Praxis II (0941/5941) US History/World History

Flashcard maker : Steven Ramirez
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
*SIGNED SEPTEMBER 27, 1821*
-Hidalgo of Dolores began the fight for independence in 1810 with Grito de Dolores
14th State to join the Union
*VERMONT*
– In 1777, it originally became a free state of its own before joining with the United States
– Became the 14th state to join the Union in 1791
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
*THE BEGINNING OF THE BANKING SYSTEM*
– Federal Reserve doesn’t actually make the money
– US Mint makes and circulates the coins
– Dept. of Treasury makes paper currency
– Everything else is counterfeit
The year the Shah of Iran fell from power
*1979*
– Iranian forces led by religious fanatic Khomeni drove the Shah from power
– Seized control of the country and destroyed all things western in the nation
– Students kidnapped American citizens; later released
– One of the students eventually became Iranian president
Mode of transportation invented in 1807
*STEAMBOAT*
– Designed by Robert Fulton in 1807
– A way for people to quickly travel up and down the waterways in America
– 1st voyage was up the Hudson River in New York
Put forth the notion that the Earth revolved around the Sun
*COPERNICUS*
– Was accused of heresy when he put forth his finding
– Quickly took back his statement to avoid death
Number of colonies needed to ratify the Constitution
*9*
– Only nine colonies were needed to vote for the Constitution to be ratified
– All 13 colonies however eventually did ratify the Constitution
Leader of the Huns that conquered most of Eastern Europe
*ATILLA*
– One of the most ruthless leaders of the Huns
– One of the most effective
– Huns moved to Mongolia under his leadership
– Established a new homeland in Hungary
– Eventually died from complications of a nosebleed
16th century city that became a trade center
*AMSTERDAM*
– Dutch were involved in spice trade in Asia, salt in Venezuela, coffee & sugar in Brazil, silk from Middle East
– This brought prosperity to Dutch Republic
– Made Amsterdam a trade center
– Venice was a trade center before the 15th century
Founder of the Black Panther Party
*HUEY NEWTON*
– Unlike Martin Luther KIng, he was a radical activist of the cause
– His mission was not readily received due to his aggressive approach
The first female astronaut
*SALLY RIDE*
– A graduate of Stanford University
– Initially pursued a career as a nationally ranked tennis player
– Later enrolled in NASA’s training program for astronauts
– Was appointed by the president to investigate the Challenger disaster
When was Pledge of Allegiance written
*1892*
– Written by Francis Bellamy
– To express and encourage pride and loyalty to the United States whenever the flag was observed
Place where first shots of Civil War were fired
*FORT SUMTER*
– Confederate soldiers fired upon a Union held fort
– This was the beginning of the Civil War
– War lasted from 1861 – 1865
First American president to ride on a train
*ANDREW JACKSON*
– Traveled on the Baltimore & Ohio
– The B & O was the 1st public railroad in the United States
When did Bloody Sunday occur
*JANUARY 9, 1905*
– 120,000 workers went on strike in St. Petersburg
– They were warned not to march
– 150,000 strikers and their families were shot and run down during a protest
What Act regulated the railroads
*INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT*
– Without laws in place, it is possible to transport illegal goods from state to state
– This act was put in place to regulate such practices
When did American forces defeat the British at Saratoga
*1777*
– Following a defeat in Philadelphia, American forces defeated the British forces in Saratoga in 1777
– Because of this victory, more colonists felt encouraged to join in on the fight for independence
Who took up the presidency of the U.S. in 1929
*HERBERT HOOVER*
– Known as the last cabinet secretary to be elected President of the U.S.
– Several months after taking office, the stock market crash and Great Depression plagued America
– He was unable to get America out of the economic downturn
– Many rank him as the one of the worst American presidents
How did President James Garfield die
*HE WAS ASSASSINATED*
– Was the 20th president of the United States
– Began his career as a school principal
– Later became a congressman and then president
– Was shot by a mentally unstable man not long after being elected president
Name of 1st civilization created in Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C.E.
