Organic Chemistry

Lactate dehydrogenase
Catalysis

Oxidized lactic acid

Cyctochrome c
Catalysis

transfers electrons

DNA polymerase
Catalysis

replicates and repairs DNA

lysozyme
Catalysis

destroy bacteria’s cell wall

Ovalbumin
Storage

egg white protein

casein
Storage

milk protein

Ferritin
Storage

Stores iron in the spleen

myoglobin
Storage

stores O2 in heart muscle

immuglobulins
Protection

antibodies

quaternary structure

fibrinogen
Protection

involved in blood clotting

thrombin
Protection

involved in blood clotting

insulin
Regulation

regulates glucose metabolism

growth hormone
Regulation

stimulates growth of bone

vasopressin
Regulation

increase water retention of the kidney

oxytocin
Regulation

lactation, induction of labor

acetylcholine receptor protein
Nerve impulse transmission

synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA

rhodopsin
involved in vision
hemoglobin
transport

transport O2 in blood

quaternary structure

serum albumin
transport

transport fatty acids

serum globulins
transport

transport lipids (HDL, LDL)

myosin
motion

thick filaments in muscle fiber

actin
motion

thin filaments in muscle fibers

glycoproteins
Structural

cell membranes and walls

keratins
Structural

skin, hair, nails, hoofs

fibroin
Structural

silk

collagen
Structural

Fibrous connective tissue (tendons, teeth, bones)

quaternary structure

elastin
Structural

elastic connective tissue (ligaments, artery walls)

Saponifiable – simple
fats, waxes, oils
Saponifiable – complex
Phospholipids, Glycolipids
Non-Saponifiable
steriods, fatty acids, prostaglandins
Phospholipids divide into
Phosphatides, Sphingolipids
Carbohydrates metabolize into
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA become either
Fatty acids (Metabolism)
Cholesterol (through liver)
Cholesterol comes from
some foods (eggs, butter, cheese)
Acetyl CoA
Cholesterol becomes (5)
Bile salts
Vitamin D
Steroid hormones
Cell membranes
Nerve and brain tissue
excess Cholesterol
to gallbladder
eliminated on bile or gallstones
Oxidoreductases
Oxidases
Reductases
Dehydrogenases
Transferases
Transaminases
Kinases
Hydrolases
Peptidases
Lipases
Amylases
Lyases
Decarboxylases
Dehydrases
Deaminases
Isomerases
Isomerases
Epimerases
Mutases
Ligases
Synthetases
Carboxylases
Irreversible
attaches to the enzyme permenently but does not form its our reaction
Non-competitive
does not attach itself to the active site , but somewhere else so it changes the structure of the enzyme
Competitive
non-reactive molecule that takes the place of the usual substrate on the active site.
Can break up.
Antagonists
inhibits the normal physiological function of a receptor
inhibitor
effector that decreases or prevents a chemical reaction
Agonist
binds to a receptor and triggers a responce by the cell.
Cofactors
non-protein compound that is bound to a protein and is required for protein activity
Substrate
Acetylcholinesterase
Enzyme

converts Acetylcholine into inactive choline and acetate

egg albumin
egg white

protein

aldosterone
steroid hormone

produced by outer sections of adrenal cortex

apoenzyme
enzymes that require a cofactor but do not have one bound
Catalytic site
active site

portion of the enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo reaction

cholesterol
A diet high in carbohydrates will lead to acetyl CoA formation, and that can increase cholesterol synthesis

Butter and eggs have a high level of cholesterol

can move right through cell membrane w/o a protein channel

cortisone
steriod hormone

released by adreanal gland

suppresses the immune system

cortisol
steriod hormone

produced by adreanal gland

increase blood sugar, suppress immune system, aid in metabolism

holoenzyme
an apoenzyme with its cofactor
lactic acid
milk acid

carboxylic acid

can become lactate ion

sours milk

Lactose
disaccharide sugar

galactose and glucose

lecithin
phospholipids in animal and plant tissue
milk
lactose

lactic acid

myelin
myelin sheath on neurons

lipids

niacin
vitamin B3
nicotinic acid
dificiency causes pellagra

increases levels of HDL

Pantothanic acid
vitamin B5

water-soluble vitamin

essential nutrient to synthesize coenzyme-A

peptide bond
covalent chemical bond
carboxyl group reacts with amino group to release water
phospholipase
enzyme

hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids

Proenzymes
inactive enzyme precursor
prostaglandins
synthesized in the cell only when it is needed

made from fatty acid found in cell membranes

very potent in small quantities

they act like hormones

Riboflavin
vitamin B2

micronutrients

component of cofactors FAD and FMN

role in energy metabolism and metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates, and proteins

thiamine
vitamin B1

water-soluble vitamin

Vitamin A
Lipid-soluble
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Lipid-soluble
Vitamin E
Lipid-soluble
Vitamin K
Lipid-soluble
Whey
milk serum

liquid from curdled and strained milk

Whey protein (globular protein)

