being afflicted with excess guilt that undermines initiative
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Modeling
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young children tend to model their behavior after the behavior of others they observe
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Gender identity
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the understanding of one’s self as being either male or female
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Gender constancy
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understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological and cannot change
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Gender roles
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cultural expectations for appearance and behavior specific to males or females
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Gender schema
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gender-based cognitive structure for organizing and processing information, comprising expectations for males’ and females’ appearance and behavior
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Self-socialization
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process by which people seek to maintain consistency between their gender schemas and their behavior
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Parenting styles
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practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their beliefs about those practices
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Demandingness
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degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior and require their children to comply with them
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Responsiveness
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degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs and express love, warmth, and concern for them
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Authoritative parents
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in classification of parenting styles, parents who are high in demandingness and high in responsiveness
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Authoritarian parents
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in classification of parenting styles, parents who are high in demandingness but low in responsiveness
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Permissive parents
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in classification of parenting styles, parents who are low in demandingness and high is responsiveness
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Disengaged parents
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in classification of parenting styles, parents who are low in both demandingness and responsiveness
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Reciprocal or bidirectional effects
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in relations between two persons, the principle that each of them affects the other
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Filial piety
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belief that children should respect, obey, and revere their parents throughout life; common in Asian cultures
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Familismo
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cultural belief among Latinos that emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual obligations among family members
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Time out
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disciplinary strategy in which the child is required to sit still in a designated place for a brief period
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Psychological control
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parenting strategy that uses shame and withdrawal of love to influence children’s behavior
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Corporal punishment
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physical punishment of children
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Child maltreatment
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abuse or neglect of children, including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
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Foster care
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for maltreated children, approach in which adults approved by state agency take over the care of the child
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Lap child
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near-constant dependence on the care and monitoring of others
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Knee child
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still cared for mainly by the mother but also spends time with other children, especially of the same gender
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Yard child
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given more scope to venture beyond the immediate family area and into the “yard,” that is, into a social world where parents are nearby but not always directly present
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Only child
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child who has no siblings
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Peers
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persons who share some aspect of their status in common, such as age
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Instrumental aggression
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type of aggression when a child wants something and uses aggressive behavior or words to get it
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Hostile aggression
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type of aggression that entails signs of ager and intent to inflict pain or harm on others Includes physical aggression (hitting, kicking, pushing, or striking with an object) and verbal aggression (use of words to hurt others, through yelling at them, calling them names, or hostile teasing)
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Relational aggression
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(or social aggression) type aggression that involves damaging another person’s reputation among peers through social exclusion and malicious gossip
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During early childhood _________. a) Physical development occurs at a more rapid pace that it did in the first three years b) Most children become more like adults in terms of their body appearance c) Girls are slightly taller and heavier than boys d) The amount of tooth decay is similar between children in developing and developed countries
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b) Most children become more like adults in terms of their body appearance
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Your cousin has a five-year-old son and a three-year-old daughter. He has been taking them to story time at the library, but his daughter is having a very difficult time sitting still, even for 10 minutes. His son is able to sit through the entire story time because his _____ is more fully developed than his sister’s. a) Hippocampus b) Corpus callosum c) Reticular formation d) Cerebellum
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c) Reticular formation
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Limited autobiographical memory prior to age 5 is probably due to incomplete myelination of the _____. a) Reticular formation b) Corpus callosum c) Hippocampus d) Broca’s area
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c) Hippocampus
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Walter is a 5-year-old boy who lives in the United States. Based on the research, if he has a nutritional problem it is most likely to be _____. a) Marasmus b) Calcium deficiency c) Protein deficiency d) Kwashiorkor
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b) Calcium deficiency
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Accidental injury among young children ______. a) Is equally common among boys and girls b) Is extremely rare in the United States because of increased awareness and better technology; rates are under 5% c) Is less of a danger than disease in developing countries d) Happens at a greater rate in developed countries than in developing countries
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c) Is less of a danger than disease in developing countries
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In early childhood (from ages 3-6) ________. a) Gender differences in gross motor development appear b) Girls and boys are equally skilled at body-coordination skills, such as balancing on one foot c) Children from high socioeconomic status tend to have better gross motor skills than their counterparts from lower socioeconomic backgrounds d) Fine motor skills are refined, but gross motor skills remain the same as they were in toddlerhood
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a) Gender differences in gross motor development appear
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Imagine that you have just walked into a kindergarten classroom during art time and all the children in this particular class are 5 years old. What would you most likely see? a) Most of the children scribbling on a piece of paper b) Most of the children drawing something that is recognizable, such as a person or an animal c) Most of the children showing depth and realistic detail in their artwork d) Most of the girls getting frustrated because they can’t hold a crayon or paintbrush
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b) Most of the children drawing something that is recognizable, such as a person or an animal
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A child who is left-handed ______. a) Is often praised for their uniqueness in non-Western cultures b) Will be more likely to learn to be right-handed in an Asian or African culture than in the United States c) Likely first developed this tendency during the preschool years d) Will always have a left-handed twin if they are monozygotic (MZ) twins
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b) Will be more likely to learn to be right-handed in an Asian or African culture than in the United States
