POS2041 CH 11-15 review

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
pluralism
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation
interest group
individuals who organize to influence the government’s programs and policies
citizen groups
groups that claim they serve the general good rather than only their own particular interest
netroots
grassroots online activist organizations that have redefined membership and fund-raising practices and streamlined staff structure
membership association
an organized group in which members play a substantial role, sitting on committees and engaging in group projects
staff organization
a type of membership group in which a professional staff conducts most of the group’s activities
collective goods
benefits sought by groups that are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers
free riders
those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring or providing them
informational benefits
special newsletters, periodicals, training programs, conferences, and other information provided to members of groups to entice others to join
material benefits
special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join
solidary benefits
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness raising
purposive benefits
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group
lobbying
a strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on government officials
iron triangle
the stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups. Not all of these relationships are triangular, but the iron triangle is the most typical
issue network
a loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interest groups drawn together by a specific policy issue
institutional advertising
advertising designed to create a positive image of an organization
grassroots mobilization
a lobbying campaign in which a group mobilizes its membership to contact government officials in support of the group’s position
political action committee (PAC)
a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
Super PAC
an independent political action committee that may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates
The number of corporate PACs has exceeded ______ since 1980.
1,500
The number of corporate PACs
has declined in the last few years.
There are more labor PACs today than
a. corporate PACs
b. trade PACs
c. public interest PACs
d. none of these
ANSWER: D. NONE OF THESE
Which of the following is true about public interest PACs?
a. There have been fewer than 100 public interest PACs since 1980.
b. There are more public interest PACs today than any other type.
c. The number of public interest PACs has increased greatly since 2007.
d. Both b and c.
ANSWER: D. BOTH B AND C
According to President Obama, which __________ groups have recently become dangerously powerful.
business
Corporate lobbyists are seeking __________ benefits from Congress today.
purposive
What strategy did President Obama use in this video to galvanize support for reforms?
institutional advertising
__________ was the major concern regarding the Supreme Court’s recent decision on direct lobbying.
Corruption
PACs representing health groups gave ____ percent to Republican candidates?
55
Approximately how much did PACs representing transportation groups spend in the past four elections?
$79 million
Which industry’s PACs spent the least money over the past four elections?
defense
Which industry’s PACs spent the most money over the past four elections?
labor
Which of the following groups has had the greatest success with a strategy of litigation?
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Interest groups are concerned with the ________ of government, while political parties are concerned with the ________ of government.
policies; personnel
The solidary benefits of interest groups include ________.
friendship and consciousness-raising
The increased number and importance of interest groups
is a response to an increase in the size and activity of government.
The Christian Coalition is a(n) ________ group.
ideological
Many interest groups are initially organized because
a political entrepreneur with a strong commitment to a particular set of goals believes a group will promote his or her goals and enhance his or her political influence.
Which of the following has been eliminated as a result of 2002 campaign finance reforms?
soft money
A ________ exists when paid staff conduct most of the daily business of a group.
staff organization
Why is it important for interest groups to offer selective benefits?
It is necessary to limit the extent of the free-rider problem.
Which of the following statements about political parties and interest groups is most accurate?
Political parties have declined in influence in recent years while interest groups have become more numerous, active, and influential.
The practice of lobbying is protected by ________.
the First Amendment
One way that AARP has been effective at overcoming the free-rider problem is by providing ________ benefits to its members.
selective
Which of the following groups is most likely to belong to the New Politics movement?
upper-middle-class professionals, for whom the civil rights and antiwar movements of the 1960s were key experiences
Parties with a direct interest in a regulatory rule or decision are often called ________.
stakeholders
The free-rider phenomenon
becomes increasingly problematic in very large groups
Alexis de Tocqueville argued that the proliferation of groups promoted ________.
governmental responsiveness
Why is the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 important to lobbyists?
It requires agencies to create opportunities for public comments before implementing new rules and regulations.