*SUMERIAN*
– Was started in the area known as Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C.E.
– One of the first civilizations known to have existed at that time period
– Eventually Sumer would become known as Babylon
– Today is known as Baghdad
First civilization to emerge in the Andes Mountains
*CHAVIN*
– Appeared in the Andes Mountains around 1000 B.C.E.
– Were among the first people in the Americas to work with gold
– Created large temples
Name of man who led Athenians to democracy
*SOLON*
– A wealthy businessman
– Organized Athenians into a fight against the tyrant of the city-state
– Athenians were able to get the ruler out of the city and establish a democracy
What ended the conflicts between Lutheran & Catholics
*PEACE OF AUGSBURG*
– The different German states had different princes
– As Lutheranism began to spread, conflict between Lutheran and Catholic princes became inevitable
– They fought from 1550 to 1555
– The Peace of Augsburg gave each prince the authority to choose his state religion
What fever broke out in Philadelphia in 1793
*YELLOW FEVER*
– Epidemic broke out where 5000 people got sick
– Doctors didn’t know how to prevent or cure the outbreak
– Suggested that residents leave the city
– It was later determined the combination of hot and humid weather and stagnant water were the cause due to heavy rain
– Virus carrying mosquitoes were the cause of the disease
Who was Pauline Cushman
*A SPY*
– A loyal Unionist
– Looking for a way to serve her country, she enlisted in the secret service as a spy
– She served her country well
– At her death, she was buried with military honors
True or False: France was an Axis power during WWII
*FALSE*
– Although partially captured during WWII, France never officially entered the Axis powers
– Was rather considered to be an Allied power
First president to make a trip outside of the U.S. while in office
*THEODORE ROOSEVELT*
– In 1906, Roosevelt visited the construction site of when completed, would be the Panama Canal
– Chief Engineer of the project later credits Roosevelt as the \”real builder of the Panama Canal\”
First document of government in Plymouth Colony
*MAYFLOWER COMPACT*
– Signed in 1620
– Was the governing law for the Pilgrims that landed at Plymouth Rock
Who was Thurgood Marshall
*FIRST BLACK SUPREME COURT JUSTICE*
– Known for his victory in the Brown v. Board of Education case
– Was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Clinton
– Differed from Martin Luther King in that he believed segregation should be fought in the courts
18th century theory that came from working class political movement
*SOCIALISM*
– Socialist theory in the 19th century
– Advocated common ownership of resources
– Theorists like Engel and Robert Owens criticized capitalism and effects of growin industry
– Henri de Saint Simon was the 1st to use the term socialism
Date of the Great Chicago fire
*1871*
– Burned for 3 days
– Hundreds of people were killed
– Destroyed property and acres of land
– No one really knows the exact cause of the fire
Program to help Americans dealing with hardships of Great Depression
*NEW DEAL*
– Launched by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932
– Was designed to help create jobs and maintain stability in banks
What epic poem details the Trojan War
*THE ILIAD*
– Created by Homer
– Was a tribute to the Trojan War
– Scholars considered this to be a work of fiction until the actual city of Troy was uncovered in the early 20th century
What U.S. President was nicknamed \”Ike\”
*DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER*
– Was very popular with the people
– Was a conservative
– Patient leader who concentrated on maintaining world peace
The rough beginning date for the Scientific Revolution
*1550*
– Scientific Revolution is a product of the humanistic thought of the Renaissance
– Copernicus’s De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium was published in 1543
– Other thinkers such as Michelangelo developed new ways of looking at the world
– The rise of science and reason over superstition led to advances and helped usher in the Age of Reason
Actor that became California’s 38th Governor
*ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER*
– Born in Austria
– Began his career in the Austrian army
– Later entered a Mr. Universe contest which ultimately led him the to the United States
– Began acting and in 2003 announced his candidacy for governor of the state of California
What empire was Zoroaster from
*PERSIA*
– Founder of Zoroastrianism
– He came from the Persian Empire
– He taught heaven was a hot place to people who were used to living in the cold mountains of the region
Who led an expedition through the Great Plains
*MAJOR STEPHEN LONG*
– Long was very interested in and studied the formation of mountains
– Long’s Peak in Colorado was named after the expedition
What is the duty of the Judicial Branch
*INTERPRET THE LAWS*
– Judicial branch decides whether or not a law is considered constitutional
– If there is a dispute on whether or not one was, the branch is responsible for settling the dispute
– The courts are governed by the judicial code
The Enlightenment had a profound influence on which Prussian ruler
*FREDERICK THE GREAT*
– Officially was known as Frederick II
– Ruled Prussia from 1740-1786
– He doubled the population of Prussia through military strength
– Learned from enlightened thinkers
– Established religious tolerance and allowed freedom of expression
– His attitude towards the arts and expression won him the title of Frederick the Great
What French man claimed the Miss. River and it’s land for France
*LASALLE*
– Re-discovered the Mississippi River, this time claiming it for France
– France was able to maintain control of the land and it gave them a considerable hold in the New World
– France would keep this territory until selling it to the United States in the early 1800’s
Name of the tribal priests of the Celts in 500 B.C.E.
*DRUIDS*
– Although regarded as priests and wise men, they were also the leading authority in a region
– At this point in history, the Celts included people not only in present Great Britain but Spain, France, and Germany
What governor/senator got laws passed regulating railroads, banks, and civil service
*ROBERT LA FOLLETTE*
– Was a governor/senator of Wisconsin in the early 1900’s
– Was known by citizens as \”Battling Bob\”
How was Chinese Exclusion Act designed to affect immigration from China to U.S.
*DESIGNED TO KEEP CHINESE IMMIGRANTS OUT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR A PERIOD OF 10 YEARS*
– Was intended to keep Chinese laborers out of the U.S. for the 10 year period of time
– Those Chinese non-laborers who desired to immigrate to the U.S. were required to get approval and obtain certification from the Chinese government, which was difficult to do
In 1803, how much did France sell the Louisiana Purchase for
*$15 MILLION*
– France was under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte
– France needed the money from the sale to finance Napoleon’s war in Europe
– The acquisition of this land doubled the size of the United States
What was the \”Gentlemen’s Agreement\”
*AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE JAPANESE AND THE USA*
– The two parties agreed not to grant passports to people trying to relocate from Japan to the USA
– This agreement relied upon the integrity of both parties to keep their word
Who killed President John F. Kennedy
*LEE HARVEY OSWALD*
– It was said that Oswald was medically documented as mentally imbalanced
– It was also said he had an insatiable desire to become famous
– Assassination of the president, in his mind accomplished this goal
What name is written the largest on the Declaration of Independence
*JOHN HANCOCK*
– Over 40 people showed up to help draft and sign the Declaration of Independence
– John Hancock chose to sign his name the largest
– His reasoning was that King George III would be able to read it without his glasses
– An obvious aim against the king
How did Alexander Hamilton die
*IN A DUEL*
– Wrote 2/3 of the Federalists Papers
– Died at the age of 32 when he was Secretary of the Treasury
– In a duel with the Vice President of the time, Aaron Burr
– While Hamilton did not die at the scene of the duel, he died later from complications