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One can see a preference for the use of a particular hand, handedness, over another as early as ______. a) Infancy b) Age 5 c) Toddlerhood d) The prenatal period
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d) The prenatal period
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Which of the following is TRUE regarding handedness? a) Left-handed people tend to have poorer verbal and math ability than right-handed people b) A premature birth is more common among left-handed infants c) Children do not show hand preference until the middle of kindergarten when they are learning to write d) Left-handed people are less likely to have problems learning to read than right-handed people
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b) A premature birth is more common among left-handed infants
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In Piagetian terms, which of the following is the principle that the amount of a physical substance remains the same even if its physical appearance changes? a) Centration b) Conservation c) Physical ability d) Reversibility
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b) Conservation
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Five-year-old Marco draws a picture of a train with a smiley face and sunglasses. This is an example of ______. a) Sensorimotor thought b) Animism c) Reversibility d) Centration
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b) Animism
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Which of the following is TRUE regarding theory of mind? a) It refers to the independence and stubbornness characteristic of toddlers as they develop a sense of self b) It begins to develop around age 5 c) It develops the same way in all cultures with spoken language d) It is measured with false-belief tasks
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d) It is measured with false-belief tasks
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According to the text, what is one of the factors that make cultural learning in developed countries different from cultural learning in traditional cultures? a) Children in developed countries aren’t interested in guided participation in daily activities the way children in traditional cultures are b) Parents in developed countries believe that their children should learn independently c) Parents in developed countries have assimilated into the culture and are not interests in teaching their children skills or traditions as parents in traditional cultures are d) Children in developed countries are often apart from their families for a substantial part of the day, so they don’t have as much guided participation in daily activities within the family as children in traditional cultures do
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d) Children in developed countries are often apart from their families for a substantial part of the day, so they don’t have as much guided participation in daily activities within the family as children in traditional cultures do
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Learning to be able to set the table in a developed country, such as the United States, or to help prepare food in a nontraditional culture, such as Botswana, are examples of cultural learning. According to Vygotsky, these skills ______. a) Must be learned in the sensorimotor stage first or they never fully develop b) Are usually first taught in toddlerhood c) Develop as part of a social process d) Develop best if they take place in a formal setting
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c) Develop as part of a social process
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As a parent of a three-year-old, you have visited several preschool programs to determine the one that will provide the highest quality experience. Which of the following should NOT be heavily weighted in your decision about which preschool to pick? a) Whether there is a small class size b) Whether the teachers spend a lot of time interacting with the children, rather than with each other c) Whether they make good use of time by providing worksheets and flashcards to practice numbers and letters d) Whether the teachers have been formally trained and have educational credentials
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c) Whether they make good use of time by providing worksheets and flashcards to practice numbers and letters
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For Japanese ________. a) Preschool is mainly a time for learning social skills and gaining experience being a member of a group b) The same top reasons for young children to attend preschool are listed by parents and preschool teachers as their counterparts in the United States c) Learning academic skills is the number one goal of having their children attend preschool d) Individuality is stressed from the time children enter preschool as a way to encourage children to reach their full potential
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a) Preschool is mainly a time for learning social skills and gaining experience being a member of a group
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There is a broad consensus among early childhood scholars that preschool teaching should be based on ______. a) Whole language learning b) Repetition and rote learning to ensure the mastery of core concepts c) Unstructured, hands-on experiences d) Building skills for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)
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c) Unstructured, hands-on experiences
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Compared to low-income children who did not participate in High Scope Preschool Project, children who did _____. a) Were just as likely to be arrested and go to prison, but have shorter prison sentences b) Were more likely to be married and own their own home by age 27 c) Were just as likely to drop out of high school because of the need to help support their families Had lower incomes at age 27, but were more likely to enjoy their work
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b) Were more likely to be married and own their own home by age 27
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Compared to a comparison group of children with low socioeconomic status who did not attend Head Start, those children who did _____. a) Showed a boost in IQ and achievement from elementary school until the end of high school b) Had higher grades, but lower self-esteem because of the pressure to achieve c) Were less likely to be placed in special education classes d) Improved their academic performance, but were still more likely to repeat at least one grade
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c) Were less likely to be placed in special education classes
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While learning language, children who learn English and other Western languages have been shown to fast-map _____ first. a) Possessives b) Nouns c) Adjectives d) Verbs
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b) Nouns
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Which of the following is TRUE? a) Japanese and Korean children tend to learn nouns before verbs b) In both Eastern and Western languages, modifiers are added before nouns and verbs c) Children learning English fast-map nouns earlier than verbs d) Vocabulary growth slows down in toddlerhood and then speeds up again by around age 5
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c) Children learning English fast-map nouns earlier than verbs
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In Berko’s (1958) classic experiment, she showed young children a picture of a figure called a “wug” and then showed them two of these figures. She then asked them to respond to the following question: “Now there are two _____.” Berko was measuring children’s understanding of what? a) Overextension b) Possessives c) Grammar d) Pragmatics
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c) Grammar
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Four-year-old Nicco uses infant-directed speech when talking to his neighbor’s new baby; this demonstrates _______. a) Pragmatics b) Overregularization c) Existence of the language acquisition device d) Fast mapping
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a) Pragmatics
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Which of the following is TRUE regarding emotional regulation? a) Self-regulation develops earlier in boys than girls b) Temper tantrums and crying decrease from age 2 to 6 c) The development of the temporal lobe promotes self-regulation d) Different cultures have similar views about what the optimal level of control is
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b) Temper tantrums and crying decrease from age 2 to 6
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In early childhood _______. a) Moral judgements tend to be based on fear of punishment than is the case for older children b) Children from different cultures learn the same moral rules c) Children have more difficulty with perspective taking than they did earlier in development because of their stronger sense of self d) Children are not yet able to experience empathy
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a) Moral judgements tend to be based on fear of punishment than is the case for older children
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Gender identity _____. a) Develops much more quickly in females than males b) Includes an understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological c) Refers to the ability of children to identify themselves as male and female d) Develops around age 5
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c) Refers to the ability of children to identify themselves as male and female
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The way we organize and process information in terms of gender-based categories is referred to as _____. a) Gender constancy b) Self-socialization c) Gender stereotyping d) Gender schemas
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d) Gender schemas
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Chris realized that even though the teacher dressed up like Michael Jackson for Halloween, she is still a female. Based on this information, one would expect that Chris ________. a) Has not yet attained gender identity, but knows the gender identity of the teacher b) Is a 4-year-old boy c) Is a 7-year-old boy d) Uses gender schemas, but does not yet understand gender constancy