Which of the following is NOT a job regularly performed by lobbyists?
nominating a candidate to run for political office
constituency
the residents in the area from which an official is elected
bicameral
having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses, distinguished from unicameral
delegate
a representative who votes according to the preferences of his or her constituency
trustee
a representative who votes based on what he or she thinks is best for his or her constituency
sociological representation
a type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. It is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one can correctly represent the others views
agency representation
a type of representation in which a representative is held accountable to a constituency if he or she fails to represent that constituency properly. This is incentive for good representation when the personal backgrounds, views, and interests of the representative differ from those of his or her constituency
incumbency
holding the political office for which one is running
term limits
legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve
apportionment
the process, occurring after every decennial census, that allocates congressional seats among the 50 states
redistricting
the process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges to existing districts
gerrymandering
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party
patronage
the resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters
pork barrel (or pork)
appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re-election in their home districts
private bill
a proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas
conference
a gathering of House Republicans every two years to elect their House leaders; Democrats call their gathering the caucus
caucus (political)
a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
Speaker of the House
the chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The Speaker is the most important party and House leader, and can influence the legislative agenda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members’ positions within the House
majority leader
the elected leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speaker of the House
minority leader
the elected leader of the minority party in the House or Senate
whip
a party member in the House or Senate responsible for coordinating the party’s legislative strategy, building support for key issues, and counting votes
standing committee
a permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or agriculture
select committees
(usually) temporary legislative committees set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address an issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees
joint committees
legislative committees formed of members of both the House and Senate
conference committees
joint committees created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation
seniority
the ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a committee in Congress
staff agencies
legislative support agencies responsible for policy analysis
caucuses (congressional)
associations of members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group, such as gender or race
bill
a proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of Congress and submitted to the clerk of the House or Senate
committee markup
the session in which a congressional committee rewrites legislation to incorporate changes discussed during hearings on a bill
closed rule
a provision by the House Rules Committee limiting or prohibiting the introduction of amendments during debate
open rule
a provision by the House Rules Committee that permits floor debate and the addition of new amendments to a bill
filibuster
a tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down. Once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a vote of three-fifths of the Senate to end a filibuster
cloture
a rule or process in a legislative body aimed at ending debate on a given bill. In the U.S. Senate, 60 senators (three-fifths) must agree in order to impose a time limit and end debate
veto
the president’s constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress. A presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress
pocket veto
a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session
party unity vote
a roll-call vote in the House or Senate in which at least 50 percent of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50 percent of the members of the other party
roll-call vote
a vote in which each legislator’s yes or no vote is recorded as the clerk calls the names of the members alphabetically
logrolling
a legislative practice whereby agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill; vote trading
oversight
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
appropriations
the amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit or agency of government can spend
executive agreement
an agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate’s “advice and consent”
impeachment
the formal charge by the House of Representatives that a government official has committed “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors
There was no way to stop a filibuster in the U.S. Senate until
1917
Most of the time, filibusters in the U.S. Senate are conducted by
a senator on the losing side of a political debate
Which of the following statements is true regarding filibusters in the U.S. Senate?
Filibusters are currently used more than ever in recorded history
Women currently comprise about ______ percent of all members of Congress.
19
African Americans and Latinos currently comprise about ______ percent of all members of Congress.
13
Which of the following statements is true about diversity in the U.S. Congress?
Congress is becoming more diverse in a very slow but steady manner
Which of the following statements is true based on the data presented in the figure?
In the early 1970s, women made up about 2 percent of all members of Congress.
What percentage of the U.S. population identified themselves as independent?
36 percent
What percentage of House seats are filled by independent candidates?
0 percent
What percentage of senators hold a law degree?
57 percent
Which religious group is accurately represented in the House?
Mormon
Why are senators on average 25 years older than the U.S. population?
public perception of having more experience
logrolling
a legislative practice whereby agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill; vote trading
According to ________ representation, a legislator should be viewed as a person who is hired to represent the interests of his or her constituents.
delegate
Which of the following is a key assumption of the sociological model of representation?
Because similarity helps promote good representation, the composition of legislative bodies should mirror the composition of society.
Over the past several decades, the ________ and the ________ have benefited most from apportionment.