When did agriculture begin
*NEOLITHIC PERIOD*
– Beginning of agriculture occurred when people settled down to form communities
– This occurred in the Neolithic era and people stopped being foragers
How many amendments were originally in the Bill of Rights
*10*
– Bill of Rights was passed in 1791 to give American citizens certain freedoms that they could come to expect from the country
– Over time, more amendments have been added for various reasons
Who created the alphabet
*PHOENICIANS*
– Created a language which they would use for trading among different nations
– This language quickly spread because of the amount of interaction they had with other nations in the region
When was the Navigation Act passed
*1660*
– Forced colonists to only buy from England
– Prior to 1660, colonists were able to trade with other nations as long as the majority of their trading took place in England
– England passed this act making it a crime to trade with other nations in the area
– Many people continued to trade with other nations though since England was unable to fully enforce the law
Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Indians living east of what state to move west
*ARKANSAS*
– Reasoning behind Indian Removal Act was to secure enough land for the Americans who migrated to the country to be able to find a place to live
– During this time of travel, many Native Americans died causing their long march to be named the Trail of Tears
Historical figure that was arrested for defending heliocentric views
*GALILEO*
– Copernicus was the first to formulate a detailed heliocentric theory
– Galileo defended Coperincanism and was accused of heresy
– When he refused to recant his scientific beliefs, he was tried and placed under house arrest by the Roman Inquisition
– He remained under house arrest until his death of fever and heart palpitations
In 1614, what did Japanese, Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu outlaw
*CHRISTIANITY*
– Ieyasu established trade with the Dutch and English
– He became aware of the conflict between Catholics and Protestants
– He saw Christianity as a threat to the political system
– He outlawed Christianity in 1614
How old was Rosa Parks when she died
*92*
– Was an African American woman who refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger
– The US Congress called Rosa Parks the \”First Lady of Civil Rights\”
– As a result of her efforts, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
What happened at the Library of Congress in 1812
*BRITISH BURNED THE ACTUAL LIBRARY OF CONGRESS AND THE BOOKS HELD THERE*
– During this time, the War of 1812 was taking place
– Burning the books held at the library forced America to buy 6,487 new books to replenish the supply
– These books were purchased from Thomas Jefferson
The 2nd Industrial Revolution saw advancements in which areas
*ELECTRICITY AND CHEMICALS*
– From 1875-1905
– Saw inventions such as the light bulb and telephone
– 1st Industrial Revolution focused mainly on changes in textile and steam
Who led the first Vikings to North America
*LEIF ERIKSSON*
– Led the Vikings to the New World while trying to find better fishing grounds
– They set up living arrangements but never permanently settled in the area
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence
*THOMAS JEFFERSON*
– John Adams was said to have asked Jefferson to do it because he wrote \”ten times better\”
– On Jefferson’s tombstone, it is one of the 3 things he wanted to be remembered for
The Cave of Chavet contains the world’s most important cave painting from what era
*PALEOTHIC*
– The Cave of Chavet has the oldest known cave painting inside of it
– Painted around 31,000 B.C.E
– The cave is now part of the Ardeche department of France
What 2 Japanese islands were captured during WWII
*OKINAWA AND IWO JIMA*
– Were captured by American soldiers only after intense ground fighting
– One of the most famous images of the battles in the Pacific deals with the raising of the American flag over Iwo Jima
What language did the Aryan people of India have
*SANSKRIT*
– Aryan people settled in the Indus Valley region of India around 500 B.C.E.