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c) Is a 7-year-old boy
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Research on parenting has found that _______. a) Children of permissive parents tend to do better in school than children of other parent styles because they learn to think for themselves b) The outcomes for children of authoritative parents are virtually identical to outcomes for children of permissive parents c) The two main dimensions of parenting are demandingness and strictness d) There are bidirectional effects between parents and their children
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d) There are bidirectional effects between parents and their children
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If parents listen receptively to opinions from their children, their parenting style is considered to be _________. a) Autocratic b) Authoritative c) Child-centered d) Authoritarian
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b) Authoritative
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The dimension of parenting known as responsiveness is also known as _____. a) Warmth b) Setting limits c) Disengaged d) Psychological control
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a) Warmth
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The use of shame as a punishment ________. a) Is universally accepted as the best method of discipline because it does not include physical punishment b) Is associated with high rates of behavior problems in Japanese children c) Has been related to positive outcomes in both Western and traditional cultures d) Is referred to as psychological control among American researchers
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d) Is referred to as psychological control among American researchers
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Which of the following is the most accurate statement based on existing research? a) Western parents tend to use a lot of praise for compliant behavior b) Not all cultures have some system of misbehavior; some feel that children are inherently good and do not need discipline c) Permissive parenting would be most likely in cultures that have a tradition of filial piety d) Japanese mothers usually respond to their children’s misbehavior with loud reprimands and physical punishment
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a) Western parents tend to use a lot of praise for compliant behavior
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Lucien is still cared for mainly by his mother, who just recently stopped breast feeding. He also spends a lot of time with his older siblings and the older children who live nearby. When he is distressed, the older children comfort him if the mother is not in the vicinity. Using Mead’s classification, Lucien would be considered a _____. a) Lap child b) Neighborhood child c) Yard child d) Knee child
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d) Knee child
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Hyejin is an only child from China. Which of the following is most likely true? a) She poorer skills, but is considered more assertive than her counterparts with siblings b) She would be considered overindulged and selfish c) She scores lower on likability than her counterparts with siblings who have had to share and negotiate d) She has higher cognitive development than her counterparts with siblings
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d) She has higher cognitive development than her counterparts with siblings
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Based on the research, which of the following is most likely true of Sebastian, a four-year-old American male? a) He is less likely to be physically aggressive than girls at this age b) If he is especially physically aggressive at this time in development, he is unlikely to be more aggressive than his peers later on c) He is much more likely than female peers his age to use relational and verbal aggression d) He engages in rough-and-tumble play at recess when he is around other boys of the same age
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d) He engages in rough-and-tumble play at recess when he is around other boys of the same age
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Which of the following would you most likely to see five-year-olds doing on a playground in a Western culture? a) Children playing in mixed-age groups b) Boys playing a game to see who could throw a ball the farthest c) Girls playing catch with the boys d) Boy engaging in cooperative, fantasy play
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b) Boys playing a game to see who could throw a ball the farthest
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Which is the following TRUE regarding media use in early childhood? a) Boys and girls spend equal amounts of times playing electronic games b) Girls are more likely than boys to prefer violent video games because they are striving to achieve an independent and assertive identity c) Children are able to connect musical sounds with specific emotions d) Most of the research on the effects of music has focused on very young children
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c) Children are able to connect musical sounds with specific emotions
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Which of the following best describes the physical changes that take place during early childhood? a) Both boys and girls gain more weight than in height, but most add more muscle than fat b) Cross-cultural comparisons have shown that only genetics play a role in individual differences in height and weight c) Girls are slightly taller and heavier than boys d) Physical development occurs at a more rapid pace than it did in the first 3 years
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a) Both boys and girls gain more weight than in height, but most add more muscle than fat
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The limited memory for personal events and experiences prior to age 5 is probably due to incomplete myelination of the ________. a) hippocampus b) reticular formation c) corpus callosum d) cerebellum
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a) hippocampus
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The two most common types of nutritional deficiencies in developing countries are a lack of protein and _______. a) calcium b) iron c) kwashiorkor d) marasmus
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b) iron
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How does motor development change between ages three and six? a) children develop the same motor skills at the same pace, regardless of gender b) fine motor skill development allows children to become more independent by doing things, such as putting on a coat and using a knife to cut soft food c) children’s fine motor skills have been found to develop at the same rate all over the world d) children’s fine motor skills become refined, but their gross motor skills remain the same as they were in toddlerhood
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b) fine motor skill development allows children to become more independent by doing things, such as putting on a coat and using a knife to cut soft food
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Which of the following statements about handedness is most accurate? a) there is no genetic component to handedness; it is based purely on one’s environment b) children who are left-handed are often praised for their uniqueness in non-Western cultures c) children first develop this tendency during the preschool years d) The prevalence of left-handedness in some African countries is as low as 1% because using the left hand is suppressed
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d) The prevalence of left-handedness in some African countries is as low as 1% because using the left hand is suppressed
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A five-year-old child draws a yellow sun in the upper corner of her paper complete with a smiley face and sunglasses. This is an example of _______. a) animism b) centered thinking c) Gross motor skill refinement d) sensorimotor thought
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a) animism
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Which of the following is true regarding theory of mind? a) A child who demonstrates theory of mind is not yet able to think about thinking b) it develops the same way in all cultures within spoken language c) children show a decrease in this ability from 4 to 6 years of age because they are becoming more independent d) it begins to develop, in rudimentary form, sometime in infancy
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d) it begins to develop, in rudimentary form, sometime in infancy
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Cultural learning skills, such as learning to set the table in a developed country or to help prepare food in a traditional culture, ______. a) develop as part of a social and cultural process, according to Vygotsky b) cannot be appropriately acquired until early adolescence c) must be learned in the sensorimotor stage first or they never fully develop d) usually develop best if they take place in a formal setting
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a) develop as part of a social and cultural process, according to Vygotsky
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As a parent of a 3-year-old, you have visited several preschool programs to determine the one that will provide the best high-quality experience. Which of the following should be important in your decision about which preschool to pick, according to research? a) The presence of formal lesson plans rather than play materials b) A strong emphasis on rote learning c) formal classrooms where the teacher sits in front and answers questions d) no more than 10 students per teacher
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d) no more than 10 students per teacher
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In Japan _______. a) parents and preschool teachers list the same top reasons for young children to attend preschool as do their counterparts in the United States b) preschool is mainly a time for learning social skills c) individuality is stressed from the time children enter preschool as a way to encourage children to reach their full potential d) Learning academic skills is the number one goal of having children attend preschool
answer