South; West
Who has the most real power in the Senate?
the majority and minority leaders
One reason why redistricting is controversial is that
computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where, and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
A ________ veto occurs when Congress adjourns during a ten-day period after presenting the president with a bill and he or she takes no action.
pocket
A bill’s supporters in the House of Representatives generally prefer ________ while opponents generally prefer ________.
a closed rule; an open rule
Which of the following statements about party unity is true?
Party unity has been on the rise in recent years.
In each House district there are approximately ________ people.
700,000
Oversight can best be described as
the efforts of Congress to supervise the manner in which its laws are implemented by the executive branch.
What is the most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress?
lawyer
Which of the following would NOT constitute an example of patronage?
a senator from New York voting in favor of a law to eliminate earmarks
A proposed piece of legislation is called a ________.
Bill
The role that the U.S. Senate plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of
a ________.
trial jury
________ occurs when a member of Congress makes resources available to government officials.
Patronage
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
On many issues, constituents do not have very strong views and representatives are free to act as they think best without fear of electoral reprisals.
Congressional leaders form ________ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.
select
The four joint committees in Congress are
economic, taxation, library, and printing
The Office of Management and Budget is important because
its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
The president’s power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called a(n) ________.
legislative initiative
The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 directly by ________.
an executive order
When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,
President Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war.
An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the ________.
kitchen cabinet
A signing statement is a(n)
announcement the president makes about his or her interpretation of a congressional enactment he or she is signing into law.
Which of the following statements about signing statements is most accurate?
While presidents have made signing statements throughout American history, they have only recently been recorded and made part of the official legislative record.
The Environmental Protection Agency
– was created by President Richard Nixon’s executive order in 1970.
– was created in pursuance of congressional legislation designed to improve air and water quality in the United States.
– is responsible for establishing and enforcing air and water quality standards.
– is an agency of the executive bureaucracy.ANSWER: ALL THE ABOVE
When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, it demonstrated that the
president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?
Speaker of the House
The main political value of the vice president is to
bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support.
________ was the first first lady to seek public office on her own.
Hillary Clinton
The framers of the Constitution believed that Congress’s greatest prerogative would be its ________.
power of the purse
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
caucus (political)
a normally closed political party business meeting of citizens or lawmakers to select candidates, elect officers, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
expressed powers
specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
implied powers
powers necessary to allow presidential exercise of expressed powers
delegated powers
constitutional powers that are assigned to one governmental agency but that are exercised by another agency with the express permission of the first
commander in chief
the role of the president as commander of the national military and the state National Guard units (when called into service)
executive privilege
the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president
legislative initiative
the president’s inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress
executive order
a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation
inherent powers
powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it
War Powers Resolution
a resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress, or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat
Cabinet
the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate
National Security Council (NSC)
a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, and other officials invited by the president
White House staff
analysts and advisers to the president, each of whom is often given the title “special assistant
Kitchen Cabinet
an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance. Members of the official Cabinet may or may not also be members of the Kitchen Cabinet
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president. Created in 1939, the EOP includes the OMB, the CEA, the NSC, and other agencies
signing statements
announcements made by the president when signing bills into law, often presenting the president’s interpretation of the law
Presidential power is delineated in ______ of the U.S. Constitution.
Article II
Which of the following has been used to justify expansive presidential power?
U.S. Constitution
Federalist Papers
federal court cases
All of these.ANSWER: ALL OF THESE
Officials in both the George W. Bush and Obama administrations engaged in domestic surveillance of certain citizens.
true
There was a divided party government throughout Ronald Reagan’s tenure
true
Which of the following statements is true?
George W. Bush was very successful with congressional votes early in his presidency.
Ronald Reagan had less success with House votes as his presidency evolved.
Richard Nixon had less success with congressional votes as his presidency evolved.
All of these.ANSWER: ALL OF THESE
______ had the best success in any one year with House votes during this time period.
Richard Nixon
______ had the best success in any one year with Senate votes during this time period.
George W. Bush
With one exception, all presidents have been ___________.
Protestant
How many presidents have a background in law?
25
Which age range do most presidents fall in to?
50s
Which of the following explanations can account for Virginia having produced eight presidents?
It was historically the most populated state and had the most representatives in government.
Which political party has produced the most presidents?