– Although they did not have a written language, their traditions were passed on orally and were eventually written down in what is called the Vedas
In 1979, what dictator came into power in Iraq
*SADDAM HUSSEIN*
– Became the president of Iraq and began plans to conquer other states in the region
– He remained in power until 2005, during the Iraq War
The Boer War was between which nations
*DUTCH AND BRITISH*
– Took place in South Africa
– First war occurred when the British refused to acknowledge the annexation of Transvaal
– The Dutch farmers held their land, but the second conflict was over the resentment and high taxes that they placed on the British in their colony
– The British won the 2nd war in 1902 and the Boer states became part of the British Empire
Where is the only underground prehistoric temple in the world located
*MALTA*
– The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta is the 1st underground temple to be discovered
– Originally a sanctuary, it was later converted to a necropolis
How many terms did George Washington serve as president
*2*
– Washington served 8 years as US president
– A presidential term consists of 4 years
– Washington was popular and even hailed as the \”people’s favorite\”
Who was president of the US during the Cuban Missile Crisis
*JOHN F. KENNEDY*
– When Soviets in Cuba were discovered to be building weapons, Kennedy began talks on how the Soviets would take down their weapons
– It seemed for a moment as though the Soviets and the US would go to war
– When an agreement was finally reached, both sides returned to their previous cold war status
Who declared war in 1812
*AMERICA*
– Declared war against Great Britain based on numerous reasons
– One reason was trade restriction
– Great Britain was guilty of forcing American merchant sailors and slaves to join and fight for the Royal Navy
Essays written explaining the Constitution
*FEDERALISTS PAPERS*
– Written by John Jay, James Madison, & Alexander Hamilton
– Written in the form of newspaper articles to prepare for the ratification of the Constitution
– It allowed people to voice their opinions about what was happening in the New Nation
What country established 1st European permanent settlement in N. America
*SPAIN*
– In 1565
– Under the guidance of King Philip II, the Spanish created the city of St. Augustine in Florida
– More of a military post
– It allowed the Spanish a secure spot in the New World and they remained there for many centuries
Who was the greatest hero of the Hundred Years’ War on the English side
*EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE*
– 1330 to 1376
– Led English troops to victory at Crecy, Poitiers, and Navarette
– His victories encouraged the English to continue fighting against the French
What organization was Dr. Martin Luther King an organizer and 1st President
*SCLC*
-Southern Christian Leadership Conference
– Founded in 1957
– Appealed to churchgoing blacks with the goal of desegregating the bus system in the southern portion of the United States
– For the most part, young people felt this approach to desegregation was too conservative and decided to form the SNCC, with the same goal in mind
Social unrest and upheaval of the French Revolution lasted how long
*1789-1799*
– The Reign of Terror lasted from 1793-1794, when thousands of people were executed by guillotine
– It is generally believed to begin with the Estates-General of 1789 and last until the rise of Napoleon in 1799
Why did the British need to end the War of 1812
*BECAUSE OF THEIR FIGHT WITH NAPOLEON*
– War of 1812 came from economic sanctions placed on the US by the British and French
– British finally needed to pull out in 1814 in order to focus on the Napoleonic War
– The Treaty of Ghent returned the American and British relationship to what it was before the war
What established religious tolerance in France
*EDICT OF NANTES*
– Was issued by Henry IV on April 13, 1598
– It granted rights to the protestant Huguenots
– Henry had been a Huguenot prior to becoming king of Catholic France
– His edict created more unity between the French people
What did the acronym WIN stand for during the Gerald Ford presidency
*WHIP INFLATION NOW*
– The US was recovering from the Watergate scandal when Ford took office
– It was also dealing with the issue of inflation
– Unemployment was at a rate of 9%, which was the highest it had been since 1941
– Wearing the WIN buttons was Ford’s initial measure of acknowledging the country’s economic issues
From 1950-1974 what was the cost of the Vietnam War
*$150 BILLION*
– Is one of the most costly conflicts that the US has participated in
– There were 58,174 killed
– Youngest US soldier was 16 years old
14th state admitted to the Union
*VERMONT*
– Part of the New England region of the US
– Is known as the \”Green Mountain State\”
– Ver-mount means \”Green Mountain\” in French
What plan allowed representation based upon population
*VIRGINIA PLAN*