b) preschool is mainly a time for learning social skills
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A consistent pattern in early intervention programs such as Head Start is that the early gains in IQ achievement ______. a) continue to increase throughout middle school b) continue throughout the lifespan c) continue, but only for females d) fade within 2 or 3 years of entering elementary school
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d) fade within 2 or 3 years of entering elementary school
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Young children’s use of grammar _______. a) is entirely dependent on formal instruction in preschool b) develops more slowly in traditional cultures c) develops simply by hearing and using the language in daily interactions d) is mostly incorrect until age 6
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c) develops simply by hearing and using the language in daily interactions
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When a 4-year-old uses infant directed speech when talking to her neighbor’s new baby, this demonstrates _______. a) pragmatics b) a sensitive period c) classification d) fast mapping
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a) pragmatics
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A key reason why emotional outbursts decline in early childhood is that children _____. a) have learned the skill of over-controlling their emotions b) have a more sophisticated theory of mind at this age c) learn strategies for regulating their emotions, in a practice known as effortful control d) at this age are no longer at risk for externalizing problems
answer

c) learn strategies for regulating their emotions, in a practice known as effortful control
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Which of the following statements accurately describes moral development in early childhood? a) Socioemotional emotions such a shame and pride first appear b) perspective taking and being able to understand how others think and feel make children more empathetic at this age c) young children inherently know the rules and expectations of their culture without needing to be taught d) children at this age are not yet able to experience empathy
answer