Zymogens
inactive enzyme precursor
Saturated fats melting point
High
unsaturated fats melting point
Low
Unsaturated physical state at room temp
liquid
saturated physical state at room temp
solid
esterification
fatty acids react with alcohols to form esters and water
acid hydrolysis
produce fatty acids from esters
cell membranes
bilayer with the hydrophilic end on the outside

contains protein channels to allow small polar molecules and ions to move through

polypeptides cannot pass through

allosteric enzymes
quaternary structure
___ levels of LDL are associated with cardiovascular diease
High
exercise helps ____ the LDL valuses
Lower
a healthy adult should have a ___ LDL value
Low
Butter and eggs have a ___ level of cholesterol
High
A diet high in carbohydrates will lead to ___, and that can increase cholesterol synthesis
Acetly CoA formation
Which type of bond connecting amino acids is found in the tertiary structure of proteins
salt bridges
disulfide bonds
hydrogen bonding of side chains
Polar (neutral) amino acids can bond with what groups?
Polar neutral, acidic, and basic
Steroid hormones
can move right through cell membrane w/o a protein channel
CO2
can move right through cell membrane w/o a protein channel
Once one molecule of O2 is bound to the heme of hemoglobin, hemoglobin’s ability to bind more oxygen is enhanced.  
true

Enzymes usually react only with one compound in a pair of enantiomeric drugs. 

true
The higher the turnover rate, the more efficient the enzyme. 
true
A cofactor can be either an organic molecule or an inorganic metal, which is necessary for biological activity of an enzyme. 
true
Proteins in solution are actually colloids not really solutions. 
true
Sphingolipids contain a sphingosine backbone instead of glycerol. 
true
Iodine test is the same as the iodine number  
false
Cortisol regulates the conversion of amino acids into carbohydrates 
true
Dilated blood vessels are less permeable
false

dilated blood vessels are permeable

Globular proteins are much more easily denatured than tough fibrous proteins.
true
Salt bridges are the strongest interaction in the tertiary structure of proteins.
False

disulfide

Alcohol is a diuretic because it inhibits the secretion of vasopressin, (vasopressin increases water retention of the kidney)
true
A very high pH will permanently denature enzymes but a very low pH will not.
False

both will

Aldosterone and vasopressin have similar effects on water retention in the kidneys.
true
The diseases Gaucher’s, Niemann-Pick and Tay-Sachs all involve the lack of enzymes needed to control lipid degradation.
true
Lipids that are saponifiable all have an ester linkage.
true
Hydrophilic interaction is the weakest interaction in the tertiary structure of proteins.
false

hydrophobic

The redness associated with inflammation is due to the dilated blood vessels, which bring more blood into the area.
true
High temperatures will permanently denature enzymes but low temperatures will not.
true
Women tend to have a lower LDL value than men.
true
Naturally occurring carbohydrates are usually “D”, while amino acids are usually “L”
true
Acid solutions will turn red litmus paper blue
false