– Virginia was one of the largest colonies in the New World and had more people than other areas
– If Congress was based upon population, Virginia would have had more power than smaller states
– Eventually a compromise was reached
– The Virginia Plan was used to create the modern House of Representatives
Founder of the Primitive Methodist Church
*JOHN WESLEY*
– Voted as the largest US denominational chuch
– Worldwide discipleship is the United Methodist’s main motivation
– Texas has the largest number of United Methodist members
Who were the Allied Powers during WWI
*BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA*
– Were brought into the war due to treaties and alliances they were in with Serbia
– The reason these nations had originally joined together was to stop the Germans from conquering all of Europe
What Chinese dynasty is responsible for starting construction on the Great Wall
*HAN*
– Came to power after defeating the Qin dynasty
– They started construction on the wall soon after their reign began
– Hoped it would be a deterrent from would-be attackers from the north
Court case that fought against the unequal funding of black and white schools
*BRIGGS vs CLARENDON COUNTY
– Clarendon County is located in South Carolina
– In the 50’s, spent $43 per year on each of its black students and $179 per year on each white student
– Each white school had desks for all students, while two of the black schools had no desks at all
– Parents of some of the black students sued the school board citing unequal funding for the schools
What year was the first private Internet provider launched
*1991*
– Internet was originally created to be used only by military personnel to coordinate around the world
– As time continued, it became apparent that everyone in the world would benefit from this direct communication
– Al Gore famously referred to his involvement in creating the Internet while running for presidency in 2000
Which American negotiated trade with Japan after the country spent years in isolation
*COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY*
– Trade negotiations between America and Japan in 1845 opened Japan with trade beyond the Dutch and China for the first time in two centuries
– Perry negotiated the treaty with Japan
What was the book \”How the Other Half Lives\” about
*THE LIVES OF POOR URBAN IMMIGRANTS*
– Written by Jacob Riis in 1890
– Tells the truth about the lives of poor urban immigrants
– Riis was a Danish-American social reformer
– Used his writing and photography skills to help the poor of NY City
– An immigrant to the US himself, he understood the plight of the poor and desired to help them by shedding light to the world on their situation
Greeks declared independence from the Ottomans in which year
*1822*
– Greece was ruled by the Ottomans since the 1400’s
– They rebelled in 1821
– Did not declare their independence until 1822
– Greece was supported by Britain, France, Russia, and Bavaria
– Their independence was recognized in 1832
What act of 1862 encouraged families to move out West
*HOMESTEAD ACT*
– With many people still dealing with the Civil War, people were looking for new places to live
– The Homestead Act passed in 1862
– It gave each family 160 acres out West with the condition that they were to cultivate the land and not sell it within 5 years
What beverage was tossed into the Boston Harbor in protest of the English
*TEA*
– England passed the Tea Act of 1773
– This gave England a monopoly on the importation of tea to the American colonies, even though the colonists could get it for cheaper from other nations
– Colonists, dressed as Native Americans, sneaked onto the British ships and dumped the tea into the harbor
What president of the US was the 1st to have impeachment proceedings begin against him
*ANDREW JACKSON*
– Jackson fired his secretary of war which appeared to have violated the Tenure of Office Act
– When the case was presented before the Senate, it failed to get the 2/3 majority vote to impeach him
What nation did Iraq invade that caused the 1st Guld War
*KUWAIT*
– Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait with his military force in 1990
– Citing it as part of former Iraq and therefore his
– As the problem arose, America intervened to restore peace to the area
Leader of Athens when Darius the Great attacked Greece
*PERICLES*
– Was the leader of the Athenians when they were being attacked by the Persians
– With his leadership, the Grecian city-states were able to bond together and drive back the oncoming Persians
What was the name of the protest against segregation in Georgia
*ALBANY MOVEMENT*
– The main goal was to fight against segregation in Albany, GA
– The nonviolent campaign was initiated by SNCC and SCLC
What is celebrated as the day of Mexican Independence
*GRITO de DOLORES*
– Mexico’s independence day from Spain is celebrated as Grito de Dolores, on September 15th and 16th of 1810