Republican
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
two-thirds of both houses of Congress
The president’s expressed powers include all of the following categories EXCEPT ________.
partisan
Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed congressional legislation?
the Internal Revenue Service
In Youngstown Co. v. Sawyer (1952), the Supreme Court justices determined that
President Truman could not nationalize the steel mills in America.
bureaucracy
the complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel
implementation
the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic rules and actions
merit system
a product of civil service reform, in which appointees to positions in public bureaucracies must objectively be deemed qualified for those positions
department
the largest sub-unit of the executive branch. The secretaries of the 15 departments form the Cabinet.
independent agency
agency that is not part of a cabinet department
government corporation
government agency that performs a market-oriented public service and raises revenues to fund its activities
regulatory agency
a department, bureau, or independent agency whose primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector
fiscal policy
the government’s use of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to manipulate the economy
Federal Reserve System
a system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; regulates member banks; and uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
revenue agency
an agency responsible for collecting taxes. Examples include the Internal Revenue Service for income taxes; the U.S. Customs Service for tariffs and other taxes on imported goods; and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for collection of taxes on the sale of those particular products
devolution
a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments
privatization
a formerly public service that is now provided by a private company but paid for by the government
Which of the following events has resulted in more government secrecy?
Cold War
Watergate
terrorist attacks
all of theseANSWER: ALL OF THESE
How would you characterize the Bush II and Obama administrations when it comes to secrecy with regard to waging the war on terrorism?
Both administrations have been very secretive
What is commonly used to justify secrecy by officials in the federal government?
national security
According to the report discussed in this clip, how many agencies are involved with administering food safety regulations?
15
According to the report, how often are programs assessed for performance?
never
The federal debt around the time the clip was recorded was estimated at
$14 trillion
The report found overlapping federal programs are wasting ____________ of dollars with redundant responsibilities.
billions
In 1960, federal spending accounted for about ______ percent of the total economy.
17
Current federal spending is about ______ per year, adjusted for inflation.
$3.5 trillion
In 2015, federal spending accounted for about ______ percent of the total economy.
20
Which of the following is true about federal outlays during this time period?
-Federal spending has increased dramatically since 1960 in whole terms.
-Federal spending has increased since 1960, but not as dramatically as in whole terms when spending is adjusted for inflation.
-Federal spending is currently about one-fifth of the total Gross Domestic Product.
-All of these.ANSWER: ALL OF THESE
Which of the following is NOT a key strategy used to promote bureaucratic reform?
regulation
Executive privilege refers to the
claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
Which of the following is NOT a major role of bureaucracy?
passing laws
Making permanent cuts in existing agencies is often difficult because
most agencies have a supportive constituency that will fight to reinstate any cuts that are made.
What were government officials trying to accomplish when they called for the 2009 National Defense Authorization Act to create an additional database that would record contractors who have legal or contract violations?
providing adequate government oversight for an increasingly expanding force of independent contractors
________ is the primary mission of the State Department.
Diplomacy
Which of the following is the best description of an iron triangle?
the stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a clientele group, and a legislative committee
Individual members of Congress can discover questions of public responsibility when engaged in ________.
constituent case work
One drawback of devolution is that
the standards associated with particular programs become increasingly variable between states.
Which of the following executive agencies was created by Congress in the aftermath of the financial crisis that began in 2008?
the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
Which one of the following agencies was created in 2005?
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Under the administration of ________, EPA officials claimed that they did not have the authority to regulate greenhouse gases.
George W. Bush
Which of the following is the most constitutionally essential way to make the bureaucracy responsible?
congressional oversight
Which president was most concerned with managing and reorganizing the executive bureaucracy?
Jimmy Carter
Which of the following statements about annual federal outlays is most accurate?
Federal spending as a percentage of gross domestic product has experienced significant ups and downs over time.
________ is when bureaucrats attempt to translate laws into specific rules and actions.
Implementation
Which president’s approach to the managerial presidency featured a deep belief in the importance of scientific expertise in government service?
Barack Obama
What is a government corporation?
It is an agency that performs and charges for services usually provided by the private sector.
The most significant example of devolution in recent decades has been in the area of ________.
welfare policy

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