base solutions

Anti-coagulant which is always found in the blood in small quantities
heparin
Prescription drug given to patients after heart attacks as a blood thinner
coumadin
Precipitates calcium ions, thus preventing blood clotting
oxalate
Found in Spinach and Broccolli
Vitamin K
Analgesic which is not an anti-coagulant
acetaminophen
What compound causes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin?
thrombin
Which is the actual blood clot?
fibrin
Which destroys the blood clot after it is no longer needed?
plasmin
Which is found in blood plasma but not blood serum?
fibrinogen
Calcium ions are needed for the conversion of what compound to what compound?
prothrombin to thrombin
Classify: Elastin
fibrous proteins
Classify: cortisol
non-saponifiable lipids
Classify: cellulose
carbohydrate
Classify: aldosterone
non-saponifiable lipids
Classify: Enzymes
globular proteins
Classify: Phospholipids
saponifiable lipids
Classify: hemoglobins
globular proteins
Classify: prostaglandin
non-saponifiable lipids
Classify: collagen
fibrous proteins
Classify:serotonin
other
Components of lecithin
glycerol
Fatty acids
phosphate and amine alcohol
Components of pepsinogen
amino acids
Components of glycogen
glucose
Components of maltose
glucose
Components of maltase
amino acids
Components of Beeswax
Fatty acids
Components of estrogen
steroid structure
Components of arachidonic acid
Fatty acids
Components of Vasopressin
amino acids
Components of cornflower oil
glycerol
Fatty acids
Components of triglycerides
glycerol
Fatty acids
Components of polysaccharide
glucose
It is one of the most abundant proteins in humans
Collagen
Compound in egg yolks
lecithin
Compound in egg whites
ovalbumin
Protein in milk
casein
Carbohydrate in milk
lactose
Protein found in connective tissue
collagen
protein in nails, hair, hoofs
keratins
blood protein used to maintain osmotic pressure
serum albumin
common name for immunoglobulins
antibodies
protein found in LDLs and HDLs
serum globulins
A clot that breaks loose and moves is called
embolism
protein in muscle of marine mammals that contains the heme group that binds O2 for storage
myoglobin
protein in muscle fiber
myosin or actin
protein that stores iron in the spleen
ferritin
Polypeptide used to increase water retention of the kidneys
Vasopressin
Polypeptide used to induce labor
Oxytocin
The same reaction in different tissues will have similar but slightly different enzymes. What are these enzymes called?
isoenzyme
What is the enzyme (found in saliva and tears) that destroys a bacteria’s cell wall?
lysozyme
The drug that prevents a bacteria from making its cell wall
Penicillin
The drug or poison that blocks the receptor site for acetylcholine on a muscle.
Curare
The drug or poison that permanently inhibits acetylcholinesterase
Nerve gas
The drug or poison that prevents acetylcholine from being released on the original nerve cell
Botulism
Which drug inhibits the enzyme phospholipase from releasing aracadonic acid from the cell membrane?
Cortisone (or cortisol)
The drug added to penicillin to prevent the bacteria from destroying the antibiotic
Clavulinic acid
What is the cofactor made from Riboflavin
FAD
What is the cofactor made from Niacin
NAD
What is the enzyme without its cofactors called?
Apoenzyme
What active peptidase is found in the small intestines
Trypsin
What is referred to as the “feast” hormone?
insulin
What is referred to as the “famine” hormone?
glucagon
If an enzyme’s turnover rate is very low, it is a very efficient enzyme.
false

it is a efficient enzyme

Enzymes and substrates are usually held together by disulfide bonds.
false

enzymes and substrates are not usually held together by disulfide bonds

Hormones and enzymes can sometimes be proteins and sometimes non-proteins.
false

enzymes can only be proteins

All enzymes can be affected by substrate saturation.
true
Doubling the concentration of the substrate will always double the rate of the reaction.
false

not at the point of saturation

All proteins have a quaternary structure
false

not all proteins have a quaternary structure

All enzymes are globular proteins
true
Proteins are most soluble at their isoelectric point
false

proteins are soluble at their isoelectric point

Bacteria in milk will cause the milk to become more acidic
true
Denaturing with heavy metals affects the salt bridges in the globular protein
true
aldosterone is a __ hormone
steroid
glucagon is a ___ hormone
protein
keratin is a hormone T/F
false
what hormone can slide right through the cell membrane?
steroid hormone
what hormone takes minutes to affect the cell
protein hormone
____ hormone attaches to a receptor site on the outside of the target cell
protein hormone
chemical messengers that are produced in one place in the body and affect other parts of the body
hormones
maltase needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
hydrolases
A tripeptide to three seperate amino acids needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
hydrolases
Lactic dehydrogenase needs ____ enzyme
oxidoreductases
Phosphofructokinase needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
transferases
alanine transamiinase needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
transferases
Acetoacetate decarboxylase needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
lyases
glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
isomerase
phosphoglucomutase
isomerase
Citric acid synthetase needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
ligase
Oxaloacetate & acertyl-CoA to citric acid needs _____ enzyme for the reaction
ligase
What vitamin is converted into the coenzyme NAD or NADH
niacin
What vitamin is converted into coenzyme A
Pantothenic acid
What vitamin is converted into the coenzyme FAD
Riboflavin
What vitamin is needed for collagen synthesis
Vitamin C
what vitamin is converted into the coenzyme TPP
thiamine
Scurvy is caused by the deficiency of what vitamin
Vitamin C
the rate at which an enzyme will convert substrates to products is called
Turnover rate
specific area on the enzyme where the chemical reaction takes place
Catalytic site
specific area on the enzyme where the substrate binds
Contact site
inactive protein part (without the cofactors) of an enzyme is called
Apoenzyme
what is the cofactor plus the protein part called
holoenzyme
what is the cofactor that is organic but not a protein called
coenzyme
What fiborous protein has a triple helix structure
collagen
what protein is found in muscle fiber (2)
actin or myosin
What protein is found in artery walls and ligaments
elastin
what protein is used to store iron in the spleen
ferritin
protein found in bones and connective tissue
collagen
Protein used to store oxygen in heart muscles (humans) and marine mammal muscles
myoglobin
what is milk “curds”, what has precipipated out?
casein
Which is the most abundant protein in the human body
collagen
Protein found in nails and hoofs and hair
keratin
Bacteria in milk can convert the lactose into what compound
lactic acid
Enzyme found in tears and saliva that kills invading bacteria
lysozyme
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