– It is not the day Mexico was officially independent
– It commemorates the day Hidalgo released the supporters of independence
What nation had the first people to walk on the moon in 1969
*UNITED STATES*
– Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong were the 1st men to walk on the moon
– They were part of the space race that the US had with the Soviet Union
– Since their landing, there has been no other moon landing
What treaty formally ended the Revolutionary War
*TREATY OF PARIS*
– The last battle took place at Yorktown where George Washington assisted the French, defeating English General Charles Cornwallis
– The Treaty of Paris established the end of the war and America on the international scale
What new weapon was tested on the Japanese during WWII
*ATOMIC BOMB*
– It was designed in America under the codeword \”The Manhattan Project\”
– It was released upon the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki under President Truman’s orders to quickly end the war
– The Japanese surrendered shortly afterward
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and the American Revolution rejected which concept
*HEREDITARY KINGSHIP*
– The American Revolution and Thomas Paine rejected the traditional government based on heredity
– While the colonists eventually rejected a monarchy, the current government was not created until after the revolution
Who was the 1st Spaniard to begin explorations of the mainland of N. America
*DE LEON*
– In 1513, Ponce de Leon began searching through the area of modern Florida
– He heard rumors from a Pawnee tribesman about a wonderful and enchanted land where he hoped to find the Fountain of Youth
– When the fountain and land were not found, he killed his guide for leading him to nowhere
What did the Romans call France
*GAUL*
– The Romans named the country of France Gaul because of the people who lived in the country
– The official name of France was not created until the many different countries in the region formed together as one, long after the Roman Empire had declined
What country do many people believe President Barack Obama was born
*KENYA*
– Many dispute the fact that President Obama should be classified as an American citizen
– It is said that he is not a natural born citizen of the USA
– During his campaign for presidency, his birth certificate was submitted, stating his place of birth as Hawaii
What was the city-state of Sparta known for
*FIGHTING*
– Was considered the most powerful fighting city-state in the country of Greece
– It waged war against many others including Athens as it sought to expand its territory
Who was the first person to sail around the Cape of Good Hope
*BARTHOLOMEU DIAS*
– Was the 1st person to successfully sail around the Cape of Good Hope
– It proved to the European nations that it was possible to go from Europe to India via ship in 1488
– He had trained under Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal
– He returned home soon after sailing past the cape an did not make it to India
What state was the 1st to adopt the \”no fault\” divorce law
*CALIFORNIA*
– Neither party has to prove a wrong doing in no fault resolutions
– Religious groups particularly blame the high divorce rate not on irreconcilable difference, but on the no fault law which makes it easy to divorce for any reason
When Arab nations attacked Israel in 1973, what was the name of the resulting war
*YOM KIPPUR WAR*
– Named for the Jewish holiday in which the Arabs began their attack
– Israel was prepared for the war
– Both sides suffered heavy casualties before declaring a truce
– Because of the fighting, the price of oil around the world quadrupled
– Led to an energy crisis
What amendment outlawed slavery everywhere
*13TH*
– 13th amendment said that every person has the right to be free and no one can own any other person
– While the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued earlier, it was still able to give slave owners who sided with the union their slaves
– This forced everyone to end slavery
Roman mythology was inspired by what other civilization’s mythology
*GREEK*
– The Romans borrowed traditions from whatever culture they captured, assimilating it into their own
– When they conquered Greece, the Romans claimed their gods only changing the names
What fortified center of Moscow was built by Ivan the Great
*KREMLIN*
– Was created during Ivan the Great’s reign from 1462 to 1505
– Along with the creation of this building, he also built stately churches and other important buildings in the country
What was the tax placed on non-believers in the Mugal Empire
*JIZYA*
– The Mugal emperors placed a tax on nonbelievers called a jizya
– An additional tax was also placed on citizens taking pilgrimages who were not Muslim
– Akbar repealed these taxes in an effort to unify the empire and create tolerance
Who was crowned the 1st Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800 C.E.