b) perspective taking and being able to understand how others think and feel make children more empathetic at this age
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The process by which people seek to maintain consistency between their gender schemes and their behavior is referred to as ______. a) gender identity b) self-socialization c) self-regulation d) gender constancy
answer

b) self-socialization
question

Research on parenting has found that ______. a) there are bidirectional effects between parents and their children b) the two main dimensions of parenting are demandingness and strictness c) children of permissive parents tend to do better in school than children of other parenting styles because they learn to think for themselves d) the outcomes for children of authoritative parents are virtually identical to outcomes for children of permissive parents
answer

a) there are bidirectional effects between parents and their children
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Which of the following is the most accurate statement based on existing research? a) providing explanations to the children is most common among non-Western parents who spend more time with their children than do American parents b) permissive parenting would be most likely in cultures that have a tradition of filial piety c) The typical parenting style in non-Western cultures is authoritarian d) The American model of parenting does not apply well to most other cultures
answer

d) The American model of parenting does not apply well to most other cultures
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The use of shame as a form of discipline _____. a) has resulted in positive outcomes in both the United States and Finland b) is universally accepted as the best method of discipline because it does not include physical punishment c) is associated with high rates of behavior problems in Japanese children d) is referred to as psychological control by American researchers
answer

d) is referred to as psychological control by American researchers
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Which of the following is true regarding siblings? a) “Only children” are maladjusted, meaning they are more prone to depressive behavior disorders b) research has shown that young children with older siblings have a more advanced theory of mind than those who are only children c) jealousy is a common response to the birth of a younger sibling across cultures d) a gap of 4 to 8 years between children is common in many cultures across the world
answer

c) jealousy is a common response to the birth of a younger sibling across cultures
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If you were a researcher observing play among 5-year-old children in the United States, what would you be most likely to observe? a) girls think ball with the boys (with the girls serving as referees to make sure the boys follow the rules) b) boys engaging in cooperative, fantasy play c) The boys challenging the girls to a wrestling match d) boys playing with children from other kindergarten classes, rather than older boys
answer

d) boys playing with children from other kindergarten classes, rather than older boys
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Watching TV during young childhood ______. a) has been correlated with aggressive thoughts and behaviors, but only among males who were already extremely aggressive before viewing b) has not been associated with any positive effects on development c) is a popular leisure activity all over the world d) Has not been studied experimentally, and therefore no conclusions about causation can be made
answer

c) is a popular leisure activity all over the world

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