*CHARLEMAGNE*
– To strengthen the ties that the church had with the king, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor
– This was a title Charlemagne carried with him until his death
– The term Holy Roman Emperor means that Charlemagne had legitimate claims to rule Italy
Who was the 1st man to walk on the moon
*NEIL ARMSTRONG*
– Is known as the first man to walk on the moon
– Once his team stepped out on the moon, they spent 21 hours and 30 amazing minutes doing various experiments
Who controlled immigration in America prior to 1890
*THE STATES*
– Prior to 1890, immigration was handled at the state level
– As immigration from Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia grew, the federal government became involved
During what war were submarines first used in battle
*CIVIL WAR*
– The Confederate and Union forces each had created a submarine in which they used to fight the other
– Unfortunately, both submarines were destroyed in the attack with neither side emerging victorious
When Tokugawa Iemitsu banned foreign travel in 1633, who managed to maintain trade in Japan
*THE DUTCH*
– Iemitsu banned foreign books and travel, and increased the persecution of Christianity
– The Dutch maintained trade by agreeing to restrictions and not to demonstrate Christianity in Japan
– The Spanish and Portuguese were driven out of Japan
Akbar’s reign coincides with which European ruler
*ELIZABETH I*
– Akbar ruled the Mugal Empire from 1556 to 1605
– Elizabeth I ruled England from 1558 to 1603
– British traders under Elizabeth I traded with the Mugals
In what city did the 1st Continental Congress meet
*PHILADELPHIA*
– Met in Philadelphia soon after the Coercive Acts of 1775 were passed
– The colonists began to plan on what message they should send to King George III
– Not all of the colonies wanted to to to war so instead of declaring war against Britain, they sent the Declaration of Independence
Who was the Scottish commoner who rallied his people to fight back the English
*WILLIAM WALLACE*
– Enraged over the English advances in the country of Scotland, he rallied commoners to fight against them to maintain control of their country
– Though Wallace was later caught and executed, his inspiration continued to cause people to fight against the English
– In 1314, the English were successfully driven back from Scotland
After Jamestown, where did the Virginia settlers make their capital
*WILLIAMSBURG*
– In 1699 after Jamestown had been burned down five times, the colonists decided to move the capital to Williamsburg
– The capital would later move to Richmond
What young girl’s diary became a staple for the Jewish experience during WWII
*ANNE FRANK*
– Anne Frank hid with her parents in the attic above a home so that she would be safe from the German police searching for Jews
– When they were found, she left behind her journal
– It helped show a poignant sign of what life was like for the Jewish people forced into hiding
Under whose administration was the \”Era of Good Feelings\”
*JAMES MONROE*
– This period lasted from 1816 to 1824
– Was a time in which everyone was briefly playing nice or at the least, peaceably tolerating one another
– It wasn’t long though before tensions started to swell and the mood began to change
What was the name given to Mao’s representatives in China who sometimes acted on his behalf
*GANG OF FOUR*
– Included Mao’s wife, who often would create and implement ideas that were in line with the Communists party
– When Mao died in 1976, the Gang of Four were driven from China
Blind poet of Greece who composed \”The Iliad\” and \”The Odyssey\”
*HOMER*
– Despite being blind, Homer created two epic poems which have been passed down for centuries
– They are considered some of the greatest literary works of that time period
Who is the founder of the state of Pennsylvania
*WILLIAM PENN*
– Led the Quakers, a religious group, to a new area in the New World where they would be able to practice their religion freely
– Penn bought the land from Native Americans and worked on creating a Utopian society there, complete with cobbled roads
Name of the organization led by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960’s
*SNCC*
– Stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
– Played a major role in organizing many of the sit-ins on college campuses
– The leaders and members of this group started questioning whether or not their nonviolent strategies were working
– Later changed their name to Student National Coordinating Committee, to better represent their broadening of strategies
General who led the people of Spain in a revolution, resulting in overthrowing the new republic that had just been formed
*FRANCO*
– Franco led the people of Spain in a revolt against the last monarchy, hoping to create a republic
– In 1936 though, Franco led a rebellion against the republicans who were in power and turned the nation of Spain into a dictatorship, which he ruled over
In 1212, how many Children’s Crusades were formed
*TWO*
– In both cases, neither army managed to make it to the Holy Land to fight
– The children were taken and either enslaved or killed
What ended the opium wars in 1860
*THE BEIJING CONVENTION*
– The treaties of Tientsin were forced on the Chinese in 1558
– The Chinese did not ratify the unfair treaty
– After Beijing was captured, the Chinese were forced to ratify the treaties with the Beijing Convention

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